Skip to main content

Full text of "The American Dictionary of the English Language : Based on the latest conclusions of the most eminent philologists..."

See other formats



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 











Together with. Pronunciations the most approved; Etymologies based on the researches of 

Skeat, Wedgwood, and their co-laborers; and Definitions which include new 

meanings sanctioned by good modern usage, and old meanings found 

in the works of several of the old masters of the language, 

but never before published in any Lexicon 





Copyright 1908 
By P, F. Collier & Son 


THE acme of dictionary-making lies in the multum-in-parvo 
plan. The busy man or woman of the twentieth century 
demands concentration. For these busy people the editors 
of the "American Dictionary of the English Language" have, 
through the assistance of the highest orthographical scholar- 
ship, endeavored to compile in a single volume a thoroughly com- 
prehensive book of Anglo-Saxon words. This edition has been 
enlarged to include over 3,000 new names, words, and technical 
terms, which the advance of modem science and the rapid spread 
of useful knowledge in the United States have made part and 
parcel of our popular literature and higher scholarship. To this 
is also added all the important old words and meanings found in 
the writings of the Elizabethan and Queen Anne periods. It has 
been found necessary to enlarge upon many words, whose full 
and real meaning is not adequately disclosed by a mere definition. 
To all definitions which do not apply in this country, the American 
meaning has been added. Local meanings, words, and phrases; 
provincialisms, both English and American, and a few slang words 
and phrases— all of which are instructive as showing the natural 
growth, and in some cases the debasement, of the pure stock of 
our language — are given for what they are worth, and only in such 
instances as are to be met with in early and recent standard works. 
The etymology of each word will be found at the end of the 
definition of the primitive word. These etymologies will be found 
to differ materially from those found in other dictionaries, of even 
recent date. As it is only within the past twenty-five years that the 
etymology of English words has attained even the semblance of 
an exact science, these new etymologies will be found, in general, 
more correct than those of any preceding work. The industrious 
labors of Skeat, Wedgwood, and other recent authorities on En- 


glish philology leave the most patient lexicographer with many 
open questions upon his hands. For this very sufficient reason, 
the editors of this dictionary announce, simply, that they have 
given the latest and what to them seem the most imperative con- 
clusions of the science of English philology — a science which, 
though rapidly progressing, is still, on the whole, quite incomplete. 
We have but to add that, in general, the aim of the editors of 
the "American Dictionary of the English Language" has been 
to give to the public a convenient lexicon which will decide ail 
questions about words which arise in the course of general read- 
ing, and to give to the American reading public the latest, most 
authentic, and most complete conclusions of English philology. 

New York, Jan i, 1905. 



The Englisli language — the offspring of the Anglo-Saxon — is one of 
the Low German dialects which form part of the Teutonic branch of the 
Indo-European or Aryan languages. 

The Aryan languages may be divided into six principal branches: 













The Teutonic branch is divided into three classes, the Low German, 
High German, and Scandinavian: 


I. Low German. 

1. Moeso-Gothic, preserved in Ul- 

philas's translation of the 

2. Anglo-Saxon. 


3. Old Saxon. 

4. Frisian. 

5. Dutch. 

6. Flemish. 

II. High German, 

m. Scandinavian. 


Old High German. 
Middle High German. 
New High German. 

The Celtic branch is divided into : 

I. Gadhelic or Erse. 

1. Irish. 

2. Scottish Gaelic. 

3. Manx. 

1. Icelandic. 

2. Norwegian. 

3. Swedish. 

4. Danish. 

n. Cymric. 

1. Welsh. 

2. Cornish (now extinct). 

3. Breton. 


The evidence that the group of languages known as the Aryan lan- 
guages form a family — that is, are all sister-dialects of one common mother- 
tongue — consists in their grammatical forms being the same, and in their 
having a great many words in common. In judging whether an individual 
word in one of these tongues is really the same with a word in another of 
the tongues, we are no longer guided by mere similarity of sound; on the 
contrary, identity of sound is generally a presumption that a proposed ety- 
mology is wrong. Words are constantly undergoing change, and each lan- 
guage follows its own fashion in making those changes. Corresponding 
words, therefore, in the several languages must, as a rule, in the long course 
of ages have come to differ greatly ; and these differences follow certain laws 
which it is possible to ascertain. Unless, then, a proposed identification 
accord with those laws, it is inadmissible. We are not at liberty to sup- 
pose any arbitrary omission of a letter, or substitution of one letter for an- 
other, as was the fashion in the old guessing school of etymology. 

Of the laws of interchange of soundd in the Indo-European family, 
the most important is that known as Grimm's Law, so called after the 
famous German philologist who investigated it. It exhibits the relations 
found to exist between the consonant sounds in three groups of the Aryan 
languages — namely, (1) the Classical, including Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin; 

(2) Low German, which we may take Gothic and English as representing; 

(3) High German, especially Old High German, in which the Law is more 
consistently carried out than in modern High German. 

The scope of the Law is confined to the interchanges among the following 
consonant sounds, which are here arranged so as to show their relations to 

one another: 

Sharp. Flat. Aspirate. 

Labial p b f («) 

Linguo-dental t d th (2;) 

Guttural k («) g ch (fe) 

The horizontal division into three orders depends on the organ cbiefly used 
in the utterance. The differences between the vertical series are more easily 
felt than described. Pronounce first ip and then ih; in the first the lips are 
completely closed, and the sound or voice from the larynx abruptly cut 
off. In the second the lips are also completely shut, but a muffled voice 
is continued for a moment; it is produced by the vocal chords being still 








kept in a state of tension, and the breath continuing to issue through them 
into the cavity of the mouth for a brief space after the lips are closed. 
Next pronounce if; in this, although the voice-sound abruptly ceases, the 
lip-aperture is not so completely closed but that a thin stream of breath 
continues to escape with the sound of a whisper. Hence the name aspirate 
given to such articulations. Now, interchanges do take place between mem- 
bers of these vertical series — that is, one sharp takes the place of another, 
as in Welsh, pen; Gaelic, hin; or in Russian, Feodor for T/ieodore. Such 
instances, however, are comparatively rare and sporadic. It is between 
members of the horizontal orders that interchanges chiefly take place — that 
is, labials with labials, dentals with dentals, etc. ; and it is with these in- 
terchanges that Grimm's Law deals. 

The substance of the Law may be presented in a tabular form, as follows : 

( 1 ) Classical Sharp. 

(2) Low Gferman Aspirate. 

(3) High German Flat. 

The table may be thus read: A classical sharp labial, as p, is represented in 
Low German by the aspirate labial f, and in High German by the flat labial 
h; and so of the other orders. 


(A) Inteechanqe of Labials. 
Classical. Low German. 0. H. Oerman. 

Sans., Gr., L. pater E. father, Goth, f adrs vatar. 

Gr. pteron (peteron) E. feather vedar, Grer. feder. 

L. pulex E. flea, Scot, flech vlo, Ger. floh 

L. rapina A.S. reaf, E. reai;e rou6. 

6r. kanna&is E. hemp hanaf, Ger. hanf . 

L. fra(n)go E. break, Goth, brikan prechan, Ger. ftrechen. 

Gt. phu, L. fvi E. be pim(Iam). 


li. tenuis E. thin dunni, Ger. dfinn. 

L. tectum E. tfeatch, Goth, th&k dach. 

Gr. odont, L. dent E. tooth, Goth, tunthus .... zand, Gter. 

L. dingua ( =lingua ) E. tongue zunga. 

Gr. tftugater E. daughter, Goth, dauhtar. tohtar. 

Gr. ther, L. fera E. deer tior. 

(C) Interchange of GtJTTtrBALS. 

L. claudns E. halt ^Iz. 

Gr. fcard-, L. cord- E. heart Tierza. 

L. ooto E. eight, Goth. aMan ahte, Ger. acht. 

Gr. ^nu E. fcnee chnio. 

L. ager E. acre, Goth, afcrs acftar, Ger. acfcer. 

Gr. cher\, L. anser E. ^oose fcans, Ger. g&ns. 


L. ^rtus E. jrarden, Go+h, grards fcarto, Ger. grarten. 

It will be observed that there are a good mary exceptions to the Law, 
especially in the case of the aspirates ; the influence of adjoining letters often 
causes anomalies. The Law holds good oftenest in the beginning of words. 


ace according. 

accus . . . accusativa. 

adj adjective. 

adv .... adverb. 
agri .... agriculture. 

alg algebra. 

anat ....anatomy. 
arch .... architecture. 
arith . . . arithmetic. 
astr .... astronomy. 

B Bible. 


hot botany. 

o century. 

cf compare. 

chem . . . chemistry. 

cog cognate. 

comp . . . comparative. 
conj .... conjunction. 
conn .... connected. 
contr . . . contraction. 
corr .... corruption. 
demons . demonstrative. 
Diet .... Dictionary. 
dim .... diminutive. 

dub doubtful. 

esp especially. 

ety etymology. 

fern .... feminine. 

fig figuratively. 

fol followed. 

fort .... fortification. 

freq .... frequentative. 
■ gen .... genitive. 

geol geology. 

geom . . . geometry. 
gram . . . grammar. 

gun gunnery. 

her heraldry, 

hort .... horticulture. 

inf infinitive. 

int interjecticm. 

inten . . . intensive. 

jew jewelry. 

lit literally. 

was .... masculine. 
math . . . mathematics. 
mech .... mechanics. 
med . . . .,medicine. 
mil .... military. 
min .... mineralogy. 
mus .... music. 
myth . . . mythology. 
n., ns . . noun, nouns. 
nat. ^ts^. natural histofy. 
naut .... nautical. 
neg .... negative. 

obs obsolete, 

opp opposed. 

opt optic. 

orig .... originally. 

p participle. 

paint ...painting. 

pa.p .... past participle. 

pass . . 
pa.t . . 
perf . . 
perh . , 
pers . . , 
pfw .. 
phil . . 


poet . . 
poss . . 

pr.p . . 
prep . . 
pres . . 
print . 
priv . , 
prob . , 
pron ., 
prov . . 
rhet . . 
sfx . . . . 
sig ... 
sing .. 
term .. 
Test .. 
theol .. 
unk . . 
v.i. . . . 


zool .. 

. , passive. 

. . past tense. 

. . perfect. 

. . perhaps. 

. . person. 

. . prefix. 

. . philosophy. 

. . plural. 

. . poetical. 

. . possessive. 

. . Book of Common 

. . present participle. 
. . preposition. 
, . present. 
. . printing. 
, . privative. 
, . probably. 

. pronoun. 
. . provinciaL 

. rhetoric. 
. suffix. 

. signifying. 

. singular. 

. superlative. 

. Testament. 

. theology. 

. unknown. 
, verb intransitive. 
..verb transitive. 

. zoology. 


. . American. 

Gael . 

. . Gaelic, 

Ar ... 

. , Arabic. 

Ger . 

. . Grerman. 

A.S. .. 

. . Anglo-Saxon. 

Goth . 

. ..Gothic, 

Bav ... 

. . Bavarian. 

Gr .. 

. . Greek. 


. . Bohemian. 

Heb .. 

. . Hebrew. 

Bret .. 


Hind . 

. . Hindustani 

Celt ., 

. . Celtic. 

Hun .. 

. . Hungarian. 

Chal . 

. . Chaldean. 

Ice .. 

■ . . Icelandic. 

Com .. 


Ir . . . . 

. . Irish. 

Dan .. 

. . Danish. 

It . . . . 

. . Italian, 

Dut ., 

. . Dutch. 

L ... 

. . Latin. 

E .,,. 

. . English. 

Lith .. 

. . Lithuanian. 

JFinn .. 


M. E. 

..Middle English. 

Flem . 

. . Flemish. 

Mex . . 

. . Mexican. 

Fr ... 

. . French. 


,. . Norman, 

Fris .. 

. . Frisian. 


...Norwegiaa . 

O. Fr . . . Old French. 
O. Ger . . Old German. 
Pers ,,., Persian. 
Port . . , , Portuguese. 
Prov , , . , Provencal. 
Rom .... Romance, 
Russ . . ,. Russian. 
Sans .... Sanskrit. 
Scand . . . Scandinavian. 
Scot .... Scottish. 
Slav .... Slavonic. 

Sp Spanish. 

Sw Swedish. 

Teut , , . . Teutonic 
Turk ,,. Turkish. 
W Welsh. 





A, the indefinite article, a broken-down 
form of An, and used before words be- 
ginning with the sound of a consonant. 
[See An.] 

A, used at one time before participles, as 
in "She lay a dying." It is now admitted 
only colloquially. 

ABACK, a-bak', adv. (naut.) said of sails 
pressed backward against the mast by 
the wind — hence, Taken aback, taken 
by surprise. 

ABACUS, ab'a-kus, n. a counting-frame or 
table: (arch.) a level tablet on the capi- 
tal of a column. 

ABAFT, abaft', adv. or prep, on the aft 
or hind part of a ship: behind. 

ABANDON, a-ban'dun, v.t. to give up: to 
desert: to yield (onie's self) without re- 

ABANDONED, a-ban'dund, adj. given up, 
as to a vice: very wicked. — n. Abandon- 
ment, a-ban'dun-ment, act of abandon- 
ing: state of being given up. 

ABASE, a-bas', v.t. to cast down: to hum- 
ble: to degrade. — n. Abasement, a-bas'- 
ment, state of humiliation. 

.IBASH, a-bash', v.t. to confuse with shame 
or guilt. — n. Abashment, a-bash'ment, 
confusion from shame. 

ABATE, a-bat', v.t. to lessen: to mitigate. 
— v.i. to grow less. 

ABATEMENT, a-bat'ment, n. the act of 
abating: the sum or quantity abated: 
(her.) a mark of dishonor on a coat-of- 

ABATIS, ABATTIS, a'bat-is, n. (fort.) a 
rampart of trees felled and laid side by 
side, with the branches toward the 

ABATTOIR, a-bat-war', n. a slaughter- 

ABAXIAL, ab-ak'si-al, adj. not in the axis ; 
specifically, in botany, applied to the em- 
bryo when out of the axis of the seed. 
Also Abaxile. 

ABBA, ab'a, n. in Chaldee and Syriac, a 

ABBACY, ab'a-si, n. the office of an abbot. 

ABBATIAL, ab-ba'shal, Abbatical, ab-bat'- 
ik-al, adj. pertaining to an abbey. 

ABBESS, ab'es, n. the superior of a relig- 
ious community of women. [Fern, of 

ABBEY, ab'e, to. a monastery of persons of 
either sex presided over by an abbot or 
abbess: the church attached to it: — pi. 
Abb'eys. [Fr. ahhaye — Abba.] 

ABBOT, ab'ut, n. the father or head of an 
abbey. — fern. Abb'ess. [L. dbias, ahiatis 
— Abba.] 

ABBOZZO, ab-bot'-so, n. the preliminary 
sketch or draft outlining or suggesting 
the finished work, as a book, a work of 
art: a study. [It. dbhozzare, to sketch.] 

ABBREVIATE, ab-bre'vi-at, v.t. to make 
hrief or short: to abridge. [L. dbhrevio, 
-atum — ah, intensive, and hrevis, short. 
See Brief.] 

ABBREVIATION, ab-bre-vi-a'shun, n. a 
shortening: a part of a word put for the 

ABBREVIATOR, ab-bre'vi-at-ur, n. one 
who abbreviates. 

ABDICATE, ab'di-kat, v.t. to renounce or 
give up ( a high office ) . — n. Abdica'tion. 
[L. ah, from or off, dico, -atum, to pro- 

ABDOMEN, ab-do'men, n. the lower part of 
the belly. [L.] 

ABDOMINAL, ab-dom'in-al, adj. pertain- 
ing to the abdomen. 

ABDUCTION, ab-duk'shun, n. the carrying 
away, esp. of a person by fraud or force. 
[L. ah, from, duco, ductum, to draw.] 

ABDUCTOR, ab-dukt'ur, n. one guilty of 
abduction: a muscle that draws away. 

ABEAM, a-bem', adv. (naut.) on the beam, 
or in a line at right angles to a vessel's 
length. [Pfx. o (A.S. on, on), on, and 


ABECEDARY, arbe-se'da-ri, n. a first 
principle or element : rudiment. "Such 
rudiments or abecedaries." — Fuller. 

ABED, a-bed', adv. in bed. [Prefix a, on, 
and Bed.] 

ABERRANT, ab-er'ant, ac^.^ wandering 
from the right or straight path. [L. a6, 
from, erro, to wander.] 

ABERRATION, ab-er-fi'shuii, n. a wander- 
ing from the right path : deviation from 
truth or rectitude. 

ABET, a-bet', v.t. to incite by encourfige- 
ment or aid (used chiefly in a bad sense) : 
—pr.p. abett'ing ; pa.p. abett'ed. — n. 
Abetmsnt, a-bet'ment. — n. Abkttob, 
a-bet'ur. TO. Fr. abeter — d ( — L. ad, to), 
and beter, to bait, from root of Bait.] 

ABEYANCE, a-ba'ans, n. a state of sus- 
pension or expectation. [Fr. — d (L. ad, 
to), and bayer, to gape in expectation, 
from imitative root 6a, to gape.] 

ABHOR, ab-hor*, v.t. to shrink from with 
horror : to detest : to loathe '.—pr.p. ab- 
hcrr'iag ; pa.p, £U>horred'. [L. See HoB- 


ABHORRENCE, ab-hor^a, s. eatreme 

ABHORRENT, ab-hor'ent, ad^. detesting ; 

ABHORRING, ab-horlng, n. (£.) object of 
great hatred. 

ABIDE, a-bid', v.L to bide or wait for ; to 
endure : to tolerate. — v.i. to remain in a 
place, dwell, or stay •.—pa.t. and pa.p. 
abode'. — adj. ABLDiNa, continuaL [A.S. 
abidan — pfx. • a=Goth. 'US=Ger. er, and 
bidan, ta wait.] 

ABIGAIL, ab'I-gal, n. a lady's maid. 
[Fr om A bignil, 1 Sam. xxv 1 

ABILITY, a-l I'i-ti, n. quality of being 
able : power : s rength : skill : — pL 
Abil'tttes, the powers of the mind. 
[M, E. hability Fr. habTHA — ^L. hjahiLi- 
ias — haJbilia, easily handled, fit, apt, 
able, from habeo, to have, hold, ogq 

ABIOQENESLT, a-bi'6-J.n-e-sist, n. a be- 
liever in abioge-esis, a theory based on 
spontaneous generation as pposed to 
sexual generation or, more explicitly, 
the producti<Ni of life or living beings 
under certain physi al conditions with- 
out the intervention of antecedent living 
forms. Also Abiooenist. ABiOGEiry, 
same as Abiogkuksis. Abiogenetic, adj. 
of, pertaining to, or produced by abio- 

ABIRRITATE, ab-ir'ri-tat, v.t.\n medicine: 
to deaden, as the vital phenomena of the 
tissues : to debilitate. Abirritative, 
»b-ir'ri-t£t-iv, adj. tending to abirritate. 

ABJECT, ab'jekt, adj. cast away : mean ; 
worthless. — adv. Ab'jkcti>y. [L. ab- 
jectus — cast away — ab, away, jacio, to 

ABJECTION, ab-jek'shun, Abjkctnkss, 
ab'jekt-nes, n., a mean or low state ; 

ABJURE, ab-j65r', v.t. to renounce on 

oath or solemnly. — n. Abjuration, ab- 
iOOr-a'shun. [L. <i6, from, juro, -atum, 
to swear.] 

ABLACTATION, ab-lak-ta'shun, n. a wean- 
ing. [L. ab, from lacto, to suckle — lac, 
lactis, milk.] 

ABLATIVE, ablat-iv, ac^'. used as a n. 
The name of the sixth case of a Latin 
noun. [L. ablair'tms — ab, from, fero, 
latum, to take ; as if it indicated taking 
away, or privation.] 

ABLAZE, a-blaz', adv., in a blaze : on fire. 

ABLE, a'bl, adj. (comp. A'bler ; superl, 
A'blest), having sufficient strength, 
power, or means to do a thing : skillfuL 
—adv. A'bly. [See Ability.] 

ABLEGATE, ab'leg-at, n. in the Roman 
Catholic Church a special commissioner 
charged with conveying his insignia of 
office to a newly appointed cardinal. 

ABLUTION, ab-loo'shun, n. act of wash- 
ing, esp. the body, preparatory to relig- 
ious rites. [L. ablutio—ab, away, lv^>=i 
lavo, to wasn.j 

ABNEGATE, ab'ne-gat, v.t., to deny. \U 
ab, away, and nego, to deny. See Ne- 

ABNEGATION, ab-ne-ga'shun, n. denial: 

ABNORMAL, ab-nor'mal, adj., not normal 
or according to rule : irr^ular. — n, Ab- 
NOR'MITY. [L. ab, away from. Normal.] 

ABOARD, arbOrd', adv. or prep., onboard: 
in a ship. [Pfx. a, on, and Board.] 
Used also of things on shore, as aboard 

a railway train, etc. [Amer.l 
.BODE, a-bod', n. a dwelling-place : 


ABODE, a-b5d', _pa.<. a-nd pa.p. of Abide. 

ABOLISH, ab-ol'ish, v.t. to put an end to t 
to annul [Fr. abolir — L. aboleo, -itum 
—ab, from, olo, olesco, to grow — ab here 
reverses the meaning of the simple 

ABOLITION, ab-ol-ish'un, n. the act of 

ABOLITIONIST, ab-ol-ish'un-ist, n. one 
who seeks to abolish anything, esp. 

ABOLITIONIZE, ab-ol-ish'un-!z, t;.*. to 
imbue with the doctrines or principles 
of an abolitionist. 

ABOMINABLE, ab-om'in-a-bl, adj. hate- 
ful, detestable.— adv. Abom'inabl.y.— n. 
Abom'inableness. [See Abominate.] 

ABOMINATE, ab-om'in-at, v.t. to abhor: 
to detest : extremely. [L. abominor, 
-atus— to turn from as of bad omen. 
See Omen.] 

ABO:\nNATION, ab-om-in-5'shun, n. ex- 
treme aversion : anything abominable. 

ABORIGINAL, ab-o-rij'in-al, ac^'. first, 

ABORIGINES, ab-o-rij'in-Sz, the 
original inhabitants of a country. [L. 
See Origin.] 

ABORT, ab-ort', v.i. to miscarry in birth. 
[L. aborior, abortita — ab, orior, to rise— 
ab here reverses the meaning.] 


ABORTICIDE, a-bort'i-sld, n. In obstetrics, 
the destruction of a monstrous fetus iu 

ABORTION, ab-or'shun, n. premature de- 
livery : anything that does not reach 

ABORTIVE, ab-ort'iv, adj. born untimely : 
unsuccessful : producing nothing : ren- 
dering abortive. (Obs.) — adv. Abobt'- 
rvELY. — n. Abort'iveness. 

ABOUND, ab-ownd', v.i. to overflow, be 
in great plenty : (with in) to possess in 
plenty. [L. abundo, to overflow as a 
river, from unda, a wave.] 

ABOUT, a-bowt', prep, round on the out 
side : around : here and there in : near 
to : concerning : engaged in. — adv. 
around : nearly : here and there. — 
Bring about, to cause to take place. — 
C!oME ABOUT, to take place. — Go about, 
to prepare to do. [A.S. abutan — a, on, 
be, by, utan, outside.] 

ABOVE, a-buv', prep., on the up side : 
higher than : more than.— <idv. over- 
head : in a higher position, order, or 
power. — Above one's bend, out of one's 
power : beyond reach. (Amer.) [A.S. 
abufan — a, on, be, by, ufan, high, up- 
wards, which is an adv. formed from uf 
— upj 

ABOVE-BOARD, a-buv'-bord, adj. above 
the board or table : open. 

ABRADE, ab-rad', v.t., to scrape or rub 
o^. [L- ob, off, rado, rasum, to scrane.l 

ABRAH AMITE, a'-bram-it, n. {ecch hist^ 
a Paulician, so-called as a member of the 
faith taking its name from Antioch, of 
the 9th century. Also one of a sect 
which claims to hold the faith of Abra- 
ham before his circumcision. 

ABRASION, ab-ra'zhun, n. the act of rub- 
bing off. 

ABREAST, a-brest', adv. with the breasts 
in a line : side by side : {naut.) opposite 
to. [a, on, and Breast.] 

ABREDGrE, a-brij', v.t. to make brief or 
short : to shorten : to epitomize. [IV. 
abriger — ^L. abbreviare. See Abbrevi- 
ate 1 

ABRIDGMENT, a-brij'ment, n. contrac- 
tion : summary. 

ABROAD, a-brawd', adv. on the broad or 
open space : out of doors : in another 

ABROGATE, ab'ro-gat, v.t. to repeal (a 
law). [L. ab, away, rogo, -atum, to ask ; 
because when a law was proposed the 
people were "asked" (to sanction or re- 
ject it).]^ 

ABROGATION, ab'ro-ga'shun, n. act of 

ABROGATIVE, ab-ro'ga-tiv, adj. tending 
to abrogate : capable of abrogating or 

ABRUPT, ab-rupt', adj, the opposite of 
gradual, as if broken off: sudden : unex- 
pected. — n. an abrupt place. — adv. Ab- 
rupt'ly. — n. Abrupt'ness. [L. abrup- 
tus — ab, off. rumpo, ruptum, to break.] 

ABSCESS, ab'ses, n. a collection of puru- 
lent matter within some tissue of the 
body. [L. abscessus—abs, away, cedto, 
cessum, to go, to retreat.] 

ABSCOND, abs-kond', v.i. (lit.) to hide 
one's self : to quit the country in order 
to escape a legal process. [L. abs, from 
or away, condo, to hide.] 

ABSENCE, abs'ens, n. the being away or 
not present : want : inattention. 

ABSENT, abs'ent, adj., being away : not 
present : inattentive. pL. abs, away 
from, ens, entis, being — sum, esse, to be. 
See Entity.] 

ABSENT, abs-ent', v.t. to keep one's self 

ABSENTEE, abs-ent-e', n. one who lives 
away from his estate or his office. 

ABSENTEEISM, abs-ent-e'izm, n. the prac- 
tice of a land-owner living at a distance 
from his estate. 

ABSEY-BOOK, ab-se-book, n. (that is, an 
ab c book) a primer, which sometimes 
included a catechism. " And then comes 
answer like an absey-book." — Shak. 

ABSINTH, ab'sinth, n. spirit flavored with 
wormwood. [Fr. — ^L. absinthium, worm- 
wood — Gr.] 

ABSINTHIC, ab-sin'thic, adj. of or pertain- 
ing to absinthium or wormwood, or to an 
acid obtained from it. 

ABSOLUTE, ab'sol-ut, adj. free from 
limits or conditions : complete : unlim- 
ited : free from mixture : considered 
without reference to other things : un- 
conditioned, unalterable : unrestricted 
by constitutional checks (said of a gov- 
ernment): (gram.) not immediately de- 
pendent. — adv. Ab'solutely. — n. Ab'soIi- 
uteness. [L. absolutus, pa. p. of absolvo. 

ABSOLUTION^ ab-sol-u'shun, n. release 
from punishment : acquittal : remission 
of sins by a priest. 

ABSOLUTISM, ab'sol-ut-izm, n. a govern- 
ment where the ruler is without restric- 

ABSOLUTIST, ab's6l-ut-ist, adj. of or per- 
taining to absolutism : despotic. " All 
these things were odious to the old gov- 
erning classes of France ; their spirit was 
absolutist, ecclesiastical, and military."— 
John Morley. 

ABSOLVE, ab-zolv*, v.t., to loose or set 
free : to pardon : to acquit ; also, to fin- 
ish : accomplish. (Obs.) [L. ab, from, 
solvo, solutum, to loose. See Solve.] 

ABSORB, ab-sorb', v.t., to suck in: to 
swallow up : to engage whoUy. [L. ab, 
from, sorbeo, sorptum, to suck in.] 

ABSORBABLE, ab-sorb'a-bl, adj. that may 
be absorbed. — n. Absorbabil'ity. 

ABSORBENT, ab-sorb'ent, adj. imbibing: 
swallowing. — n. that which absorbs. 

ABSORPTION, ab-sorp'shun, n. the act of 
absorbing : entire occupation of mind. 

ABSORPTIVE, ab-sorpt*iv, adij. having 
power to absorb. 

ABSQUATULATE, ab-squat'u-lat, v.i. to 


mn awBj, especially in disgrace, as from 
debt. (Ainer.) 

ABSTAIN, abs-tan', v,i. to hoid or refrain 
from : also, v.t. to hinder : to obstruct : 
to debar : to cause to keep away from. 
" Abgtain men from marrying'." — Mil- 
ton. [Fr. abstenir — L. aba, from, teneo, 
to hold. See Tenable.] 

ABSTEMIOUS, abs-tem'i-us, CM^". temper- 
ate: sparing' in food, drink, or enjoy- 
ments. — adv. Abstem'iously. — n. Abs- 
TEai'iotiSNESs. [L. abgiemius—abs, from, 
temetuTH, strong' wine.l 

ABSTENTION, abs-ten'shun, n. a refrain- 

ABSTERGENT, abs-terj'ent, adj. serring 
to cleanse. 

ABSTEBSION, abs-ter'shun, n. act of 
cleansing by lotions. [L. ahstergeo, 
-teraum, to wipe away.} 

ABSTINENCE, abs'tin-ens, n. an abstain- 
ing or refraining, especially from some 

ABSTINENT, abs'tin-ent, adj. abstaining 
from: temperate. [8^ Abstais.] 

ABSTRACT, abs-trakt', v.t., to draw away: 
to separate : to purloin. [L. abs, away 
from, traho, tractum, to draw. See 

ABSTRACT, abs'trakt, adj. general, as op- 
posed to particular or individual : the 
opposite of abstract is concrete : a red 
color is an abstract notion, a red rose is 
a concrete notion : an abstract noun is 
the name of a quality apart from the 
thing, as redness. — «. summary : abridge 
ment : essence. — adv. Abs'tractly. — n, 
Abs'tsactkess. [L. abstractus, as if a 
quality common to a number of things 
were drawn away from the things and 
considered by itself.] 

ABSTRACTED, abs-trakf ed, adj absent in 
mind. — adv. Abstract'edly. — n. Abs 

tract' EDNESS. 

ABSTRACTION, abs-trak'shun, n. act of 
abstracting : state of being abstracted i 
absence of mind : the operation of the 
mind by which certain qualities or at- 
tributes of an object are considered 
apart from the rest : a purloining. 

ABSTRUSE, abs-troos', adj. hidden: re- 
mote from apprehension : difficult to be 
understood,— -adv. Abstruse'ly. — n. ABS- 
truse'ness. [L. abstmsus, thrust away 
(from observation) — trudo, trusum, to 

ABSURD, ab-8urd', adj. obviously unresr 
sonable or false. — adv. Absurdly. [L. 
absurduii—ab, from, mrdus, harsh-sound- 
ing, deaf.] 

ab-surd'nes, n., the. quul&y qf being ab- 
surd : anything absnrd. 

ABUNDANCE, ab-und'ans, n. ample suffi- 

. ^S^*^ ' ^^^ plenty. [See Abound. 1 

ABUNDANT, ab-und'^ant, a«(/. plentiful.— 
adv. Abtind'antly. 

ABUSE, ab-uz', v.t. to use wrongly: to 
pervert : to revile: to violate. [L. cU>, 

away (from what is right), utor, usus, 
to use.} 
ABUSE, ab-iis', n. ill use : misapplication i 

ABUSIVE, ab-us'iv, adj., containing or 
practicing abtise.—adv. Abus'ively.— », 
ABUT, a-but', v.i. to end : to border (on) : 
—pr.p. abutt'ing; pa.p. abutt'ed. [Fr. 
aboutir, from bout, the end of anythmg. 
See Butt, the end.] 
ABUTMENT, a-but'ment, n. that which 
abuts : (arch.) what a limb of an arch 
ends or rests on. 
ABYSM, a-bizm', n. a form of Abyss. [O. 
Fr. abygme, from Lat. dbygsimus, super, 
of aby«»us, bottomless.] 
ABYSMAL, a-bizm'al, adj. bottomless : un- 
ABYSS, arbis', n. a bottomless gulf : a deep 
mass of water. [Gr. abyssos, bottomless 
j — a, without, byssos, bottom,] 
; ACACIA, a-ka'shi-a, n. a genus of thorny 
I leguminous plants with pinnate leaves. 

jXi. — Gr. akakia — ake, a short point.] 
\ ACADEMIC, ak-a-dem'ik, n. a Platonic 
i philosopher : a student in a college. 
i Academicism, ak-a-dem'i-sizm, n. the 
i system or mode of teaching at an acad- 
j emy : an academical mannerism, as of 
j painting. Academics, ak-a-dem'iks, n. 
the Platonic philosophy : Platonism. 
I [See Academy.]^ 

! ACADEMIC, -AL, ak-a-dem'ik-al, adj. of 
i an academy. — adv. Academ'ically. 
ACADEMICIAN, ak-ad-em-ish'yan, n, 

member of an academy. 
ACADEMY, ak-ad'em-i, n. (orig.) the 
school of Plato: a higher school: a so- 
ciety for the promotion of science or art 
[Gr, Akademia, the name of the garden 
nea r At hens where Plato taught.] 
ACANTHUS, a^kan'tlius, n. a prickly 
plant, called bears breech or brankur- 
sine : {arch.) an ornament resembling its 
leaves iised in the capitals of the Corin- 
thian and Composite orders. [L.^Grr. 
akanihos — ake, a point, anthos, a flower 
— the prickly plant,] 
ACCAD, ak'ad, tj. 1, a member of one of the 

Srimitive races of Babylonia : one of the 
ominant race at the time to which 
the earUest contemporaneous records 
reach back. This race is believed to 
have belonged to the Turanian family, 
or to have been at any rate non-Semitic 
Also written Akkad. " The Accadi, or 
Accads, were the ' Highlanders ' who had 
descended from the mountainous region 
of Elam on the east, and it was to them 
that the Assyrians ascribed the origin of 
Chaldean civiliantion and writing." — A. 
H. Sayce. 2, the language of this race ; 

ACCADIAN, ak-ka'di-an, adj. belonging to 
the Accads or primitive inhabitants of 
Babylonia. Also written Akkadian. 

ACCADIAN, ak-ka'di-an, n. \, an Accad: 
2, the language of the Accads, a non- 


Semitic and probably Turanian speecB 
spoken in ancient Babylonia previously 
to the later and better known Semitic 
dialect of the cuneiform inscriptions. A 
kindred dialect, the Sumarian, seems to 
have been in use at the same time in 

A-CCEDE, ak-sed', v.i. to agree or assent. 
[L. accedo, accessum, to go near to — ad, 
to, cedo, to go. See Cede.] 

ACCELERATE, ak-sel'er-at, v.t. to increase 
the speed of ; to hasten the progress of. 
[L. accelero, 'Utum — ad, to, celer, swift. 
See CelerI'J'Y.] 

ACCELERATION, ak-sel-er-a'shun, n. the 
act of hastening : increase of speed. 

ACCELERATIVE, ak-sel'er-at-iv, adj. 

ACCENT, ak'sent, n. modulation of the 
voice : stress on a syllable or word : a 
mark used to direct this stress : in 
poetry, language, words, or expressions 
in general. [L. accentus, a tone or note 
'—ad, to, cano, to sing.] 

ACCENT, ak-sent', v.t. to express or note 
the accent. 

ACCENTUAL, ak-sent'u-al, adj. relating 

ACCENTUATE, ak-sent'u-at, v.t. to mark 
or pronounce with accent : to make 
prominent : to lay stress upon : to em- 
phasize : to give prominence to : to mark 
as of importance ; as, he accentuated the 
views of the party on this question. — 
Accentuation, ak-sent-u-a'shun, n. the 
act of placing or of pronouncing accents. 

&.CCEPT, ak-sept', v.t. to receive : to agree 
to : to promise to pay : (B.) to receive 
with favor. [L. accipio, acceptum—ad, 
to, capio, to take.] 

ACCEPTABLE, ak-sept'a-bl, adj., to be 
accepted : pleasing : agreeable. — adv. 
Accept' ABLY. 

ACCEPTABLENESS, ak-sept'a-bl-nes, Aa 
CEPT ABILITY, ak-sept-a-bU'i-ti, n., 
quality of being acceptable. 

ACCEPTANCE, ak-sept'ans, n. a favorable 
reception : an agreeing to terms : an 
accepted bill. 

ACCEPTATION, ak-sept-a'shun, n. a kind 
reception : the meaning of a word. 

ACCEPTER, ak-sept'er, ACCEPTOR, ak- 
sept' ur, n. one who accepts. 

ACCESS, ak-ses', or ak'ses, n. liberty to 
come to, approach: increase. [See Ao 

ACCESSARY, ak'ses-ar-i. Same as Acces- 

ACCESSIBLE, ak-ses'i-bl, adj., that may b€ 
approached. — adv. Access'ibly. — n. Ao 


ACCESSION, ak-sesh'un, n., a coming tO'. 

ACCESSORY, ak'ses-or-i, oc^'. additional; 
contributing to : aiding. — n. anything ad' 
ditional : one who aids or gives tiountei 
nance to a crime. — adj. AcxJESSoaiAii, 
Priatina- to an accessory. 

ACCIDENCE, ak'sid-ens, n. the part of 

grammar treating of the inflections of 
words (because these changes are "acci- 
dentals " of words and not " essentials "V. 

ACCIDENT, ak'sid-ent, n. that which hap- 
pens : an unforeseen or unexpected event : 
chance : an unessential quality or prop- 
erty. [L. accido, to fall to, to happen — 
ad, to, cado, to fall.] 

ACCIDENTAL, ak-sid-ent'al, adj. happen- 
m^ by chance: not essential. — n. any- 
thing not essential. — adv. Accident' ally. 

ACCIPITRAL, ak-sip'i-tral, adj. of or per- 
taining to the Accipitres or birds of prey : 
having the character of a bird of prey. 
" Of temper most accipitral, hawkish, 
aquiline, not to say vulturish." — Carlyle. 

klam-a'shun, n. a shout of applause. [L. 
acclamo — ad, to, clamo, -atum, to shout. 
See Claim.] 

ACCLAMATOR, ak-kla-ma'ter, n. one who 
expresses joy or applause by acclamation. 
"^ccZamators who had fiUed . . . the air 
with ' Vive le Roy.' " — Evelyn. 

ACCLAMATORY, ak-klam'a-tor-i, adj. ex- 
pressing acclamation. 

ak-kllra'at-Iz, v.t. to inure to a foreign 
climate. [Ft. acclimater, from d and 
climat. See Climate.] 

ACCLIMATION, ak-kllm-a'shun, ACCLIM- 
ATATION, ak-kllm-at-a'shun, ACCLIM- 
ATIZATION, ak-klim-at-i-za'shun, n. the 
act of acclimatizing : the state of being 
acclimatized. [The first form of the 
word is anomalous, the second is that 
used in French, and the third is that 
most in use in English.] 

ACCLINATE, ak'-klin-at, a. bending or slop- 
ing upward. [L. acclinare, to lean 
against; ad, to, and clinare, to lean.] 

ACCLIVITY, ak-kliVi-ti, n. a slope up- 
wards, opp. to Declivity, a slope down- 
wards. [L. ad, to, clivus, a slope, from 
root of clino, to slope.] 

ACCOLADE, ak-ol-ad , n. blow over the 
neck or shoulder with a sword, given in 
conferring knighthood. [Fr. — L. ad, to, 
collum, neck.] 

ACCOMMODATE, ak-kom'mod-at, v.t. to 
adapt : to make suitable : to supply : to 
adjust. [L. ad, to, commodus, fitting. 
See Commodious.] 

ACCOMMODATING, ak-kom'mod-at-ing, 
p.adj. affording accommodation : oblig- 

ACCOMMODATION, ak-kom-mod-a'shun, 
n. convenience : fitness : adjustment : a 
loan of money. 

furnishing accommodation : obliging. 

ttiat which accompanies : instrumental 
music along with a song. 

ACCOMPANIST, ak-kum'pan-ist, n. one 
who accompanies a singer on an instru- 

A UCOMPANY, ak-kum'pan-i, v.t. to keep 


company with : to attend. [BV. acconi- 
pagner. See C!ompany.1 

ACCOMPLICE, ak-kom^plis, n. an asso- 
ciate, esp. in crime. [L. ad, to, compleXt 
•ids, joinedj 

ACCOMPLISH, ak-kom'plish, v.t to com- 
plete : to effect : to fumll : to equip. [Fr. 
accomplir—L. ad to, compleo, -plere, to 
fill up. See Complete.] 

ACCOMPLISHABLE, ak-kom'plish-Brbl, 
adj. that may be accomplished. 

ACCOMPLISHEID, ak-kom'plisht, adb'. 
complete in acquirements : especially 
graceful acquirements : poUshed. 

ACCOMPLISHMENT, ak-kom'pliah-ment, 
n. completion : ornamental acquirement. 

ACCORD, ak-kord', v.i. to agree : to be iu 
correspondence. — v.t. to graat. (TV. oo 
carder — L. ad, to, cor, cordis, the neart.] 

ACXX)RD, ak-kord', n. agreement: hai- 
mony : (with own) Bpontaneoua motion. 

ACCORDANCE, ak-kord'ans, n. agree 
ment : conformity. 

ACCORDANT, ak-kord'ant, adj. agreeing! 

ACCORDING, ak-kord'ing, p.adj. in ac- 
cordance : agreeing. — Accordinq as, an 
adverbial phrase^in proportion. — ^Ao- 
CORDINQ TO, a prepositional phra8es=UL 
accordance with or agreeably to. 

ACCORDINGLY, ak-kord'ing-li, adv. In 
agreement (with what precedes). 

AC!CORDION, ak-kord'ion, n. a small keyed 
musical instrument with bellows. [From 

ACCOST, ak-kost', v.t. to speak first to : 
to address. [Fr. accoster — L. ad, to, 
ox)^itcL &i si dp 1 

ACCOSTABLE, ak-kosfa-bl, adj. eatsy of 
access : affable. 

ACCOUCHEMENT, ak-kooch'mong, n. de- 
livery in child-fted. [Fr. d, and cotiche, 
a bed. See Ck)UCH.] 

ACCOUCHEUR, ak-kSS-sher', n. a man 
who assists women in childbirth.— /ew. 
Accoucheuse, ak-koo-shez'. [Fr.] 

ACCOUNT, ak-kownf , v.t. to reckon : to 
ju(^, value. — v.i, (with for) to give a 
reason. [O. Fr. accomter — L. ad, to, 
computare, to reckon. See Compute, 

ACCOUNT, ak-kownf, n. a counting: 
statement : value : saike. 

ACCOUNTABLE, ak-kownt'a-bl, adj. Ua- 
ble to account : responsible. —-adr?. Ao 

ACCOUNTABLENESS, ak-kownt'a-bl-nes, 
ACCOUNTABILITY, ak-kownt-arbU'i-ti, 
n. liability to give account. 

ACCOUNTANT, ak-kownt'ant, n. one who 
keeps or is skilled in accounts. 

ACCOUNTANTSHIP, ak-kownt'ant-ship, 
n. the employment of an accountant. 

ACCOUTRE, ak-koo'ter, v.t. to dress or 
equip (esp. a warrior) i—m-.p. accou*- 
tnng ; pa.p. accou'tred. [Fr. accoutrer 
—of doubtf\il ong-in.J 

dress : military equipments. 

ACCREDIT, ak-kre<rit, v.t. to give credit, 
authority, or honor to. [Fr. accrediter 
— L. ad, to, credo, -itum, to trust. See 

ACCREMENTITIAL, ak-kre-men-ti'shal, 
adj. in physiol. of or pertaining to the 
process of accrementition. 

ACCREMENTITION, ak-kre-men ti'shon, 
n. in physioL the process of producing 
or developing a new individual by the 
growth, extension, and separation of a 
part of the parent : gemmation. 

ACCRESCENCE, ak-kres'ens, n. gradual 
growth or increase. 

ACCRESCENT, ak-kres'ent, adj., grotoing: 
increasing. [L. ad, in addition, cresco, to 

ACCiRETION, ak-kre'shun, n. a growing 
to : increase. 

ACCRUE, ak-kr6o', v.i. to spring, come. 
[Fr. aeeroitre, pa. p. accru — ^L. ad, bo, 
cresco. to grow.J 

ACCULTURATION, ak-kul-tur-a-shim, n. 
(ethnol.) the approximate equality of one 
human race or tribe to another in the 
arts, culture, etc., as the result of con- 
tact. [L. ao (for ad, to) and culturOf 
c ultu re.] 

ACCUMBENT, ak-kumb'ent, adj., lyina 
dotim or reclining on a couch. [L. aa, 
to, cumbo, to )ie.\ 

ACCUMULATE, ak-ktlm'ca-at, v.t, to heap 
or pile up : to amass. — v.i. to increa«« 
greatly. [L. — ad, to, cumulvs, a heap.] 

ACCUMULATION, ak-kum-ul-a'shun, n. a 
heaping up ; a he ap, mass, or pile. 

ACCUMULATTVE, ak-kum'Ql-at-iv, cu(f, 
heaping up. 

ACCUMULATOR, ak-kQm'ul-«,t-ur, n. one 
who accumulates : in elect, same aa 
Condenser. The name is now especially 

Spiled to a kind of battery devised by 
Camille Faure, by means of whica, 
dectric energy can be stored and rea- 
iered portable. Each battery forms a 
oylindricai leaden v^essel, containing al- 
ternate sheets of metaUio lead and 
minium wrapped in felt and rolled into a 
spiral wetted with acidulated water. On 
being charged with electricity the energy 
may be stored tiU required for use. 
ACCURACY, ak'kOr-arsi, ru correctness; 

ACCURATE, ak'kCr-at, adj. done tnth 

care: exact. — adv. Ac'curately.— n. 

-NESS. [L. ad, to, cura, care.] 
ACCURSED, ak-kurs'ed, adj. subjected to 

a curse : doomed : extremely wicked. 

nil. ad, and Curse.] 
ACCUSABLE, ak-kuz'a-bl, adj. that may 

ACCUSATION, ak-kiiz-a'shun, n. the act 
of accusing : the charge brought against 
any one. 

ACCUSATIVE, ak-kOz'artiv, adj. accusing, 
— n. (gram.) the case of a noun on which 
the action of a verb falls (in English, the 


ACCUSATORY, ak-kuz'a-tor-i, adj. con^ 
taining accusation. 

ACCUSE, ak-kuz', v.t. to bring a charge 
against : to blame : to indicate : to 
evince : to show : to manifest. "Am- 
phialus answered . . . with such excus- 
ing himself that more and more accused 
his love to Philoclea."— /Sir P. Sidneys 
[L. accuso — ad, to, causa, cause.] 

ACCUSER, ak-kuz'er, n. one who accuses 
or brings a charge against another. 

ACCUSTOM, ak-kus'tum, vJ. to make 
familiar by custom: to habituate. [Fr. 
accoutumer. See Custom.] 

ACCUSTOMED, ak-kns'tumd, p.adj. usual : 
frequent : habituated. 

ACE, as, n. the one of cards and dice. [Fr. 
— L. as, unity — as, Tarentine Doric form 
of Gr. heis, one.] 

ACEDIA, a-se'-de-a, n. laziness: (med.) 
apathy and melancholy affecting inmates 
of monasteries, etc. 
■ ACERBITY , as-er'bi-ti, n. bitterness ; 
sourness : harshness : severity. [L. 
acerbus, harsh to the taste — acer, sharp 
—■root, aJe, sharp.] 

ACETATE, as'et-at, w. a salt of acetic acid 
which is the sour principle in vinegar. 

ACETIC, as-et'ik, adj., of vinegar: sour. 
[L. acetum, vinegar — aceo, to be sour.] 

ACETIFY, as-et'i-fl, v.t. orv.i., to turn into 
vinegar. — n. Acetification, as-et-i-fl-ka'- 
shun. [L. acetum, vinegar, and/acto, to 

ACETOUS, as-e'tus, adj. sour. 

ACHE, ak, n. a continued pain. — v.i. to be 
in continued pain : — pr.p. ach'ing : pa.p. 
ached'. [A.S. ece, oece : M.E. afce.] 

A CHEVAL, a-she-val', {mil.) the position 
of an army when its wings are separated 
by a river or road. [Fr. Lit. on horse- 
back, astride.] 

ACHIEVABLE, a-chev'a-bl, adj. that may 
be achieved. 

ACHIEVE, a-chev', v.t., to bring to a head 
or end : to perform : to accomplish : to 
gain, win. [Fr. achever — chef, the head. 
See Chief. ]^ 

ACHIEVEMENT, a-chev'ment, n. a per- 
formance : an exploit : an escutcheon. 

ACHROMATIC, a-krom-at'ik, adj. trans- 
mitting light without color, as a lens. 
[Gt. a, priv., and chroma, color.] 

ACHROMATISM, a-krom'at-izm, n. the 
state of being achromatic. 

ACICULAR, as-ik'u-lar,ad;., needle-shaped: 
slender and sharp-pointed. [L. adcula, 
dim. of acus, a needle — root ak, 

ACID, as'id, adj., sharp : sour. — n. a sour 
substance : {chem.) one of a class of 
substances, usually sour, which turn 
vegetable dyes to red, and combine 
with alkalies, metallic oxides, etc., to 
form salts. [L. aceo, to be sour — root 
ak, sharp.] 

ACIDIFIABLE, as-id'i-fl-a-bl, ac^'. capable 
of being converted into an acid. — n. 


ACIDIFIC, as-id-if'ik, adj. producing acidity 
or an acid : acidifying. 

ACIDIFY, as-id'i-fi, v.t., to make acid : to 
convert into an acid :—pr.p. acid'ifying ; 
pa.p. acid'ified. [L. acidus, sour, and 
fado, to make.] 

ACIDITY, as-id'i-ti, ACIDNESS, as'id-nes, 
n. the quality of being acid or sour. 

ACIDULATE, as-id'u-lat. v.t. to make 
slightly acid. 

ACIDULENT, a-sid'u-lent, adj. being some- 
what acid or sour : cross : tart : peevish. 
" Anxious addulfint face." — Carlyle. 

ACIDULOUS, as-id u-lus, adj. slightly sour: 
subacid : containing carbonic acid, as 
mineral waters. [L. acidulus., dim. of 
acidus, sour. See AciD.l 

ACIERAGE, a'se-er-aj, n. [Fr. acier, steel.] 
A process by which an engraved copper- 
plate or an electrotype from an engraved 
plate of steel or copper has a film of 
iron deposited over its surface by elec- 
tricity, in order to protect the engraving 
from wear in printing. By this means 
an electrotype of a fine engraving which, 
if printed directly from the copper, would 
not yield 500 good impressions, can be 
made to yield 8,000 or more. Whenever 
the film of iron becomes so worn as to 
reveal any part of the copper under- 
neath, it is removed and a fresh coating 
deposited ; and in this way as many as 
30,000 good impressions have been print- 
ed from the electrotype of a finely-en- 
graved plate. 

ACKNOWLEDGE, ak-nol'ej, v.t. to own a 
knowledge of : to admit : to own : to con- 
fess. rPfx. a ( — ^A.S. on, on), and Knowl- 
EDQE.] Acknowledge the corn, to ac- 
knowledge or confess a charge or impu- 
tation. (Amer.) 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT, ak-nol'ej-ment, n. 
recognition : admission : confession : 
thanks : a receipt. 

ACME, ak'me, n. the top or highest point : 
the crisis, as of a disease. [Gr. Aknie-— 
ake, a point.] 

ACNE, ak'ne, n. a small pimple on the 

ACOLYTE, ak'o-llt, ACOLYTH, ak'o-lith, 
n. an inferior church officer. [Gr. akoloii- 
thos, an attendant.] 

ACONITE, ak'o-nit, n. the plant wolf's- 
bane or monk's-hood : poison. [L. aconi- 
turn— Gr. akoniton.] 

ACORN, a'korn, n. the seed or fruit of the 
oak.— ad/. A'corned. [A.S. vecern came 
to be spelled ac-cem, acorn, from suppos- 
ing it compounded of oak and kern or 
C(ym, seed : cecem may be the dim. of dc, 
oak, as Ger. eichel, is of eiche ; but it is 
more probably derived from acer or aker^ 
a field (see Acre), and meant primarily 
" the fruit of the field." (Skeat).] 

ACOTYLEDON, a-kot-i-le'dun, n. a plant 
vnthout distinct cotyledons or seed-lobes. 
— adj. Acotyle'donous. [Gr. a, neg., 
and kotyledon. See Cotyledon.] 

ACOUSTIC, a-kowst'ik, adj. pertaining to 



the sense of hearing or to the theory 
of sounds. [Gr. akoustikos — akouO, to 

ACOUSTICS, a-kowst'iks, n. the science of 

ACOUSTICALLY, a-kous'tik-al-li, adv. 
in relation to or in a manner adapted to 
acoustics. Prof. Tyndall. 

ACQUAINT, ak-kwant, v.t. to make or let 
one to know : to mform. —;. Ao 
quaint'ed. [O. Fr. accointerf Low L. 
accognitare — L. ad, to, cognitus, known.] 

ACQUAINTANCE, ak-kwanfans, n. fa- 
miliar knowledge : a person whom we 
know. — ^Acquaint' ANCESHIP, n. familiar 

ACQUIESCE, ak-kwi-es% v.i., to rest satis- 
fled or without making opposition : to 
assent. [L. acquiesco — od, and quieSj 

ACQUIESCENCE, ak-kwi-es'ens, to. quiet 
assent or submission. 

ACQUIESCENT, ak-kwi-es'ent, adj. resting 
satisfied : easy: submissive. 

ACQUIRABLE, ak-kwir'a-bl, cw?/. that 
may be acquired. 

ACQUIRE, ak-kwir', v.t. to gain : to attain 
to. [L. acquire, -quisitum — ad, to, and 
qvuxro, to seek — as if, to get to some* 
thing sought.] 

ACQUIREMENT, ak-kwir'ment, n. soma- 
thing learned or got by effort, and not a 
gift of nature. 

ACQUISITION, ak-kwiz-ish'un, n. the act 
of acquiring : that which is acquired. 

ACQUISITIVE, ak-kwiz'it- iv, ad j. desirous 
to acquire. — n. ACQUIS'ITI V ENESS. Ao 
QUIST, ak-kwist', to. acquisition (Obs.). 

ACQUIT, ak-kwit', v.t. to free : to release : 
to declare innocent r—^w.p. acquitt'ing; 
pa.p. acquitf ed. [Fr. acquitter — ^L. ad, 
qiiiet-, rest — to give rest from an accusa- 
tion. See Quit.] 

ACQUITTAL, ak-kwit'al, to. a judicial dis- 
charge from an accusation. 

ACQUITTANCE, ak-kwifans, to. a dis- 
charge from an obligation or debt : a re- 

ACRE, ftTier, to. a measure of land contain- 
ing 4,840 sq. yards. [A.S. OBcer, CJer. 
acker, L. ager, Gr. agros. Sans, ajra, a 

ACREAGE, aTcer-aj, to. the number of 
acres in a piece of land. 

ACRED, fi'kerd, adj. possessing acres or 

ACRID, ak'rid, adj. biting to the taste; 
pungent : bitter. [L. cuxTt axsris, sharp 
— root ak, •sharp.] 

ACRIDITY, a-krid'i-ti, ACRIDNESS, ak'- 
rid-nes, n. quality of being acrid : a 
sharp, bitter taste. 

ACRIMONIOUS, ak-ri-m5n'i-us, adj. sharp, 

ACRIMONY, ak'ri-mun-i, n. bitterness of 
feeling or language. [L. acrimcmia^ 
acer, sharp.] 

ACROBAT, arro-bat, to. a rope-dancer : a 
tumbler: a vaulter.— oc^;, Acbobat'io. 

rOr. dkrobateo, to walk on tiptoe. Of or 
pertaining to an acrobat or his perform- 
ance ; as, ax^ohatic feats : acrohatic en- 
tertainments : akront the top, and baino, 

ACROGEN, ak'ro-ien, to. a plant that grows 
at the top chiefly, as a tree-fern. — adj. 
Acbog'enous. [Gr. akron^ extremity, 
top, gev-» to generate.] 

ACROLOGY, a-krol'-o-ji, n. a picture, char- 
acter, or hieroglyph denoting the name 
of an object; applied especially in a pho- 
netic sense, the picture expressing the 
sound, as in phonetic spelling. [Gr.] 

ACROPOLIS, arkro'pol-is, n. a citadel, esp. 
that of Athens. [Gr. akropolis — akros, 
the highest, polls, a city.] 

ACROSS, a-kros', prep, or adv., cross-wise : 
from side to side. [Pfx. a ( — A.S. on, on), 
and Cross.] 

ACROSTIC, a-kro'stik, to. a poem of which, 
if the first or the last letter of each line 
be takea in succession, they will spell a 
name or a sentence. [Gr. akros, ex- 
treme, and stichos, a line.] 

ACROSTICHUM, a-kros'-ti-kmn, n. (hot.) 
a tropical genus of large ferns fotmd in 

ACROTISM, ak'ro-tizm, to. in med. an 
absence or weakness of the pulse. [Gr. 
a, priv., and krotos, a beating.] 

ACT, akt, v.i. to exert force or influence : 
to produce an effect : to behave one's 
self. — v.t. to perform : to imitate or play 
the part of.— to. something done or do- 
ing : an exploit : a law : a part of a play. 
[L. ago, actum, Gr. agd, to put in mo 
tion, Sans, aj, to drive.] 

ACTAJBLE, atct'a-bl, adj. capable of being 
acted or performed : practically possible. 
"Is naked truth actable in true life?" 
— Tennyson. 

ACTING, akt'ing, n. action : act of per- 
forming an assumed or a dramatic part. 

ACTINISM, ak'tin-izm, w. the chemical 
force of the sun's rays, as distinct from 
light and heat. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, a 

ACTIAN, ak'shi-an, a. of or pertaining to 
the gpmes instituted by Augustus at Ac- 
Hum, Greece; hence AcrriA'N Games. 

AOTtNOLOGT, ak-ti-nol'<J-ji, to. that 
branch of science which investigates 
the power of sunlight to cause chem- 
ical action. [Gr. aktis, aktinos, a ray, 
and logos, a oiscourse.] 

ACTINOPHOROUS, ak-ti-nofop-us, a^. 
having ray-like spines. [Gr. aktis, akti- 
nos, a ray, and pherd, 1 carry.] 

ACTION, ak'shun, to. a state of acting : a 
deed : operation ; gesture : a battle : a 

ACTIONABLE, ak'shun-a-bl, adj. liable to 
a lawsuit. 

ACTIONLESS, ak'shon-les, adf. imflt to be 
made the subject of a legal action: not 


A.CnVE, aM'iv, adj. that acts : busy : 
nimble : (gram.) transitive. — adv. Adr- 


A.CTOR, akt'ur, n. one who acts : a stage- 

A.GTKESS, akt'res, n. a female sta^e- 

ACTUAL, akt'a-al, aclj. real: existing- in 
fact and now, as opp. to an Imaginary 
or pest state of things.~-adt7« Act'itallt. 
-— W. AonJAL'TTT. 

ACTUAL, ak'tu-al, n. something actual or 
real. "Not . . . ac^MoZs, but only Egyp- 
tian budget estimates." — Fort. Rev. 

ACTUALIST, ak'tu-al-ist, n. wiewbo deals 
with actualities: opposed to idealist. 

ACTUALIZE, akt'u-al-iz, v.t. to naake act- 

ACTUARY, akt'u-ar-i, n, a registrar or 
clerk : one who makes the calculations 
connected with an insurance oflBce. [L. 
aetuarius (scriba), an amanuensis, a 
clerk. 1 

ACTUATE, akt'u-at, v.t. to put into or in- 
cite to action : to influence. [L. actvs, 
action. See AOT.l 

ACTURIENCE, ak-tu'ri-ens, n. a desire for 
action. Orote. (Rare.) JFrom act, and 
urio, the termination of Latin desidera- 
tive verbs.] 

ACUMEN, ak-ii'men, n., sftarpTiess; quick- 
ness of perception : penet^:ution. [L. See 

ACUPRESS, ak'u-pres, v.t. in surg. to stop 
hemorrhage in by means of acupressure. 

ACUPRESSURE, ak-u-presh'iir, n. a mode 
of arresting hemorrhage from cut arter- 
ies, by inserting a needle into the flesh so 
as to press upon the mouth of the artery. 
[L. acus, a needle and Pressuee.] 

ACUPUNCTURE, ak-u-pungkt'ur, n. an 
operation for relieving pain by punctut^ 
ing the flesh with needles. [L. aciiSf a 
needle, and Puncture. J 

^CUTE, ak-ut', ou^., aharp-pcAated ; keen : 
opp. of dull ; shrewd : shrill. — adv. 
Acutely, ak-atlL — n. Aoitte'ness. — 
Acute angle, an angle less than a right 
ang]le. — ^Acute disease, one violent and 
rapid, as opp. to CHRONia [L. aeuttis, 
pa. p. of aeuo, to sharpen, from root ak. 

AX), or ADV., n. abbreviafi«»n of advertise- 
ment. (Amer.) 
ADAGE, Sbd'iij, n. an old saying: a proverb, 

{L. adagium, from ad, to, and root of aid, 
o say. 1 

ADAMANT, ad'a-mant, n. a verjr bard 
stone : the diamond. [L. and dr. ado- 
mas, 'antes — a. neg., and damad, to 
break, to tame. See Tajce.] 

ADAMANTINE, ad-a-man'tin, ac^'. made 
of or like adamant : that cannot be 
broken or penetrated. Also AoAMAir- 
TEAN. (ObsA 

ADAMANTOID, ad-a-mant'oid, n. a crys- 
tal characterized by being bounded by 
forty-eight equal triangles. ^Gr. ador 

mas, the diamond, and eidos, resem- 

ADAPT, ad-apt', v.t., to make apt or fit ; to 
accommodate. [Fr., L. adaptare—ad, 
to, and apto, to fit. J 

ADAPTABLE, ad-apt'a-bl, a4j. that may 
be adapted. — n. ADAPTABiL'rrY. 

ADAPTATION, ad-apt-a'shun, n. the act 
of making suitable : fitness. 

ADAYS, a-daz', adv. nowadays : at the 
present time. [Pfx. a, on, and Days.] 

ADD, ad, v.t. to put (one thing) to (an- 
other) : to sum up : with to, to increase. 
JL. — addo — ad, to, do, to put.] 

ADDENDUM, ad-den'dum, n., a thing to 
be added: an appendix.— ^Z. Adden'da. 
JL. See Add.] 

ADDER, ad'er, n. a kind of serpent. [A. 
S. ncedre ; Ger. otter is for natter. An 
adder came by mistake into use for a 
nadder ; the reverse mistake is a newt 
for an ewt or eft.j 

ADDICT, ad-dikt', v.t. to give (one's self) 
up to (generally in a bad sense). [L. 
addico, addictum — ad, to, dico, to de- 

ADDICTED, ad-dikt'ed, adj. given up to. 
— ns. Addict'edness, Addic'tion. 

ADDITION, ad-dish'un, n. the act of otBA- 
ing : the thing added : the rule in arith- 
metic for adding numbers together : ti- 
tle, honor. 

ADDITIONAL, ad-dish'un-al, adj. that is 

ADDLE, ad'dl, ADDLED, ad'dld, adj., dis- 
eased : putrid : barren, empty. — ^Addubi. 
HEADED, Addle-pai'ed, having a head or 
pate with addled brains. [A.S. adl, dis- 
ease, orig. inflammation, from ad, a 
burning ; akin to Lat. cestus, a glowing 
heat ; Gr. aithos, a burning.] 

ADDRESS, ad-dres^, v.t. to direct : to speak 
or write to : to court : to direct in writ- 
ing. — n. a formal communication in writ- 
ing : a speech : manners : dexterity : 
direction of a letter x—pl. Address'es, 
attentions of a lover. To address one's 
SELF TO A task, to set about it. [Fr. 
adresser See Dress, Direct.] 

ADDUCE, ad-dus', v.t. to bring forward: 
to cite or quote. [L. addtico—ad, to» 
and duco, to bring.] 

ADDUCIBLE, ad-dus'i-bl, adj. that may 
be adduced. 

ADDUCTOR, ad-dukt'ur, n. a muscle which 
draws one part towards another. [See 

ADEEM, a-dem', v.t. in law, to withdraw, 
revoke, or take away, as a grant, a leg- 
acy, or the like. [L. aaimo, to take away.] 

ADEiEP, a-dep', adv. deeply. " We shout 
so adeep down creation's profound." — S. 
B. Brouming. (Rare.) 

ADENOPHOROUS, ad-e<»ofor-U8, adj. 10 
zocH. and hot. bearing glands. [Gr. ad^n, 
a gland, and pherd, to bear.J 

ADEPT, ad-ept^ or ad'ept, adj. completely 
skilled. — n. a proficient. [L. adeptus 
iartem), having attained (an art), pa.p. 



of adipiscor, to attain — ad, to, and 
apiscor. Sans, ap, to attain.] 

ADEQUATE, ad'e-kwat, cw^., equal to: 
proportionate : sufficient. — adv. Ad'e- 
QUATELY. [L. adoequattts, made equal — 
ad, to, and cequtis, equal.] 

ADEQUATEN^S, ad'e-kwut-nes, Ade- 
quacy, ad'e-kwa-si, n. state of being 
adequate: sufficiency. 

ADHERE, ad-her', v.i., to stick to: to re- 
main fixed or attached. [L. ad, to, Tvoereo, 
hcesum, to stick.] 

ADHERENCE, ad-hSr'ens, n. state of ad- 
hering : steady attachment. 

ADHERENT, ad-her'ent, adj. sticking to— 
n. one who adheres : a follower : a par- 

ADHESION, ad-he'zhun, n. the act of ad- 
hering or sticking to : steady attach- 
ment. [See Adecbre.] 

ADHESIVE, ad-hes'iv, adj. sticky : apt to 
adhere. — adv. Adhes'iyely. — n. ADHEEf- 

ADIAPHORIST, ad-i-af 6-rist, n. a follower 
of Melanchthon in the sixteenth century, 
who maintained that, in matters indif- 
ferent, charity was to be preferred to 
uniformity, and that obedience was due 
to the imperial power. The Adiaphorists 
also accepted the interim of Charles V, 
[See Interim, 2.] [Gr. adiaphora, indif- 
ferent or non-essential things.] 

ADIAPHORISTIC, ad-i-af-o-ris*tik, adjf. 
of or pertaining to the Adiaphorists, or 
to the controversies between the follow- 
ers of Luther and Melanchthon. 

ADIOS, a-de-6se', int. good-by: adieu: fare- 
well. [Used principally among Spanish- 
speaking people, but since the Spanish- 
American War the term has become 
widely used in the U. S. — Sp. for L. ad, 
to, and deu8, god.] 

ADIEU, a-dii', adv. (I commend j'ou) to 
God: farewell. — n. a farewell. [Fr. d 
Dieu, to God.] 

ADIPOSE, ad'i-p5z, adj. fatty. (L. adeps^ 
advpis, soft fat.] 

ADIPSOUS, a-dip'sus, adj. tending tc 
quench thirst, as certain fruits. [Gr, 
priv. a, and dipsa, thirst.] 

ADIT, ad'it, n. an opening or passage, esp. 
into a mine. [L. cuiitus — ad, to, eo, itum, 
to go.] 

ADJACENT, ad-jas'ent, adj. , lying near to : 
contiguous. — n. Adjacency, ad-jas'en-si, 
— adv. Adjac'ently. [L. ad, to, ja^xo-^ 
to lie.] 

ADJECTIYE, ad'jekt-iv, n. a word added 
to a noun, to qualify it, or, rather per- 
haps, that adds some property to a noun. 
— adv. Ad'jectively. — adj. AdjectIv'al. 
[L. a^'ectivum (-Komen), an added (noun) 
— adjicio, -Jectum, to throw to, to add — 
ad, to, jacto, to throw.] 

ADJOIN, ad-join , v.i. to lie next to. [See 

ADJOINING, ad-join'ing, adj' joining to : 
near : adjacent. 

ADJOURN, ad-jurn , v.t. to put off to an- 
other day : to postpone. [Fr. ajoumer 
— ad, to, and jour, day. See Jotirnal.] 

ADJOURNMENT, ad-jurn'ment, n. the act 
of adjourning : the interval it causes. 

ADJUDGE, ad-juj', v.t. to decide. [See 

ADJUDICATE, ad-j55'di-kat, v.i. to pro- 
nounce judgment. — ns. Adju'dica'tic N^ 
Adju'dicator. [See Judgk] 

ADJUNCT, ad'junkt, adj., joined or added 
to. — n. tlie thing joined or added. [L= 
See Join.] 

ADJUNCTIVE, ad-junkt'iv, adj. joining.— 
Adjunctively, ad junkt'iv-li, Adjunct^ 
LY, ad-junkt'li, adv, in connection with, 

ADJURATION, ad-j5or-a'shun, n. the act 
of adjuring : the charge or oath used iin 

ADJURE, ad-j5or', v.t, to charge on oath 
or solemnly. [L. — ad, to, juro, -atum^ 
to swear.] 

ADJUST, ad-just', v.t. to arrange projp- 

erly : to reg^ulate : to settle. [O. Pr^ 

ajouster. Low L. adjuxtare, to put side 

by side— L. juxta, near : from root jug^ 

. seen in L. jungo, to join, E. Yoke.] 

ADJUSTMENT, ad-just'ment, n. arrange^ 

ADJUTANCY, ad'joot-ans-i, n. the office 
of an adjutant : assistance. 

ADJUTANT, ad'joot-ant, n. an officer whc 
assists the commanding officer of a gar- 
rison or regiment : a large species o:* 
stork or crane found in India. — Adju- 
tant-General, an officer who performs 
similar duties for the general of an army 
[L. adjuto=adjuvo — od, to, juvo, to as 

ADJUTATOR, ad'jii-ta-ter, n. [L. adjuto, 

to assist. See Agitator, 2.] 
ADMEASUREMENT, ad-mezh'ur-ment, n 

the same as measurement. 
ADMINISTER, ad-min'is-ter, v.t. to act a£ 

server or minister in a performance ; tr 

supply : to conduct. [L. ad, to, and 

AD]\nNTSTRADOR, ad-me-ne-stra-thor', n. 

a steward: manager: administrator. fSp. 

used principally in South America : 

brought into use in the U. S. as result of 

Isthmian Canal negotiations.] 
ADMINISTRATION, ad-min-is-trS'shun, n. 

The act of administering : the power or 

party that administers, 
ADMINISTRATIVE, ad-min'is-tra-tiv, adj. 

that administers. 
ADMINISTRATOR, ad-min-is-tra'tur, n. 

one who manages or directs : he who 

manages the affairs of one dying without 

making a will.— /ew. Adjonistra'trix. 

— n. Administra'torship. 
ADMIRABLE, ad'niir-a-bl, adj. worthy of 

being admired. — adv. Ad'mirably. — n. 

Ad' mir ableness. 
ADMIRAL, ad'mir-al, n. a naval officer of 

the highest rank. [Fr. amiral, from Ar. 

nynir, a lord, a chief.] 



ADMIRALTY, ad'mir-al ti, n, the board of 
commissioners for the administration of 
naval affairs. 

ADMIRATION, ad-mir-a'shun, to. the act 
of admiring' : (obs.) wonder. 

ADMIRE, ad-mir*, v.t. to have a high opin- 
ion of : to love. —adv. Admiringly. [Fr. 
admirer— L. ad, at, miror, to wonder.] 

ADMIREIR, ad-mir'er, n. one who admires : 
a lover. 

ADMISSIBLE, ad-mis'i-bl, adj. that may 
be admitted or allowed. — n. Admissibil- 

ADMISSION, ad-mish'un. Admittance, ad- 
mit'ans, n. the act of admitting : 'save 
to enter. 

ADMISSIVE, ad-mis'iv, ac^. having the 
nature of an admission : containing an 
admission or acknowledgment. " More 
adraiftsive than excusatory." — Lamb. 

ADMIT, ad-mit', v.t. to allow to enter : to 
let in : to concede ; to be capable of : — 
pr.p. admitting : pa.p. admitt'ed. [L. 
admttto, -missum--ad, to, mitto, to allow 
to go.] 

ADMIXTURE, ak-miks'tar, n. what is 
added to the chief ingredient of a mix« 

ADMONISEL, ad-mon'ish, v.t. to warn : to 
reprove mildly. [L. ad, to, and moneo, 
to put into the mind, akin to Ger. mah' 
nen, to remind ; Gr. menos, spirit, mind; 
Sans, man, to think.] 

ADMONITION, ad-mon-ish'un, n. kind re- 
proof : counsel : advice. Obsolete form 
m old authors, ADMONISHMENT. 

ADMONITORIAL, ad-mon-i-to'ri-al, adif. 
reproving : admonishing : having the 
manner of an ad monitor. " Miss Tox 
.... has acquired an o.d'nonitorial 
tone, and a habit of improving passing 
occasions. " — Dickens. 

ADMONITORY, ad-mon'i-tor-i, adj. con- 
taining admonition. 

ADO, ardoo', n. & to do: bustle: trouble. 
[Contr. of at dx), a form of the inf. \xx- 
rowed from the Scandinavian.] 

ADOBE, a-dob', n. sun-baked brick used for 
building houses in New Mexico, and 
other (Murts of the Mexican boraer region. 

ADOLESCENCE, ad-o-les'ens, to. the perkNl 
of youth. 

ADOLESCENT, ad-o-les'ent, adj.^ growing 
to manhood. ITi. ad, to, and olesco, to 
grow, allied to ato, to nourish.] 

ADONIC, a-don'-ik, a. Having the beauty 
of the god A.donis. [Fr. adonique — L. 

ADONIS, a-dn'nis, n. a kind of wig former- 
ly worn. " He puts on a fine flowing 
adonis or white periwig." — Qraves. 

ADOPT, ad-opt', v.t. to choose : to take as 
one's own what is another's, as a child, 
etc. ITi. adopto — ad, to, and opto, to 
wish, choose.] 

ADOPTABILITY, a-dc»pt-a-bil'i-ti, n. the 
state of being adoptable ; the capability 

of being adopted : also, that which can 
be adopted or made use of. "The select 
adoptabilities. "—Carlyle. 

ADOPTABLE, a-dopt'a-bl, adU' ca«a*)i« o^ 
fit for, or worthy of b»ng adopted. 
**The Liturgy or adoptable and gener- 
ally adopted set of prayers." — Carlyle. 

ADOPTION, ad-op'shun, n. the act of 
adopting : tii'* state of being adopted. 

ADOPTIVE, ad-opt'iv, adj. that adopts or 
is adopted. 

ADORABLE, ad-dr'a-bl, ac^j. worthy of be- 
ing adored. — adv. Ador'ably. — n. Adob'- 


ADORATION, ad-Cr-rshan, n. divine wor- 
ship : homage. 

ADORATORY, a-dor a-to-ri, n. a place of 
worship : a church or chapeL Southey. 

ADORE, ad -Or', v.t. to worship, to love in- 
tensely. — adv. Ador'ingly. [L. ad, to. 
oro, to speafe, to pray. See Oracle.] 

ADORER, ad-or er, n. one who adores : a 

ADORN, ad -om' , v. f . to deck or dress. Also 
obsolete form of pa.p. Adorned. [L. 
(xd, to, omo, to deck : Sans. %xirna, color. J 

ADORNMENT, ad-orn'ment, to. ornament : 

ADOWN, a-down', adv. and prep. down. 
rA.S, of-dune — of, from, dwn, a nilL See 
Down, a bank.] 

ADRIFT, a-drift , adj. or adv. floating as 
driven (by the wind) : moving at ran- 
dom. [Ldt. "on drift," a representing 
A.S.' on, on. See Drift.] 

ADROIT, a-droit', adj. dexterous, skillful. 
— adv. Adroitly, a-droit'U. — to. Adroit'- 
NESS. [Fr. d, droit, right — ^L. directus, 
straight. See Direct.] 

ADSCITITIOUS, ad-sit-ish'us, adj., added 
or assumed : additionaL [L. adscisco, 
'Sdtum, to take or assume — ad, to, sdseo, 
to inquire — scio, to know.] 

ADSIGNIFIC^TION, ad'sig-nif-i-ka-shun, 
TO. an additional signification. '"And in 
this opinion (viz. that there is no adsig- 
nification of manner or time in that 
which is called the indicative mood, no 
adsignitication at time in that which is 
oaHed the present participle) T am nei- 
ther new nor singrular." — Hor^ie Tooke. 

ADSTIPULATOR, ad-stip'-u-la-ter, ». 
{Rom. law) one who acts as an acces- 
sory party to a contract or promise. [L.] 

ADULATION, ad-u-la'shun, n. fawning; 
flattery, [L. odulor^ adulattis, to fawn 

ADULATORY, ad'Q-la-tor-i, adj. flattering. 

ADULT, ad-ult', adj., grovm : mature.— to. 
a grown-up person. [L. adultus — ado- 
ksco, to g^ow. See Adolescent.] 

ADULTERATE, ad-ult'er-at, v.t. to cor- 
runt : to make impure (by mixing). _ [L. 
aaultero—ad, to, alter, other ; as if , to 
make other than genuine.] 

ADULTERATION, ad-ult-er-a'shun, to. the 
act of adulterating : the state of being 



ADULTERER, ad-ult'er-er, n. a man giiilty 
of adultery.— /em. Adult'eress. 

ADULTERINE, ad-ult'er-in, adj. resulting 
from adultery : spurious. — n. the off- 
spring of adulteiy. 

ADULTEROUS, ad-ult'er-us, adj. guilty of 

ADULTERY, ad-ult'er-i, n. violation of the 
marriage-bed. [See Ajjxjlterate.] 

ADUMBRATE, ad-umbr'at or ad'-, v.t, to 
give a faint shadow of : to exhibit imper- 
fectly. — n. Adumbra'tion. [L. ad, to, 
umbra, a shadow.] 

ADUSK, a-dusk', daj. or adv. in the dusk 
or twilight : dark. " To die and leave 
the world adusk.** — E. B. Browning. 

ADVANCE, ad-vans', v.t. to put forward, 
or to the van : to promote to a higher 
oflBce : to encovu*age the progress of : to 
propose : to supply beforehand. — v.i. to 
move or go forward : to make progress : 
to rise in rank. — n. progress : improve- 
ment : a giving beforehand. — In ad- 
▼AKCB, beforehand. Advanced female, 
9. woman who claims the rights and 
privile^ of men as to voting, etc JSow 
fallen mto disuse. (Amer.) \Fr. avanoet 
— ^Prov. avant, abans, before — L. ah ante, 
from before/l 

ADVANCEMENT, ad-vans'ment, n. pro- 
motion : improvement : payment of 
money in advance. 

ADVANTAGE, ad-vant'aj, n. superiority 
over another: gain or benefit. — t>.t. to 
benefit or profit. [Fr. avantage. It. 
vantaggio—'Fr. avant, before. See Aik 


ADVANTAGEOUS, ad-vant-a'jus, adj. of 
advantage : useful. — adv. .^^aJVANTA'- 
GEOUSLY.— n. Advanta'geousness. 

ADVENT, ad' vent, n., a coming or arri- 
val: the first or the second coming of 
Christ : the four weeks before Christmas. 

JL. adventus — ad, to, venio, to come.! 
►VENTITIOUS, ad-vent-ish'us, adj. acci- 
dental : foreign. — adv. Adventi'tiously. 

>VENTUAL,' ad-vent'a-al, adj. relating 
to Advent. 

ADVENTURE, ad-vent'ur, n. a risk o? 
chance : a remarkable incident : an en- 
terprise. — v.i. to attempt or dare. — v.t. 
to risk or hazard. [O. Fr.— L. adventii- 
rus, about to come or happen, fut.p. of 
advenio. See Advent.] 

ADVENTURER, ad-venf^ur-er, n. one who 
engages in hazardous enterprises.— /e7». 

ADVENTUROUS, ad vent'tir-us. Adven- 
turesome, ad-vent'ur-sum, adj. enter- 
prising, —adv. Advent'urously.— n. Ad. 

ADVERB, ad'verb, n. a word added to a 
verb, adjective, or other adverb to ex- 
press some modification of the meaning 
or an accompanying circumstance. [L. 
adverbium — ad, to, verbum, a word. R 
is so called, not because it is added to n 

verb, but because it is a word {vertnim} 
joined to, or supplemental of, othar 

ADVERBIAL, ad-verb'i-al, ach'. pertaining 
to an adverb. — adv. Adverbtially. 

ADVERBIALIZE, ad-verb'i-al-iz, v.t to 
give the form or force of an adverb to : 
to use as an adverb. 

ADVERSARY, ad'vers-ar-i, n. an oppo- 
nent : an enemy. — ^The Adversary, 
Satan. [L. adversarius. See Adverse.! 

ADVERSATIVE, ad-vers'a-tiv, adj. denot- 
ing opposition, contrariety, or variety. 
[See Adverse.] 

ADVERSE, ad'vers, adj. acting in a con- 
trary direction : opposed to : unfortu- 
nate. — adv. Ad' VERSELY.^-re. Ad'yersb^ 
NESS. [L. adversus — ad, to, and verto, 
versum, to turn.] 

ADVERSITY, ad-vers'i-ti, n. adverse cir. 
cumstances : afliiction : misfortune. 

ADVERT, ad-vert', v.i. (used with to) to 
turn the mind (to) : to regard or ob- 
serve. [L. ad, to, and verto, to turn.] 

ADVERTENCE, ad-vert'ens, ADVERT- 
ENCY, ad-vert'en-si, n. attention toi 
h eed fulness : regard. 

ADVERTISE, ad-vert-iz' or ad'-, v.t., to 
turn attention to : to inform : to give 
public notice of. [Fr., from L. See Ad- 


ADVERTISEMENT, ad-vert'iz-ment or a^ 
vert-Iz'ment, n. the act of advertising op 
making known : a public notice in » 
newspaper or periodical. 

ADVERTISER, ad-vert-Iz'er, n. one who 
advertises : a paper in whdch advertise- 
ments are published. 

ADVICE, ad-vTs', n. counsel : in pi. intelH- 
gence. [O. Fr. advis, Fr. avi»~-lj. ad 
visum, according to what is seen or 
seems best.] 

ADVISABLE, ad-viz'a-bl, adj. that maybe 
advised or recommended : prudent se*' 
pedient. — adv. Advts'ably. — ns. Advis- 
ability, Advis' ABLENEss. 

ADVISE, ad-viz*, v.t. to give advice or 
counsel to : to inform. — v.i. ( — with) to 
consult : pr.p. advising : pa.p. advised'. 
[O. Fr. adviser, from c^vw or avis. See 

ADVISE, ad-vize', v.L to consider : to take 
advice. (Obs.) 

ADVISED, ad-vizd', adj. deliberate : caiu 
. tious. — adv. Advis'edly. — n. Advised- 
NESS, ad-vlz'ed-nes, deliberate considera- 
tion : prudent procedure. 

ADVISEMENT, ad-viz'ment, n. same as 
advice (Old English). 

ADVISER, ad-viz'er, n. one who advises or 
gives advice. 

ADVOCACY, advo-ka-si, n. a pleading 
for : defence. [See Advocate.] 

ADVOCATE, ad'vo-kat, n. one who pleads 
the cause of another esp. in a court of 
law. — v.t. to plead in favor of. — n. 
Advoca'tion. [L. advocatus — advoco, 
-atum — ad, to, voco, to call : to call in 
another to help. 



ADVOWER, ad-vou'er, n. the owner of an 

advowson : a patron. [See Advowson.J 

ADVOWSON, ad-vow'zun, n. the right of 
patronage or presentation to a church 
benefice. [O. Fr. — Low L. advocatio, 
right of the patron — L. advocatus, a 

ADZ, ADZE, adz, n. a carpenter's tool con- 
sisting of a thin arched blade with its 
edge at pight angles to the handle. [A.S. 

^DILE, e'dil, n. See Edile. 

.ailXEOLOGY, e-de-ol'o-ji), n. that part of 
medical science which treats of the or- 
gans of generation : also, a treatise on 
or account of the organs of generation. 
[Or. aidoia, the privy parts, and logos, a 
discourse.] i 

iEGIS, e'jis, n. (orig.) a shield given by 
Jupiter to Minerva : anything that pro- 
tects. [L. — Gr, aigis.} 

in Huxley's classification of birds, drawn 
from their osseous structure, a suborder 
of Carinatae, having the bones of the 
palate disposed as m the sparrow and 
other passerine birds. [Gr. aigithos, a 
8j>arrow, and gnathos, the jaw.] 

iEGITHOGNATHOUS, e-gi-thog'narthus, 
adj. of or pertaining to the .^Egithogw 

^INEID, S'ne-id, w. an epic poem written 
by Virg^il, the hero of which is JEneaa, 
[L. JEneis, -idos.l 

iEDLIAN, e-o'li-an, adj. pertaining to or 
acted on by the wind, [^olus, the god 
of the windsj 

iEOLOTROPIC, S-ol-o-trop'ik, adj. applied 
to bodies unequally elastic in different 
directions : opposed to isotropic. Sir W, 
Thompson. j^Gr. aiolos, changeful, and 
trope, a turning.] 

iEON, 5'on, n. a period of time,an age or one 
of a series of ages, eternity. [Gr. aidnA 

AERATE, S'er-at, v.t. to put air into : to 
suppW with carbonic acid. [L. aer, air.] 

AERATION, ft-er-a'shun, n. exposure to 
the air. 

AJERIAli, 5-5r'i-al, adj. belonging to the 
air : inhabiting or existing in the air t 
elevated, lofty. 

AERIAL RAILWAY, a-e'-ri-al-, n. an over- 
head eableway: an elevated wire or rope 
over which a trolley may travel. 

AERIE, S'ri or e'ri, n. See Eyry. 

AERIFORM, fi'er-i-form, adj. having the 
form or nature of air or gas. [L. a<5r 
and forma.] 

AERO, a'er-o, n. used in combination with 
other words with the meaning of air. 
[Gr. See Aeroplane.] 

AERODROME, a'er-o-drom, n. an aeroplane, 
or flying machine made of many aero- 
planes. [See Aeroplane.] 

AEROKLINOSCOPE, 5-er-(J-klin'5-6k0p, «. 
an apparatus constructed to show the 
direction of the wind ia couuection with 

the barometric pressure* [Gr. aer, air, 
Mind, to bend or incline, and skope^O, I 

AEROLITE, a'er-o-Ht, n. a meteoric stone. 
[Gr. aer, air, lithos, a stone.] 

AEROMETER, a-er-om'e-ter, n. an instru- 
ment for measuring the density of air 
and gases. [Gr. aSr, and Meter.] 

AERONAUT, a'er-o-nawt, n. one who as- 
cends in a balloon. [Gr, aSr, air, nautes, 

AERONAUTICS, S-er-o-nawt'iks, n. the 
science or art of navigating the air in 

AEROPHONE, a'er-o-phone, n. a combined 
speaking and ear-trumpet invented by 

AEROPLANE, S'er-o-plan, n. machine for 
purposes of experiments in flying, which 
floats in the air only when imder propul- 
sion. [See Aebo and Plane.] 

.(EROSE, e'rCs, adj. having the nature of 
or resembling copper or brass : coppery. 
[L cerosus, containing brass or copper.] 

AEROSIDERITE, a-er-o-sid'er-it, n. an u-on 
meteorite. [Gr. aer, air, and sidferos, iron.] 

AEROSIDEROLITE, a-er-o-sid'er-o-lit, n. 
a meteor containing both stone and iron. 
[Gr. aer, air, sideros, iron, and lithos, a 

AEROSTATICS, 5-er-o-stat'iks, n. the 
science of the equilibrium of air or of 
elastic fluids ; the science of raising and 
! guiding balloons. fGr. aer, air, statikos, ' 
relating to equiUbnum. See Statics.] 

AEROSTATION, S-er-o-sta'shun, n. the art 
of raising and guiding balloons. 

.^STHEMATOLOGY, es-the-martol'o-ji, n. 
the doctrine of the senses, or the appa- 
ratus of the senses : that part of physio 
logical anatomy which treats of the 
senses. Dunglison. [Gr. aisthema, a per- 
ception, and logos, discourse.] 

.ffiSTHESIOLOGY, es-the-si-olVji, n. the 
doctrine or branch of knowledge con- • 
cerned with the sensations. Dunglison. 
[Gr. aisth,esis, perception, and logos, dis- 

^STHESODIC, es-the-sod'ik, adj. capable 
of conducting sensation : said of the gray 
matter of the spinal cord, which can con- 
vey sensory impressions to the sensorium 
though itself insensible. [Gr. aisthesis, 
sensation, and hodos, a path.] 

.^ESTHETE, es'thet, n. one devoted to 
the principles or doctrines of sssthetics : 
specifically applied in a semi-contemptu- 
ous way to one who carries the cultiva- 
tion of the sense of the beautiful to a 
ridiculous extent. 

.ESTHETIC, es-thetlk, ^STHEnCAL, 5s- 
thet'ik-al, adj. pertaining to aesthetics. — 
adv. .(Esthet'icallt. 

.ESTHETICS, es-thet'iks, n. the feeUng of 
beauty in ob-jects, the science of taste : 
the philosophy of the fine arts. JGr. 
aistMtihos, perceptive — aisthanomat, to 
feel or perceive.] 



AFABf a-faK, adv., at afar distance. [Pfx. 
a, and Fab.] 

AFFABLE, affa-bl, adj. condescending': 
easy to speak to. — adv. Af'pably. — na. 
AFFABIL'rrY, Ap'fableness. [Fr. — ^L. 
affabilis — affari, to speak to — ad, to, and 
fori, to speak.] 

AFFAIR, af-far', n., that which ts to be 
done : business : an engagement or bat- 
tle of minor importance :—pl. transac> 
tions in general : public concerns. [Fr. 
affaire, O. Fr. afaire — d and faire — ^L. 
ad, and /acer , to do. Cf. E. Ado.] 

AFFECT, af-fekt', v.t., to act upon: to 
produce a change upon : to move the 
feelings. [L. afflcio, affectum — ad, to, 
faci o, to do.] 

AFFECT, af-fekt', v.t. to strive after : to 
make a show or pretence of : to love : 
(B.) to pay court to. — v.i. to be inclined 
to : to prefer. (Obs.) [L. affecto, freq. 
of affl cio. See Affect above] 

AFFECTATION af-fekt-a'shun, n. a striv- 
ing after or an attempt to assume what 
is not na tural or real : pretence. 

AFFECTED, af-fekt'ed, ac^\ touched with 
a feeling (either for or against) : full of 
affectation : feigned. — adv> Appect'EDLY. 
—n, Affmui'^edness. 

AFFECTING, af-fekt'ing, ac^'. having 
power to move the passions : pathetic— 
adv. Affect'ingly. 

AFFECTION, af-fek'shun, to. kindness or 
love : attachment : an attribue or prop* 
' erty. [ L. See Afitect.] 

AFFECTIONATE, af-fek'shun-at, adj. full 
of affection : loving. — adv. AFFEC'Tloif- 


AFFECnONED, af-fek'shimd, adj. (S.) 
disp osed. 

AFFERENT, af'fer-ent, a^f. (anat.) brings 
ing to, applied to the nerves that convey 
sensations to the nerve centres. [L. of- 
f^f n^ — ad, to, and /ero, to carry.] 

AFFIANCE, af-fl'ans, n,, faith pledged toi 
marriage contract : trust. — v.t, to pledge 
faith : to betroth. [O. Fr. affiance. It. 
affidanza, confidence — ^L. ad, to, Jides, 

AFFIDAVIT, af-fl-da'vit, n. a written dec- 
laration on oath, \liow L. affidavit, 3d 
pers. sing. perf. of u '*ido, to pledge one's 
faith .] 

AFFILIATE, af-fil'i-at, v.t. to receive into 
a family as a son, or into a society as a 
mem ber. [L. ad, to, filius, a son.] 

AFFILIATION, af-fil-i-S'shun, n. act of 
receiving into a family or society as a 
member: (law) the assignment of an 
illegitimate child to its father. 

AFFINE, af-fin', a. akin: related by mar- 
riage. — n. a kinsman: a relationship es- 
tablished by marriage. 

AFFINITION, af-fi-ni'shon, to. the state or 
quality of being affined : mental affinity 
or at traction. (Rare.) 

AFFINITY, af-fln'i-ti, to. nearness of kin, 
agreement, or resemblance : relationship 

by marriage, opposed to consanguinity or 
relationship by blood : (chem.) the pecul- 
iar attraction between the atoms of two 
simple substances that makes them com- 
bine to form a compound. [L. affinitas 
— affmis, neighboring — ad, at, JiniSf 
boun dary.] 

AFFIRM, af-ferm', v.t. to assert eonfldenfc. 
ly or positively. [L. affirmo — ad,Jirmu8, 
firm. See Firm.] 

AFFIRMABLE, af-ferm'a-bl, adj. that may 
be affirmed. — n. Affirm' ANT. 

AFFIR]\IATION, af-fer-ma'shun, n. act of 
asserting : that which is affirmed : a sol- 
emn declaration. 

AFFIRMATIVE, af-ferm'at-iv, adj. or n. 
that affirms or asserts. — adv. Afftrm*'- 


AFFIX, af-fiks', v.t., to fix to : to add : to 
attach. [L. affigo, -Jixum — ad, to, figo, 

to fix. See Fex.] 
AFFIX, af fiks, n. a syllable or letter put to 

the end of a word, called also Postfix, 

Suf fix. 
AFFLATUS, af-fla'tus, to. inspiration. [See 

AFFLICT, af-flikt', v.t. to give continued 

gain, distress, or grief.— ^a.j>. afflictedj, 
eaten down. (Obs.) [L. ad, to, fligo, to 

dash — to the ground.] 
AFFLICTION, af-flik'shun, to. distress at 

its c ause. 
AFFLICTIVE, af-flikt'iv, adj. causing dJs- 

AFFLUENCE, afflOO-ens, to. abundance j 

wea lth. 
AFFLUENT, af'fl55-ent, adj. abounding: 

wealthy. — to. a stream flowing into a 

river or lake. [L. affluo — ad, to, flu^, to 

AFFORD, af-ford', v.t. to yield or produce: 

to be able to sell or to expend. [M. E. 

aforthen, from A.S. geforthian or for- 

thia n, to further or cause to come forth.] 
AFFRAY, £if-fra', to. a fight causing alarm : 

a brawl. [Fr. effrayer, to frighten ; Oc 

Fr. esfreer, to freeze with terror — Low Lx 

exfr igidare, to chill. See Frigid.] 
AFFRIGHT, af-frit', v.t., to frightm.-=' 

n. sudden fear. [A.S. afyrhtan. Se« 

AFFRONT, af-frunt', v.t. to meet front to 

front : to insult openly, -to. contemptu- 
ous treatment. [Fr. affronter — L. ad, 

to, f ront-, the forehead.] 
AFFUSION, af-f u'zhun, to. the act of pour- 

ing upon or sprinkling. [L. aa, to, 

fundo, fusum, to pour.] 
AFIELD, a-feld', adv. to, in, or on the 

AFLOAT, a-flot', adv. or adj. floating : at 

sea : unfixed. 
AFLOW, Brflo', adj. or adv. in a loose, 

waving state : flowing. " With grray 

hair ajlow." — Whittier. (Rare.) 
AFOOT, a-foot', adv., on foot. 
AFORE, a-f5r', prep, {obs.) before. 
AFOREHAND, a-fOr'hand, adv. before the 

regular time of accomplishment . 



AFORESAID, a-fOr'sed, adj., said or 
named before. 

AFORETIME, a-fCr'tim, adv., in former or 
past times. 

AFRAID, a-frad', adj. struck with fear: 
timid. [From root of Affray.] 

AFRESH, a-fresh', adv. anew, [a, on, and 

AFRICANDER, afrik-an-der, n. a native 
of Cape Colony or the neighboring re- 
gions born of white parents. 

AFRICANIZE, afrik-an-ize, v.t. to place 
under the control of African negroes. 

AFT, aft, adj. or adv. behind : near or tow- 
ards the stern of a vessel. [A.S. ceft, 
whic h is short for cefter.] 

AFTER, aft'er, adj. behind in place : later 
in time : more toward the stern of a ves- 
sel. — prep, behind, in place : later, in 
time : following, in search of : in imita- 
tion of : in proportion to : concerning. — 
adv. subsequently : afterward. [A.S. 
cefter, comp. of af, or of, the primary 
meaning being more off, further away ; 
-ter as a comparative affix is seen in JL 
al-ter, E. o-ther. See Of.] 

AFTERACT, aft'er-akt, n. an act after or 
subseque nt to another. 

AFTERBIRTH, aft'er-berth, n. the pla- 
centa and membranes which are expelled 
from the womb after the birth. 

AFTERCLAP, aft'er-klap, n. an additional 
and generally unjust demand, beyond 
the bargain originally made. (Amer.) 

AFTERCROP, aft'er-krop, n., a crop com- 
ing after the first in the same year. 

AFTER-DINNER, aft'er-din-er, adj. hap- 
pening ^ or done after dinner ; as, an 
after-dinner speech : sometimes used 
substantively " An after-dinner's nap." 

In after^inner talk 
Across the walnuts and the wine. — Tennyson. 

AFTERMATH, aft'er-math, n. a second 
crop of grass. [See Mow, Meadow.] 

AFTERMOST, aft^er-most, adj. hindmost. 
rA.S.. ceftemest ; Qoth. af-tuma, -tuma, 
being equiv. to L. -tumus in c^tumus, 
best. Goth, has also af-tum-^ists=K.^ 
cef-tem-est, which is thus a double super- 
lative. In aftermost, r is intrusive and 
-mosf is not the adv. nujst.] 

APTERNIGHT, aft'er-nit, adv, in the 
even ing. (Amer.) 

AFTERNOON, aft'er-nOOn, n. the time be- 
tween noon and evening. 

AFTERPIECE, aft'er-pes, n. a faroe or 
other minor piece performed aj^er a 
play . 

AFTER-SHAFT, aft'er-shaft, n. in ornith. 
a supplementary or accessory shaft fur- 
nished with barbs or fibres, given off at 
the point of junction of the shaft and 
quill of most feathers except those of the 
wings and tail. 

AFTERWARD, aft'er-ward, Afterwards, 
aft'er-wardz, adv. in after-time : later : 

subsequently. [A.S. «Bfter, and weard, 
towards, in direction of.] 

AGA, a'ga, n. a Turkish commander or 
chief officer. [Turk, agha, Pers. ok, 
aka, a lord.] 

AGAIN, a^en', adv. once more: in re- 
turn : back. [A.S. on-gean, again, oppo- 
site ; Ger. ent-gegen.] Also pronounced 
a-gan', at least in poetry, as evidenced 
by following passages. 

When she was eased of her pain. 

Came the good lord Athelstane, 

When her ladyship married again.^Uiackeray. 
O that 'twere possible 
After long grief and pain 
To find the arms of my true lore 
Bound me once again I — Tennyson. 

AGAINST, a-genst', prep, opposite to: 
in opposition to : in provision for. 
[Formed from again, as whilst from 

AGAPE, a-gap', ac^. or adv. gaping from 
wonder, expectation, or attention. [Lit. 
" on gape," from prefix a (for A.S. on^ 
on), and Gape.] 

AGATE, ag'at, n. a precious stone com- 
posed of layers of quartz, of different 
tints. [Gr. achates, said to be so called be- 
^ cause first found near the river Achates 
* in Sicily.] 

AGE, aj, n. the ordinary length of human 
life : the time during which a person 
or thing has lived or existed : mature 
years : legal maturity (at 21 years) : a 
period of time : a generation of men : a 
century. — v.i. to grow old : — pr.p. Sg'ing; 
pa.p. aged. [Fr. dge, O. Fr. edage — ^L. 
CBta»=old L. cenitas — ^L. oevum, age ; 
cog. with E. Ever.] 

AGED, aj'ed, adj. advanced in age : hav- 
ing a certain age. — old people. 

AGEING, aj'ing, to. in calico-printing, a 
process during which the color pre- 
viously deposited on the outside of the 
fibre gradually penetrates it and becomes 
more firmly attached. 

AGENCY, aj'ens-i, n. the office or business : 
operation, or action of an agent. 

AGENDA, aj-end'a, n., things to be done : 
a memorandum-book: a ritual. [L. 
agendus, fut. p. pass, of ago, to do.] 

AGENT, aj'ent, n. a person or thing that 
acts or exerts power : one intrusted with 
the business of another. [L. ago, to do. 
See Act 1 

AGGLOMERATE, ag-glom'er-at, v.t. to 
make into a ball : to collect into a mass. 
—v.i. to grow into a mass. [L. glomus, 
glomeris, a ball. See Clew, Globe.] 

AGGLOMERATION, ag-glom-er-a'shun, w. 
a growing or heaping together : a mass. 

AGGLUTINATE, ag-gl55t'in-St, v.t. to 
cause to adhere by glue or cement. [L. 
agglutino — ad, to, gluten, glue. See 

AGGLUTINATION, ag^gl66t-in-a'shun, n. 
the act of uniting, as by glue : adhesion 
of parts. 

AGGLUTINATIVE, a^-gl6ot'in-at-iv, o^/. 



tending' to or having power to cause ad- 
AGGRADE, ag-grad', v.f. to secure a more 
uniform slope or grade of the earth's 
surface by adding material. Hence, Ag- 


AGRAMMATISM, a-gram'-ma-tiz'm, rt. 
(med.) a disease in which the power to 
form grammatical sentences is lost. 

AGGRANDIZE, ag'grand-iz, v.t, to mdhe 
great or larger : to make greater in 
power, rank, or honor. [Fr., from L. ad, 
to, and grandis, large.] 

AGGRANDIZEMENT, ag-grand-Iz'naent, n. 
act of aggrandizing : state of being ag^ 

AGGRAVATE, ag'grav-at, v.t. to make 
worse : to provoke. [L. ad, to, gravis, 
heavy. See Grave.] 

AGGRAVATION, ag-grav-a'shun, n. a 
making worse : any quality or circum- 
stance which makes a thing worse. 

AGGREGATE, ag'greg-at, v.t. to collect 
into a mass : to accumulate. [L. aggrego, 
-atum, to bring together, as a flock— ad, 
to, grex, gregis, a flock.] 

AGGREGATE, aig'greg-at, ac^'. formed of 
parts taken together. — n. the sum total, 
— adv. Ag'oregately. 

AGGREGATION, ag-greg-a'shun, n. act of 
aggregating : state of being collected to- 
gether : an aggregate. 

AGGRESSION, ag-gresh'un, n. first act of 
hostility or injury. [L. aggredior, -gressua 
— ad, to, grad ior, to step.] 

AGGRESSIVE, ag-gres'iv, adj. making the 
first attack. — n. Aggress'iveness. 

AGGRESSOR, ag-gres'ur, n. one who at- 
tacks first . 

AGGRIEVE, ag-grev', v.t. to press JieavUy 
upon : to pain or injure. [O. Fr. agrever, 
Sp. agraviar — L. ad, to, and gravis, 
heavy. See Grief, Grieve.] 

AGHAST, a-gast', adj. stupefied with hor- 
ror. [Properly agast ; M. E. agasten, to 
terrify ; A.S. intens. pfx. a, and gcestan, 
to terrify. The primary notion of the 
root gees- (Goth, gais-) is to fix, stick; 
to root to the spot with terror. See 

AGILE, aj'il, ach'., active: nimble. [L. 
agilis — ago, to do or act.] 

AGILITY, aj-il'i-ti, n. quickness of motion: 

AGIO, a'ji-o, n. the difiference in value b»' 
tween metallic and paper money: dis- 
count. [It. aggio, agio, rate of exchange, 
same as agio, ease, convenience.] 

AGITATE, aj'i-tat, v.t. to keep moving: to 
stir violently: to discuss. [L. agito, 
freq. of a^o, to put in motion. See 

AGITATION, aj-i-ta'shim, n. commotion: 

Serturbation of mind : discussion. 
ITATOR, aj'i-tat'ur, n. 1, one who ex- 
cites public commotion : 2, a name given 
to certain oflBcers in the time of Crom- 
well appointed by the army to manage 

their concerns. There were two from 
each regiment. [In this sense the proper 
spelling is probably Adjutator, meaning 
not one who agitates but one who 
assists.] " They proceeded from those 
elective tribunes called aviators, who 
had been established in every regiment 
to superintend the interests of tb-s army." 
— Hallam. 

AGLOW, a-gl6', adj. very warm : red-hot. 
[See Glow.] 

AGMATOLOGY, ag-ma-tol'o-ji, n. In suiy, 
that department of the science which 
treats of fractures ; also, a treatise on 
fractures. [Gr. agma, agmatos, a frac- 
ture, and logos, a discourse.] 

ag'min-at-ed, adj. crowded : closely 
packed : specifically appUed in anat. to 
certain glands or foUicles in the small 
intestine. Called also Beyer's Glands. 

iL. agmen, agminis, a crowd, a "band.] 
rNATE, ag'nat, adj. related on the 
father's side : allied. — n. a relation by 
the father's side. [L. — ad, to, nascor, to 
be born. See Cognate.] 

AGNOSTIC, ag-nos'tik, n. one who holds 
that we know nothing of the super- 
natural. — n. Agnos'ticism. [a, priva- 
tive, and Gr. gnostikos, good at knowing. 
See Gnostic] 

AGO, a-go', AGrONE, a-gon', adv., gone: 
past : since. [Pa. p. of A.S. agan, to pasp 
away — inten. pfx. a, and gan, to go.T 

AGOG, a-gog', adj. or adv. eager. (Ety. 

AGOING, a-go'ing, adv., going on: current. 

AGONIZE, ag'o-niz, v.t. to struggle, suffer 

AGONIZING, ag'o-niz-ing, adj. causing 
agony. — adv. Ag'onxzingly. 

AGONY, ag'o-ni, n. a violent struggle j 
extr eme s uffering. [Gr. — agon, contest.] 

AGRAFFE, AGRAFF, a-graf , n. a sor| 
of clasp or hook. " An agraffe set with 
brilliants."— 5ftr W. Scott. [Fr. agrafe, 
a hook, a clasp. See Aghjrappes.] 

Braided tresses, and cheeks of bloom, 

Diamond agraff and foam-white plume. — LaTidor. 

AGRAPHIA, argraf'i-a, n. in pathol. afonn 
of aphasia, in which the patient is unabl^ 
to express ideas by written signs. [Gr. a, 
priv., and grapho, to describe, to write. 
See Aphasia.] 

AGRARIAN, ag-ra'ri-an, adj. relating to 
land : applied especially to Roman laws 
for the equal distribution of the public 
lands. [L. agrarius — ager, a field. See 

AGRARIANISM, ag-ra'ri-an-izm, n. an 
equal division of lands. 

AGREE, a-gre', v.i. to be of one mind : to 
concur : (fol. by to) to sissent to : (fol. by 
vnth) to resemble, to suit i—pa.p. agreed . 
[Fr. agreer, to accept kindly — L. ad, to, 
and grains, pleasing.] 

AGREEABLE, a-gre'a-bl, adj. suitable: 
pleasant. — adv. Agree' ably. 

AGREEABLENESS, a-gre'a-bl-nes, n. suit- 



ableness : conformity : quality of pleas- 

A.GREEMENT, a-gre ment, n. concord: 
conformity : a bargain or contract. 

AGRICULTURAL, ag-ri-kult'ur-al, adj. 
relating to agriculture. 

AGRICULTURE, ag;'ri-kult-ur, n. the art 
or practice of cultivating the land. [L. 
agricultura — ager, a field, cultura, culti- 
vation. See Culture.] 

AGRICULTURIST, ag-ri-kult'ur-ist, n. one 
skilled in agriculture. 

AGRIN, a-grin', adj. or adv. in the act or 
state of grinning : on the grin. " His 
visage all agrin.'^— Tennyson. 

AGRIOLOGIST, ag-ri-ol'o-jist, n. one who 
makes a comparative study of human 
customs, especially of the customs of man 
in a rude or uncivilized state. Max Mai- 
ler. [Gr. agrios, pertaining to a wild state, 
and logos, a discourse.] 

AGRIOLOGY, ag-ri-ol'o-ji, n. the com- 

Earative study of the customs of man in 
is natural state. 

AGRONOMIAL, ag-ro-no'mi-al, adj. same 
as Agronomic. Lord Lytton. 

AGROPE, a-grop', adv. gropingly. E. B. 

AGROUND, a-grownd', adv. stranded. 
[Prefix a, on, and Ground.] 

AGRYPNOTIC, ag-rip-not'ik, n. in med. 
something which tends to drive away 
sleep. [Gr. agrypnos, sleepless.] 

AGUE, a'gu, n. a fever coming in period- 
ical fits, accompanied with shivering : 
chilliness. [Fr. aigu, sharp — ^L. acutus. 
See Acute.] 

AGUISH, a'gu-ish, cw^'. having the quaU- 
ties of an ague : chUiy : shivering. 

AH, a, int. an exclamation of surprise, 
joy, pity, complaint, etc. [Fr. — L. ; Grer. 

AHA, a-ha', int. an exclamation of exidta- 
tion, pleasure, surprise, or contempt. 

AHEAD, a-hed', aav. further on : in ad- 
vance : headlong. [Prefix a, on, and 

AHOY, a-hoi', int. a nautical term used in 
hailing. [Form of int. HoY.] 

AHULL, a-hul', adv. (naut.) with sails 
furled, and helm lashed, driving before 
the wind, stern foremost, [a, on ( — ^A.S. 
on, and Hull.] 

AID, ad, v.t. to help, assist. — n. help : as- 
sistance : an auxiliary : subsidy. — adj. 
Atd'less. [Fr. aider — L. adjutare — ad, 
and juvo, jutum, to help.] 

AIDE-DE-CAMP, ad'-de-kong, n. a miU- 
tary oflBcer who assists the general : — 
pi. Aides-de-camp. [Fr., assistant of the 

AIDER, ad'er, n. one who brings aid: a 

ATGUI^RE, a-gyar*, n. a slender, tall 
pitcher of a decorative character. [Fr. 
See EwEB.] 

■ATT. , al, v.t. to give pain : to trouble. — v.i. 
to feel pain : to be in trouble. — n. trouble : 

[A.3. e^an, to pain. See 
indisposition : 


AILMENT, al'ment, n. pain 

AIM, am, v.i. (with at) to point at with a 
weapon : to direct the intention or en- 
deavor. — v.t. to point, as a weapon or 
firearm. — n. the pointing of a weapon : 
the thing pointed at : design : intention. 
[O. Fr. esmer, to reckon — L. cestimare, to 
estimate. See Estimate.] 

AIMLESS, am'les, adj. without aim. 

AINO, I'no, n. one of a tribe found in the 
interior of Yesso, in the south of Sakhalin 
and the Kurile Islands, supposed to be 
the remains of the aboriginal population. 
They are remarkable for their hirsute- 
ness, in inany cases the bodies, and still 
more frequently the legs and arms, being 
covered with short, bristly hair. The 
word is also used adjectively. 

AIR, ar, n. the fluid we breathe : the at- 
mosphere : a hght breeze : a tune : the 
bearing of a person : — pi. affectation. — 
v.t. to expose to the air : to dry : to ex- 
pose to warm air. [Fr. — L. aer — Gr.] 

Afo-BED, ar'-bed, n. a bed for the sick, in- 
flated with air. — Air-cell, ar'-sel, n. a 
cavity containing air. — ^AiR-cuSHlON, ar'- 
koosh'un, n. an air-tight cushion, which 
can be inflated. — Air-engine, ar'-en'jin, 
n. an engine put in motion by air ex- 
panded by heat. — ^Air-gun, ar'-gun, n. a 
g^un which discharges bullets by means 
of compressed air. — Airiness, ar'i-nes, 
n. state of being airy : openness : liveU- 
ness. — ^Airing, ar'ing, n. exposure to the 
air or fire : a short excursion in the open 
air. — ^Air-jacket, ar'-jak'et, n. a jatncet 
with air-tight cavities, which being in- 
flated renders a person buoyant in water. 
— ^Airless, ar'les, adj. void of air : not 
having free communication with the 
open air. — ^Air-pump, ar'-pump, n. an in- 
strument for pumping the air out of a 
vessel. — ^Air-tight, ar-tit, adj. so tight 
as not to admit air. — ^Air-vessel, ar'- 
ves'el, n. a vessel or tube containing air. 

AIRWARDS, ar'werds, adv. up in the air : 
upwards. "Soar airwaras again." — 

A TR Y, ar'i, adj. consisting of or relating to 
air : open to the air : like air : unsub- 
stantial : light of heart : sprightly. — adv. 

AISLE, II, n. the wing or side of a church : 
the side passages in a church. [Fr. aile, 
O. Fr. aisle — ^L. axilla, ala, a wing.] 

AISLED, lid, adj. having aisles. 

AJAR, a-jar', adv. partly open. [Lit. "on 
the turn," A.S. on, on, cyrr, a turn. See 
Char, work.] 

AKE, old English spelling of ache. 

AKIMBO, a-kim'bo, adv. with hand on hip 
and elbow bent outward. [Pfx. a, Celt. 
cam, crooked, with superfluous E. Bow.] 

AKIN, a-kin', adj., of kin: related by 
blood : having the same properties. [Of 
and Km.] 



AKKAD, AKKADIAN. See Accad, Ac- 


ALABASTER, al'a-bas-ter, n. a semi-trans- 
parent kind of gypsum or sulphate of 
lime: the fine limestone deposited as 
stalagmites and stalactites. — adj. made 
of alabaster. [Gr. alabcuiros, said to be 
derived from Alabastron, a town in 
ALACK, a-lak', int. an exclamation de- 
noting sorrow. [Prob. from M. E. lak, 
loss. See La<3K-] 
ALACK-A-DAY, a-lak'-a-da, int. an excla> 
mation of sadness. [For, " ah 1 a loss to- 
ALACRITY, a-lak'ri-ti, n. briskneas : cheer^ 
ful readiness : promptitude. [L. alaeriSf 
ALAMODE, a-la-mod', adv., according te 

the mode or fashion. j[ Fr. d la mode.] 
ALARM, a^larm', n. notice of danger : sud- 
den surprise with fear: a mechanical 
contrivance to arouse from sleep. — v.t. to 
call to arms : to give notice of dang^- : 
to fill with dread. FFr. alarme — It. off 
arme, to arms — L. act, to, arma, arms,] 
ALARMIST, a-larm'ist, n. one who excites 
alarm : one given to prophesjnug dan- 
ger. — adj. Alakm'ist, alarming. — adv. 
ALARUM, a-lar'um, n. and v.t. Same as 

ALAS, a-las', int. expressive of grief. [Ft, 

helas — L. lassus, wearied.] 
ALB, alb, n. a tohite linen vestment reach- 
ing to the feet, worn by priests. [L. 
awus, white.] 
ALBANY-BEEF, awlb-ny-bef , n. the stur- 
geon, a fish which ascends the Hudson 
river as far as Albany, and a part of whose 
flesh resembles beef. (Amer.) 
ALBATROSS, al'ba-tros, n. a large, long- 
winged, web-footed sea-bird, in the South- 
em Ocean. [Corr. from Span. cUcatraz, 
a white pelican.] 

ALBATROSS-CLOTH, al-ba-tros' kloth, n. 
a woollen fabric for women's gowns, very 
fine and smooth-woven. 

ALBEIT, awl-be'it, adv. although: not- 
withstanding. [Be it all.] 

ALBESCENCE, al-bes'ens, n, the act or 
state of growing white or whitish. [L. 
aJbesco, to grow white, from aUms, white.! 

ALBINO, al-bi'no, n. a person or fjnimaj 
whose skin and hair are unnaturally 
white, and pupil of the eye red i—pl. 
Albinos. [It. albino, whitish— L. aJbus, 
white.] . 

lALBRIGHT, ar-brit. n. one beloTis^n? to 
the Evan^lieal Association founded by 
Jacob Albright. 

MiBRONZE, al-bronz, n. aluminum bronze. 
[Prom ArtrMiKDM and Bbowze.] 

ALBIIM, al'bum, n. among the Romans, a 
tchite tablet or register : a book for the 
insertion of portraits, autographs, etc 
Jit. oRms. white.] 

ALBTJMENr, al-bu'men, n., the white of 
eggs : a like substance found in animal 
and vegetable bodies. [L. — aHwts, white.]' 

ALBUMINIFORM, al-bu-min'i-form, adj. 
formed like or resembling albumen. 

ALBUmNIMETER, al-bu-mi-nim'e-ter, n. 
an instrument for measuring the quan- 
tity of albumen contained in any sub- 

ALBUMINOID, al-bu'min-oid, adj. like al- 
bumen. [Albumen and Gr. eidos, form.) 

ALBUMINOUS, al-bu'min-us, a(^: like or 
containing albumen. 

ALBURNUM, al-burn'um, n. in trees, the 
white and soft parts of wood between the 
inner bark and the heart-wood. [L. — 
albus, white.] 

ALCALDE, al-kal'da, n., a judge, [Sp. — 
Ar. al'kadi — kadaj, to judge.] 

ALCHEMIST, al'kem-ist, n. one skilled in 

ALCHEMY, ALCHYMY, al'ki-mi, n. thft 
infant staige of chemistry, as astrology 
was of astronomy. A chief pursuit of 
the alchemists was to transmute tha 
other metals into gold, and to discover 
the elixir of Ufe. Also, in old authors, a 
mixed metal formerly used for various 
utensils, hence a ./Runpet. Milton. [Ar. 
al=the; Gr. c^teo, to pour, to melt, to 
mix : hence chymeia or c/iemeia, a mix- 
ing, and chymic or chemie, applied to the 
processes of the laboratory. SSee Chem- 

ALCOHOL, al'kO-hol, ti. pure spirit, a liquid 
generated by the fermentation of sugar 
and other saccharine matter, and form- 
ing the intoxicating element of ferment- 
ed liquors. [Ar. cu-kohl—al, the, qoM, 
fine powder.] 

ALCOHOLIC, ai-ko-hol'ik, adj. of or like 

ALCOHOLIZE, al'k6-hol-iz, v.t. to oonvot 
into alcohol : to rectify. 

ALCOHOLOMETER, al-ko-hol-om'e-ter, n. 
an instrument for ascertaining th9 
strength of spirits. [Alcohol and M£TER.| 

ALCOI^lN, £U'ko-ran, n. Koram with the 
Arabic article prefixed. 

ALCOVE, al'kSv or aJ-kov', n. a recess in a 
room : any recess : a shady retreat. [It. 
cUcova ; Sp. aXcoba, a place in a room 
railed off to hold a bed — Ar. al-gobah, a 

ALDER, awl'der, n. a tree usually growing 
in moist ground. [A.S. alor ; Gter. eller, 
L. alnus.\ 

ALDERilAN, awl'der-man, n. now a civic 
dignitary next in rank to the mayor.— 
adj. ALDERMAJT'ia [A. S. ealdor (from 
eald, old), senior, chief : ealdor-man, 
ruler, king, chief magistrate.] 

ALDERN, awl'dem, cwy. made of alder. 

ALDINE, ai'din, adj. applied to books 
printed by Aldus Manutius of Venice, in 
16th c. 

ALE, al, n. a strong drink made from malt: 
a festival, so called from the liquor 
drunk. — ^Alb-bebkt. a beverage made 



from aJe. — ^Aijs-house, a house in which 
ale is sold. [A.S. ecUu; Ice. 61; Gael. oZ, 

ALEE, a-Ie', adv., on the fee-side. [See 

ALEMBIC, al-era'bik, n. a vessel used by 
the old chemists in distillation. [Ar. €U, 
the, anbiq — Gr. ambiks, a cup.] 

AIJSBT, al-ert', adj. watchful: brisk.— 
Upon the alert, upon the watch. — n, 
Alert'ness. [It. alt erta, on the erect — 
erto, L. erectuSf erect.] 

ALERTA, a-lar-ta, n. the watchword of the 
ffuard, or the call by which sentinels in- 
dicate that they are at their posts. [Sp. 
of It. origin. See Aleet.] 

ALETHOSCOPE.a-le'tho-skOp.n. an optical 
instrument by means of which pictures 
are made to present a more natural and 
life-like appearance. [Gr. aWMs, true, 
and skopeo, to view.] 

ALE-WIFE, al'wTf, n. a fish of the samo 
genus as the shad, about a foot in length, 
common on the east coast of the United 
States. (Amer.) 

ALEXANDRIAN, al-e^z-an'dri-an, <w^., 
relating to Alexandria in Egypt : relat- 
ing to Alexander. 

ALEXANDRINE, al-egz-an'drin, n. a rhvm- 
ing verse of twelve syllables, so csdled 
from its use in an old French poem on 
Alexander the Great. 

ALEXIPYRETIC, a-lek-si-pT-ret'ik, a^j. in 
med. same as Febrifuge. [Gr. alea^, to 
wa^d off, and pyretos, a fever.] 

ALFALFA, al-fal'fa, n. a name given to a 
valuable pasture and forage plant ; the 
lucerne (Medicago sativa). [Sp.] 

ALGjE, al'je, n. (pot.) a division of plants, 
embracing sea-weeds. [L., pi. or algot 

ALGEBRA, aJ'je-bra, n. the science of cal- 
culating by symbols, thus forming a 
kind of universal arithmetic. [Sp. from 
Ar. al-jabr, the resetting of anything 
broken, hence combination.] 

ALGFiBRAlC, -AL, al-je-braTik, -al, adlj, 
pertaining to algebra. — ^ALQ&BRa'IST, n, 
one skiUed in algebra. 

ALGOID, al'goid, ac^'. resembling the algaa 
or aquatic plants. FL. alga, a sea-weed, 
and Gr. eidos, reseraolance.] 

ALGONKIN, ALGONQUIN, al-gon'kin, n. 
a family of North American Indians, 
which contained many tribes, and form* 
^ occupied the valley of the Mississippi 
and all the country eastward : a memb^ 
of this family, 

ALGUM, al'gum. Same as AlMUa. 

ALIAS, ali-as, adv. otherwise. — n. an as* 
eumed name. [L. alias, at another time, 
otherwise — alius, Gr. alios, other.] 

ALIBI, al'i-bT, n. the plea that a person 
charged with a crime was in another 
place when it was committed. [L. — 
^jHug. other, ^, ttjere>1 

ALIEN, ftl'yen, adj. foreign : different in 

nature : adverse to. — n. one belonging 
to another country : one not entitled to 
the rights of citizenship. [L. alienus 
— alius, other.] 

ALIENABLE, aryen-a-bl, adj. capable of 
being transferred to another. — n. Alien- 

ALIENAGE, al'yen-aj, n. state of being an 

ALIENATE, al'yen-at, v.t. to transfer a 
right or title to another: to withdraw 
the affections: to misapply. — adj. with- 
drawn r estranged. — n. Aiiena'tion, [L. 
See Alien.] 

ALIGHT, a-llt', v.i. to come down (as from 
a horse) : to descend ; to fall upon. [A.S. 
alihtan, to come down. See Light, r.i.] 

ALIGHT, a-lit', ac^J. on Are: lighted up. 
[a, on, and Light. See Light, n.l 

ALIGN, a-lln', v.t. to regulate by a fine : to 
arrange in line, as troops. (Tr. aligner 
— L. ad, and linea, a Une.] 

ALIGNMENT, a-lln'ment, n. a laying out 
by a line : the ground-plan of a railway 
or road. 

ALIKE, a-lik*, adj. like one another : hav- 
ing resemblance. — adv. in the same man- 
ner or form ; similarly. [A.S. onlic. See 

ALIMENT, al'i-ment, n., nourishment: food. 
[L. alimentum — ato, to nourish.] 

ALIMENT A L, al-i-ment'al, adj. supplying 

ALIMENTARY, al-i-ment'ar-i, adj. pertain- 
ing to aUment : nutritive. — n. AiiMTNTA- 
TION, al-i-men-ta'shun, the act or state of 
nourishing or of being nourished. — n. 
{phren.) AxmENTTVENESS, al-i-ment'iv- 
nes, desire for food or drink. 

ALIMONY, al'i-mun-i, n. an allowance for 
support made to a wife when legally sep- 
arated from her husband. 

ALIQUOT, al'i-kwot, adj. such a part of a 
number as will divide it without a re- 
mainder. [L. aliquot, some, several — 
alius, other, gitof, how many.] 

ALIVE, a-liv', adj, in life: susceptible. 
[A.S. on lifcl 

ALBLALI, al'ka-li or -II, n. (chem.) a sub- 
stance which combines with an acid and 
neutralizes it, forming a salt. Potash, 
soda, and lime are alkalies ; they have 
ail acrid taste (that of soap), and turn 
vegetable blues to green. See AciD: — 
vl. Alkalies. [Ar. al-kali, ashes.] 

ALKALIMETER, al-ka-Um'e-ter, n. an in- 
strument for measuring the strength of 

ALKALINE, al'ka-Un or -lin, adj. having 
the properties of an alkali. — n. Alkaldt- 

ALKALOID, allca-loid, ru a v^etable prin- 
ciple possessing in some degree alkaline 
properties. — cm^'. pertaining to or resem- 
ohng alkali. [Alkau and Or. eidoa, form 
or resemblance.] 

ALKORAN, n. same as Alcoran. 

ALL, awl, adj. the whole of : every one of. 
— adv. wholly : completely : entirely. — n. 



<(3m wholet everyitoDg* — ^Aix IN aix, 

evieryttuDg desired. — At.T.'^ one, it is 

ffmtt the same. — At all, m the least de- 
gree or to the least extent. [A.S. eat, 

Qer, <Ul, Gael, uile, W. oil] 
AfUlH, alia, n. the Arakne name «f the 

one God. FAr. al-il6ht "the wortl^y to 

tie adored.*! 
ALLAY, al-la', v.t. to lighten, relieve : to 

make qniet. fO. Pr. aleger—U alletnare 

—ud, and lev», Mgfet, confused with A.S. 

e-tecoom, to h^ down.] 
ALIJS&ATK)H, aWe-gft'stonn, n. aa as* 

ALLEGE, aHef , v.t. to prodnce as «n «> 

ffument or plea: to assert. {L. aHggo, 

im send one pei'soD to another to isomer 

with him : to mention or bring ^xxyraet 

— ad, to, and lego, •atum, to send.! 
ALLEGIANCE, al-lej'i-ans, n. the duty of 

a fifubject to his liege or fsovereign. 11* 

ad, to, and LtBGffi.] 
ALLEGORIC, -AL, al-le-gor'ik, -a!, a4J. to 

the form of aa ailegtwy : figurative.— 

adv. Allegob'ically. 
Ali^EXJORIZE, al'le-gor-fz, v.t. to put in 

form of an allegory. — v.i. to use allegory, 
ALLEGORIZATION, aHe-gor-i-za'shGn, n. 

the act of turning into allegory: alle* 

eorical treatment. 
ALLEGORY, a3Te-gor-I, n. a description of 

one thing under the image of another. 

[Gr. alios, other, and agoreuO, to speak.] 
ALLEGRO, al-le'gro, adv. and n. imusAtk 

word denoting a brt«fc movement. (It. 

— L. alacer, brisk.] 
ALLELUIA, ALLELUIAH, ai-le-166'ya. 

Same as Halieluiah. 
ALLEVIATE, al-leV^-at, v.t. to make light : 

to mitigate. — n. Aujevia'tion. [L. ad, 

levis, light.] 
ALLEY, al'li, n. a walk in a garden: a 

passage in a city narrower than a street: 

—-pi. All'eys. TPV. allee, a passage, from 

auer, to go, O. Fr. aner, from L. adnaref 

to go to by water. Cf . Arrive.] 
ALL-FOOI^'-DAY, awl-foolz'-da, n. Apt* 

first. [From the sportive deceptions prao* 

ticed on that day.] 
ALL-POURS, awtfOraT, tljiX. (preceded by 

on) on four legs, or on two bands and 

two feet. 
A LL - HA IL, awl-hfil', int., aU health, a 

phrase of salutation. fSee Hail, int.] 

LOWS, awl-hal'15z, n. the day of all the 

Holy Ones. See Aiii-BAINTS. [All and 

Hallo wj 
ALLIANCE, al-ffans, n. state of being al- 
lied : union by marriage or treaty. [See 

ALLIGATION, al-li-ga'shun, n. (arith.) a 

rule for finding the price cf a compound 

of ingredients of different values. [Lb 
[ alligatio, a binding together — ad, to, and 

lino, to bind.] 
ALLIGATOR, alli-ga-tur, n. an animal of 

the crocodile family found in America. 

{Sp. el lagarto — L. tacerta, a lizard.] 

AlilTERAL, a!-1ifer-al, acy. same as Al^ 
LTTERATTVE. [See Alltteratiojj.] 

ALLITERATION, al-lit-er-a'shun, n. the 
recurrence of the same letter at the 'be- 
ginning of two or more words following 
close to each other, as in " apt allitera- 
tion^ artful end.* [Pr.— L. ad, to, and 
lit era, a l etter.] 

ATT.TTERATIVE, aJ-Urer-artiv, aelj. per 
tainmg to alliteration. 

ALLOCATE, allo-kat, r.f., tojalaoe'. to as- 
sign to each his share. fL. ad. to, ao<' 

ALLOCATION, al-lo-kft'shun, n. vudt of ok- 
iocaticg: allotment: an allowance made 
upon an account. 

ALLoCHROUS, al-Jok'rus, ac(j. ot varions 
(x>lors : generally applied to minerals. 
{Gr. aUochroos, aUoehrotia— alios, other, 
and chroa , color.] 

ALLOCUTION, al-Io-kfi'shun, «. a format 
address, esp. of the Pope to his clergy. 
JL. ad, to, £Uid lomior, loeutus, to speak.] 

ALLODIAL, al-lO^-al, adj. held inde- 
pendent of a superiwri £neehold :— o{)» 
posed to F edpal. 

ALLODIUM, al-l5'di-um, n. freeh<^d es- 
tate : land held in the possession of the 
owner without being subject to a feudal 
superior. [Low L allodium, most prob. 
from Ice. cudr, old age, and othal, a home* 
stead ; alda-ofhaJ, a property of age8.J 

ALLOMORPHIC, a3-l6-mor'fik, ad^. pep- 
taining to or possessiag the qualities ot 
a,1 1 om orrvhiomri 

ALLOMORPHISM, al-lo-mor'flzra. n. tkat 
property of certain substances erf assum- 
ing a different form, the substance re- 
ma,ining otherwise unchanged. [Gr. tiMoSf 
other, and morp he, form.] 

ALLOMORPHITE, al-lo-mor'Rt, n. a va- 
riety of baryta having the form and 
cleavage of anhydrite. 

ALLOPATHY, al-lop'a-thi, n. a name given 
by homeopathists to the current or or- 
thodox medical practice. — adj. AULO- 
PATHic. — n. Allop'athist. [See Homb- 


ALLOT, al-kit', v.t. to <!Bv?de as balot:tx* 

distribute in portions : to parcel out :- 
pr.p. allott'ing : allott'ed. [L aa. 
to, and LotJ 

ALLOTMENT, al-lot'ment, n. the act of 
allotting : part or share allotted. 

ALLOTRIOPHAGY, al-lot'ri-of'a-gi, n. 
in med. a depraved appetite for some par- 
ticular article of food or for noxious or 
not eatable substances. [Gr. allotnos, 
belonging to another, and phago, to eat.] 

ALLOTROPY, al-lot'ro-pi, iu the property 
in some elements, as carbon, of existing 
in more than one form. [Gr. alios, an- 
other, and tropes, form.] 

ALLOW, al-low, v.t. to grant : to permit : 
to acknowledge : to abate. [Fr. alkmer., 
to grant — L. ad, to, and loco, to place- — 
Allow, in the sense of approve or «awo- 
tion, as used in B. and by old writearsi, 
has its root In L lavdo, to praise. ] 



ALLOWABLE, al-low'a-bl, adj. that may 
be allowed : not forbidden : lawful, — 
adv. Allowably. — n. Allow' ableness. 

ALLOWANCE, al-low'ans, n. that which 
is allowed : a stated quantity : abate- 

ALLOY, al-loi', v.t. to mix one metal with 
another : to reduce the purity of a metal 
by mixing a baser one with it. — n. a mix- 
ture of two or more metals (when mer- 
cury is one of the ingredients, it is an 
Amalgam) : a baser metal mixed with a 
finer : anything that deteriorates. [Fr. 
aloi, standard of metals, aloyer. It. alls' 
gave, to alloy — L. ad legem, according to 

ALL-SAINTS'-DAY, awl-sants'-da, n. No- 
vember 1, a feast of the Roman Catholic 
Church in honor of all the saints. [See 

ALL-SOULS'-DAY, awl-solz'-da, n. the 
second day of November, a feast of the 
Roman Catholic Church held to pray for 
all souls in purgatory. 

ALLUDE, al-lud , v.i. to mention slightly 
in passing : to refer to. [L. ad, at, ludo, 
lusum, to play.] 

ALLURE, al-lur', v.t. to draw on as by a 
lure or bait : to entice. [L. ad, to, and 

ALLURE, al-lui*', n. same as Allurement. 
Longfellow. (Rare.) 

ALLURING, al-lur'ing, adj. enticing. — 
adv. Allur'ingly. — n. Allure'ment. 

ALLUSION, al-lu'zhun, n. an indirect ref- 

ALLUSIVE, al-lus'iv, adj. alluding to : 
hinting at : referring to indirectly. — adv. 

ALLUVIUM, al-lu'vi-um, n. the mass of 
water-borne matter deposited by rivers 
on lower lands : — pi. Allu'vla. — adj. 
Allu'vial. [L. — alluo, to wash to or on 
— ad, and luo=lavo, to wash.] 

ALLY, al-ir, v.t. to form a relation by 
marriage, friendship, treaty, or resem- 
blance i—pa.p. allied'. [Fr. — L. alligo, 
-are — ad, ligo, to bind.] 

ALLY, al-ir, n. a confederate : a prince or 
state united by treaty or league :— ^/. 

ALMANAC, al'ma-nak, n. a register of the 
days, weeks, and months of the yeaj*, 
etc. [Fr. — Gr. almenichiaka (in Euse- 
bius), an Egyptian word, prob. sig. " daily 
observation of things." 

ALMIGHTY, awl-mlt"i, adj. possessing all 
might or power : omnipotent. — The Al- 
mighty, God. 

ALMIGHTYSHIP, awl-mlt-i-ship, n. the 
state or quality of being almighty : om- 
nipotent. Cowley. 

ALMOND, a'mund, n. the fruit of the 
almond-tree. [Fr. amande — L. amygda- 
lum — Gr. amygdale.] 

ALMONDS, a'mundz, the tonsils or 
glands of the throat, so called from their 
resemblance to the fruit of the almond- 

ALMONER, al'mun-er, n. a distributer of 

ALMONRY, al'mun-ri, n. the place where 
alms are distributed. 

ALMOST, awl'most, adv. nearly. [Prefix 
al, quite, and Most.] 

ALMS, amz, n. relief given out of pity to 
the poor. [A.S. celm^esse, through late 
L., from Gr. eleemosyne — eleos, compas- 

ALMS-DEED, amz'-ded, n. a charitable 

ALMS-HOUSE, amz'-hows, n. a house en- 
dowed for the support and lodging of 
the poor. 

ALMUG, al'mug, n. a tree or wood men- 
tioned in the Bible, kind uncertain. 

ALNASCHARISM, al-nas'ker-izm, n. an 
action or conduct like that of Alnaschar, 
the hero of a well-known story in the 
" Arabian Nights " ; anything done dur- 
ing a day-dream or reverie. "With 
maternal alnascharism she had, in her 
reveries, thrown back her head with dis- 
dain, as she repulsed the family advances 
of some wealthy but low-born "heiress." — 
Miss Edgeworth. 

ALOE, al'o, n. a genus of plants with 
juicy leaves yielding the gum called 

. aloes. [Gr. aloe.] 

ALOES, al'oz, n. a purgative drug, the 

i'uice of several species of aloe. 
.OFT, a-loft', adv. on high : overhead : 
{naut.) above the deck, at the mast-head. 

i Prefix a ( — A.S. on), on, and Loft.] 
lONE, al-on', adj. single : solitary. — adv. 
singly, by one's self. [Al (for ALL), 
quite, and One.] 

ALONG, a-long', adv. by or through the 
length of : lengthwise : throughout : on- 
ward : (fol. by^ zmth) in company of. — 
prep, by the side of : near. [A.S. and- 
lang — prefix and-, against, and Long.] 

ALOOF, a-lo6f , adv. at a distance : apart. 
Used as a prep, in old authors. [Prefix 
a ( — A.S. on), on, and LooF. See LooF, 

ALOUD, a-lowd', adv. with a loud voice : 
loudly. [From A.S. on, on, and hlyd, 
noise, Ger. laut. See Loud.] 

ALOW, a-l6', adv. in a low place :— opp. to 

ALP, alp, n. a high mountain i—pl. Alps, 
specially applied to the lofty mountain- 
ranges of Switzerland. [L.— Gael, alp, a 
mountain : allied to L. allms, white — 
white with snow.] 

ALPACA, al-pak'a, n. the Peruvian sheep, 
akin to the llama, having long silken 
wool : cloth made of its wool. 

ALPEN-STOCK, alp'n-stok, n. a long stick 
or staff used by travellers in climbing the 
Alps. [Ger.] 

ALPHA, al'fa, n. the first letter of the 
Greek alphabet : the first or beginning. 
[Gr. alpha — Heb. aleph, an ox, the name 
of the first letter, which in its original 



figure resembled an ox's head.] 

ALPHABET, al'fa-bet, n. the letters of a 
langfuage ftrrang«d in the usual order. [Gr. 
alpha, beta, the first two Greek letters.] 

ALPHABETIC, -AL, al-fa-bet'ik, -al, cOij. 
relating to or in the order of an alplmbet. 
— adv. Alphabet'ically. 

ALPINE, alp'in or alp'in, adj. pertaining 
to the Alps, or to any lofty mountains : 
very high. 

ALREADY, awl-red'i, adv. previously, or 
before the time specified. 

ALREADY, awl-red'i, adj. existing now: 
being at the present time or for some 
time past : present. " Lord Hobart and 
Lord Fitzwilliam are both to be earls to- 
morrow; the former, of Buckingham, 
the latter by his already title." — H. WaJr 

ALSO, awl'so, adv. in like manner : further. 
[All, quite, just ; so, in that or the same 

ALTAR, awlt'ar, n., a high place on which 
sacrifices were anciently offered : in 
Christian churches, the communion 
table: (.fig.) a place of worship. [L. 
altare — altux, high.] 

ALTARPIECE, awlt'ar-pes, n. a painting 
or decorations placed over an altar. 

ALTER, awl'ter, v.t. to make other or dif- 
ferent : to change : to geld, as animals 
(Amer.). — v.i. to become different: to 
vary. [L. cUter, other, another— aZ (root 
of alius, other), and the old comparative 
suffix -<er=E. 'ther.'\ 

ALTERABLE, awl'ter-a-bl, adj. that may 
be altered. — adv. Al'terably. 

ALTERATION, awl-ter^'shun, n. change. 

ALTERATIVE, awl'ter-at-iv, adj. ha\ang 
power to alter.— n. a medicine that 
makes a change in the vital functions. 

ALTERCATE, al'ter-kat, v.i. to dispute or 
wrangle. [L. altercor, -catus, to bandy 
words from one to the other (alter).] 

ALTERCATION, al-ter-ka'shun, n. conten- 
tion : controver^. 

ALTERNANTHERA, awl-ter-nan'ther-a, n. 
a genus of plants belonging to Amaran- 
thaceae, so called from the stamens being 
alternately fertile and barren. They 
have opposite leaves, and small tribrac- 
teate flowers, arranged in heads. Sev- 
eral species are grown in gardens for the 
sake of their richly-colored foliage. 

ALTERNATE, al'ter-nat or al-te7nat, v.t. 
to cause to follow by turns or one after 
the other.— ^.i. to happen by turns : to 
follow every other or second time. rL. 
alter, other.] 

ALTORNATE, al-ter'nat, adj., one after the 
other: by turns.— adu. Axter'nately. 
Old spelling, Altern for both adj. and 
adv. Milton. 

ALTERNATION, al-ter-na'shun, n. the act 
of alternating : interchange. 

ALTERNATIVE, al-ter'nat-iv, adj. offering 
a choice of two things. — re. a choice be- 
tween two things. — adv. Ai;tee'na- 


ALTERNIZE, al-ter-nlz', v.t. to cause to fol- 
low alternately : to alternate. •' A t^te- 
a-tdte altemized with a trio by my son." 
Miss Burney. (Rare.) 

ALTHING, ai'-ting, n. the Parliament of 

ALTISONANT, al-tis'-o-nant, a. sounding 
high: the noise of pompousness. [L. 
alius, high, sonare, to sound.] Also Al- 


ALTISSIMO, ai-tis'-se-mO, n. (mus.) all 
the notes, or the part, above P in alt. 
[It. superl. of alto.} 

ALT-HORN, alt'hom, n. a musical instru- 
ment of the sax-horn family, often re- 
placing the French horn in militaiy 

ALTHOUGH, awl-f^o', copj. admitting all 
that : notwithstanding that. [See 

ALTIFY, al'ti-fl, v.t. to heighten: toex^- 
.gerate. (Rare.) "Every county^s 
given to magnify — not to say altifff— 
th eir own things therein.."— Ikiller. 

ALTITUDE, alt'i-tud, n., height. [L 
altitudo — altus, high.] 

ALTO, alt'o, n. {orig.) the highest part 
sung by males : the lowest voioe in 
women. [It. — L. altus, high.] 

ALTOGETHER, awl-too-gefA'er, adv., aU 
together : wholly : completely : without 

re-le'vo, w., high relief : figures projects 
by at least half their thickness from the 
ground on which they are sculptured. 
Jit. alto, high. See Reuef.] 

)4LTRUISM, al'troo-isra, n. the principle of 
living and acting for the interest of 
others. [L. alter, another.] 

ALUM, al'um, n. a mineral salt, the double 
sulphate of alumina and potash. [L. 

ALUMINA, al-u'min-a, ALUMINE, al'fk- 
min, n. one of the earths : the chara(3teris- 
tic ingredient of common clay. Al"mina 
is a compound of aluminium and o^- 
gen. [L. alumen, alum.] 

ALUMINOUS, al-u'min-us, ac^. containing 
alum, or a lumina. 

al-u-min'i-um, n. the metallic base of 
alumina, a metal resembling silver, and 
remarkable for itf lightness, 

ALUMNUS, al-um'nuii, n. one educated 
at a college is called an alumnus of that 
college :—pl. Aluh'ni. (X*. from cUo, to 

ALWAYS, awl'waz,ALWAY, awl'wa, adv. 
through aM ways : continually : forever. 

AM, am, the first person of the verb To be. 
[A.S. eom ; Gr eifni ; Lat. sum for esum ,* 
Sans, asmi — as. to be. J 

AMAGANSETTS, am-er-gan'-sets, a 
tribe of North American Indians, natives 
of east end of Long Island, New York:— 
sing. Amagansett. 



AMAIN, a -man', adv., with main or 
strength: with suddea force. [Pfx. a 
and Main.] 

AJMALGAM, a-mal'gam, to. a compound of 
mercury with another metal : any soft 
mixture. [L. and Gr. malagma, an emol- 
lient— -Gr. malasso, to soften.] 

AMALGAMATE, a-margam-at, v.t. to mix 
mercury with another metal : to com- 
pound. — v.i. to unite in an amalgam : to 
blend : to intermarry, as the black and 
white races. (Amer.) 

AMALGAMATION, a-mal-gam-a'shun, n. 
the blending of different things. 

AMANOUS, am'-a-nus, a. without hands; 
as, amanous bipeds. [Pfx. a, not, and L. 
manus, hand.] 

AMANUENSIS, a-man-il-en'sic, n. one who 
writes to dictation : a copyist : a secre- 
tary. [L.— ctft, fronjt, and mamiSt the 

AMARANTH, -US, a'mar-anth, -us, to. a 
genus of plants with richly colored flow- 
ers, that last long without withering, as 
Love-lies-bleeding. [Gr. amarantos, un- 
fading — a, neg., and root mar, to waste 
away ; allied to Lat. mori, to die.] Old 
form, Amarant. Milton. 

AMARANTHINE, a-mar-anth'in, adj. per- 
'taining to amaranth : unfading. 

AMASS, a-mas', v.t. to gather in large 
quantity: to accumulate. [Fr. amasser 
— L. ad, to, and massa, a mass.] 

AMATEUR, ara-at-ar', to. one who culti- 
vates a particular study or art for the 
love of it, and not professionally. [Fr.— 
L. amator, a lover — amo, to love.] 

AMATIVE, am'at-iv, adj., relating to love : 
amorous. [From L. amo, -atum, to love.] 

AMATIVENESS, am'at-iv-nes, to. propen- 
sity to love. 

AMATORY, am'at-or-i, adj., relating to, or 
causing love : affectionate. 

AMAZE, a-maz', v.t. to put the mind in a 
maze: to confound with surprise or 
wonder. — n. astonishment : perplexity. 
rPreflx a, and Maze.] 

ABtAZE, a maz*, v.i. to wonder: to be 

Madam, amaze not; see his majesty 
ReturnM with ^lory from the Holy Land.— i%et«. 

AMAZEDNESS, a-maz'ed-nes, AMAZE- 
MENT, a-maz'raent, to. a feeling of sur- 
prise mixed with wonder. 

AMAZING,a-maz'ing, p. a<i/. causing amaze- 
meat . iistonishing. — adv. AMAZ'mOLT 

AMAZON, amaz-on, to. one of a faoled 
nation of female warriors : a masculine 
woman ; a virago. [Ety. dub., jaerhaps 
from Gr. a, priv., mazos, a breast ; they 
were said to cut off the right breast that 
they might use their weapons more 

AMAZONIAN, am-az-5n'ian, adj. of or like 
an Amazon : of masculine manners: war- 

AMBASSADOR, am-bas'a-dur, to. a diplo- 
matic minister of the highest order seat 

by one sovereign power to another.— /em. 
Ambass'adress. — adj. Ambassador'ial. 
[It. ambasdadore, L. ambactus, derived 
by Grimm from Goth, andbdhts, a ser- 
vant, whence Ger. am,t, office.] 

AMBER, am'ber, to. a yellowish fossil resin, 
used in making ornaments. [Fr. — Ar. 

AMBERGRIS, amlter-gres, to. a fragrant 
substance, of a gray color, found on the 
sea-coast of warm countries, and in the 
intestines of the spermaceti whale. [Am- 
ber and Fr. gris, gray.] 

AMBIDEXTER, amb'i-deks'ter, to. one who 
uses both hands with equal facility: a 
double-dealer.— acy. Ambidex'trous. [L. 
ambo, both, dexter, right hand.] 

AMBIENT, amb'i-ent, adj., going round: 
surrounding : investing. [L. ambi, about, 
iens, ientis, pr.p. of eo, to go.] 

AMBIGUITY, amb-ig-u'i-ti, AMBIGUOUS- 
NESS, amb-ig'u-us-nes, to. uncertainty or 
doubleness of meaning. 

AMBIGUOUS, amb-ig'u-us, adj. of doubt- 
ful signification: equivocal.— odu. Am- 
BIO'UOUSLY. [L. arnbigutis — ambigo, to 
go about — ambi, about, ago, to drive.] 

AMBITION, amb-ish'un, to. the desire of 
power, honor, fame, excellence ; also, 
grudge, spite (Amer.). [L. ambitio, the 
going about, i.e., the canvassing for 
votes practiced by candidates for office in 
Rome — ambi, about, and eo, itum, to go.] 

AMBITIONIST, am-bi'shon-ist, to. an ambi- 
tious person : one devoted to self-aggran- 
dizement. "A selfish ambitionist and 
quack." — Carlyle. 

AMBITIOUS, amb-ish'us, actj. full of ambi- 
tion : desirous of power : aspiring : indi- 
cating ambition. — adv. Ambi'tiously.— 
TO. Ambi'tiousness. 

AMBLE, am'bl, v.i. to move as a horse by 
lifting both legs on each side alternately : 
to move affectedly. — n. a pace of a horse 
between a trot and a walk. [Fr. ambler 
— L. ambulo, to walk about.] 

AMBLER, ara'bler, to. a horse that ambles. 

AMBROSIA, am-bro'zhi-a, to. the fabled 
food of the gods, which conferred imr 
mortality on those who partook of it. 
[L.— Gr. ambrosios=sam,brotos, immortal 
— a, neg., and brotos, mortal, for mrotos. 
Sans, mrita, dead — mri (L. mori), to die.] 

AMBROSIAL, am-bro'zhi-al, adj. fragrant : 
delicious. — adv. Ambro'sially. 

AJVIBROSIAN, am-bro'zhi-an, adj. relating 
to ambrosia: relating to St. Ambrose, 
bishop of Milan in the 4th century. 

AMBRY, am'bri, to. a niche in churches in 
which the sacred utensils were kept : a 
cupboard for victuals. [O. Fr. armaria, 
a repository for arras; Fr. armoire, a 
cupboard — ^L. ar^marium, a chest for arms 
— arma, arms.] 

AMBULANCE, amlbul-ans, to. a carriage 
which serves as a movable hospital for 
the wounded in battle. [Fr. — L. ,ambU' 
lans, -antis, pr.p. of arnbulo, to walk 



AMBTJLATORY, sunT)fU-at-or-i, ad^. hav- 
ing the power or faculty of ■walking': 
tnoving' from place to place, not station- 
nry. — 71. any part of a Duilding intended 
for walkinET in, as the aisles of a church. 

IMBUBOAlffi, amTjusk-ad, n. a hiding to 
attack by surprise : a body of troi^is !l2 
concealment. [Fr. embuscade — IL wu 
boscare, to lie in ambush— im. in, and 
bosco, a wood, from root of BuEH.] 

AMBUSH, am'boosh, n, and v. same meau> 
ings as A^ebuscadb. {O. Ft. enibuscbe. 
See Ambuscade.] 

AMF.F.R, a-mer', n. a title of honor, also of 
an independent ruler in Mohammodaa 
countries. [Ar. amir. See Ad mtrat., ] 

AMELIORATE, a-m^'jor-at, v.L, to make, 
better : to fanprove. — v,L to grow better, 
— CK^*. Amel'ioratife. — n. Amelio&a.'- 
•HON. [li. ad, to, and melior, better.] 

AMEN, a'men', a'men', int. so let it Del 
[Gt. — ^Heb. amen, firm, true.] 

AMEN, a'men, v.t. 1, to say amen to: to 
approve : to homoloerate. (Rare.) " Is 
there a bishop on the oench that has not 
amerCd the humbug' in his lawn sleeves, 
and called a blessing over the kneeling 
pair of perjurers?" — Thackeray. 2, to 
end : to finish. " This verjr evening 
have I ameii'd the volume.'^— Scmthey. 

AMENABLE, a-men'a-bl, adj. easy to be 
led or governed: fiable or subject to. — 
adv. Amen' ABLY. — ns. AiffiNABiL'iTY, 
AaiEN'ABLENESS. [Ft. amener, to lead — 
cr—L. ad, and Tnencr, to lead — ^Low L, 
minare, 'to lead, to drive (as cattle)— I* 
■utinari, to threaten.] 

AMEND, a-mend', v.t. to correct : to im- 
prove. — v.L to grow or become better. — 
adj. Amend' ABLR. [Fr. amsnder for emet^ 
der — ^L. emendo, -are, to remove a faidt 
— e, ex, out of, and menda^ a fault.] 

A ME NDMENT, a-mend'nient, n. correc- 
tion : improvement. 

AMENDS, a-mendz', n.^^. supply of a loss: 

AMENITY, am-en'i-ti, n., pleasantness, as 
regards situation, climate, manners, or 
disposition. [Fr. amenite — L, amoenitas 
— amcentts, pleasant, from root ot ataOy 
to love.] 

AMENOMANIA, a-men-o-ma'-ni-a, n. a 
mental disease or insane condition char- 
acterized by cheerful delusions and mor- 
bid gayety. [L. amoenus, delightful, and 
E. mania.'] 

AMERCE, a-mers', v.t. to punish by a fine, 
[O. Fr. aTnercier, to impose a fine— I* 
merces, wages, fine.] 

AMERCEMENT, a-mers'ment, n. a penal- 
ty inflicted. 

AMERICAN, a-mer'ik-an, ac^., pertaining 
to America, especially to the CnitS 
States. — n. a native of America. jTrom 
America, so called accidently from Amer- 
igo Vespucci, a navigator who explored 
part of the continent after its discovery 
by Columbus.] 

AMEiRICANlZE, armer'ik-an-Tz, ren- 
der American. 

AMERICANISM, a-mer'ik-an-izm, n. a 
word, phrase, or idiom peculiar to Amer- 

AMETHYST, a'meth-ist, n. a bluish-violet 
variety of quartz of which drinking'-cupe 
used to be made, which the ancients 
sup posed p revented dimnkenness.—adi, 
Amethysttnk [Gr. amethystos — a, neg , , 
methyo, to be drunken — methu, wine^ 
Eng. m ead. S ans, madhu, sweet.] 

AMIABILITY, am-i-a-bil'i-ti, AMIABLE. 
NESS, am'i-a-bl-nes, n. quality of being 
amiable, or of exciting iove. 

AMI ABLE, am'i^a-bl, aSj., lovable: worthy 
of love. — adv. A'mtarly. [Fr. amiable, 
friendly — L. umicabilis, from amicus, a 
friend ; there is a confusion in meaning 
with Ft. aimdble, lovable — ^L. amabilis — 
am^, to love.] 

AMIANTHUS, a-mi-anth'us, n. the finest 
fibrous variety of asbestus; it can be 
made into cloth which when stained is 
readily cleansed by fire. [Gr. amiantoe, 
unpollutable — a, neg., and miaind, to 

AMICABLE, am'ik-arbi, adj., friendly.— 
adv. Am'icarly. — ns. Amioabil'ity, Ak'- 
ICABLENESS, [L. amicabUis — a?»o, to lova.l 

AMICE, am'is, n. a flowing cloak formerly 
worn by priests and pSgrims : a linen 
gEirment worn by priests about the 
shoulders while celebrating mass. [O. 
Fr. amis, amid — ^L. amdctus — amido, to 
wrap about — amb, about, and jaeio, to 

AMID, a-mid', AMIDST, a-midst',prep., in 
the middle or midst : among. — adv. A\rrn '- 
smps, half-way between the stem and 
stem of a ship. [Prefix a, on, in, and 
A.S. mid, middle.] 

AMIGO, a-me'-go, n. the name given by the 
Spaniards to friendly natives in the Phil- 
ippines: hence, a friend: — pi. Amioos, a- 
me'gos. [Sp. — L. amicus.'] 

AMIR, a-mer'. Same as Ameeb. 

AMISH, OMTSH, n.pL the Amish Memio- 
nites. — c. of or pertaining to a very strict 
sect of Mennonites, of which there are 
several branches in the United States. 

AMISS, a-mis', adj. in error : wrong. — adv. 
in a faulty manner, [a, on, and Ice. 
f fiissa , a loss. See Miss.J 

AMITY, am'i-ti, n. , friendship : good-will. 
[Fr. amitie — ami — ^L. amicus, a friend. 
See Amicable.] 

AMMIRAL, am'mi-ral, n. admiral; also a 
ship. (Obs.) 

AMMONIA", am-mon'-i-a, 7U a puikgent gas 
yielded by smelling-salts, and by burning 
leattiers, etc. [From sal-ammoniac, or 
smelling-salts, first obtained near the 
temple of Jupiter ATnmon.] 

AMMONIAC, -AL, am-m6n'i-ak, -i'ak-al, 
adj. pertaining to or ha'ving the prcqier- 
ties of ammonia. 

AMMONITE, am'inon4t. n. the fossil shell 


oraa extinct genus of molliisks, so called 
because they resembled the horns on the 
statue of Jupiter Ammon, worshipped as 
a ram. 

AMMUNITION, am-mun-ish'un, n. any- 
thing used for munition or defence: 
military stores, esp. powder, balls, bombs, 
etc. [L. ad, for, munitio, defence — muniOt 
to deiend.] 

AMNESTY, am'nest-i, n. a general pardon 
of political offenders. |w. a-mnestoSj 
not remembered.] 

AM<EBA, a-meb'a, n. a microscopic animal 
capable of undergoing many changes of 
form at will i—pl. Amceb' JE. [Gr. ameibd, 
to change.] 

AMCENOMANIA,arme'n5Hafta'ni-a,n. a form 
of mania in which the haUucinations 
are of an agreeable nature. [L. amcenus, 
pleasant, and Gr. mania, madness.] 

AMONG, a-mung', AJVIONGST, a^mungst', 
prep, of the number of: amidst. [A.S. 
on-gema>ig — mcengan, to mingle.] 

AMOROUS, am'or-us, adj. easily inspired 
with love : fondly in love : relating to 
love. — adv. Am'obously. — n. Am'orous- 
NESS. [L. am.or, love.] 

AMOURETTE, am-oor-et, n. a love affair 
which is short and not serious. [Fr.] 

AMPERAGE, am-par'-aj, n. the strength, 
measured in amperes, of an electrical cur- 
rent generated by a machine or carried 
by a conductor. 

AMPERE, am-par*, n. the unit of electric 
current; established by the International 
Electrical Congress in 1893 and by the 
laws of the United States, as one-tentk 
of the xmit of current of the C. G. S. sys- 
tem of electro-magnetic units. ITrom 
the name of a French electrician.] 

AMPERE1M:ETER, am-par-me'-ter, AMPER- 
OMETER, am-par-om'-c-ter, n. a meter or 
instrument which measures the strength 
of an electrical current in amperes, 

AMPERSAND, am'-per-sand. n. a word used 
to describe the character &. — HaTliweTl. 

AMORPHOUS, a-morf'us, ac^. without 
regular shape, shapeless. [Or. a, neg., 
and morphe, form.] 

AMOUNT, a-mownt', u.i. to noount or 
rise to : to result in. — n. the whole suna : 
the effect or result. [O. Fr. amonter, to 
ascend — L. ad, to, mons, a mountain.] 

AMOUR, am-oor', n. a love intrigue. [Fr. 
— ^L. amor, love.] 

AMPHIBIANS, n.pL animals capable of 
living both under water and on land. — acfj. 
Amphi'bious. [Gr. amphi, both, 6ios, life.] 

AMPHIBLASTIC, am-fi-blas'tik, ac^'. in 
physiol. a term apphed to the series of 
ova intermediate between the holoblastio 
or mammalian ova, and the meroblastic, 
or ova of b irds or reptUes. 

AMPHICTYONIC, am-flk-ti-on'ik, acb'. 
The Amphictyonic Council was an old 
Greek assembly composed of deputies 
from twelve of the leading states. [Gr. 
amphiktyones, orig. dub.] 

AMPHIGORIO, am-fl-gor'ik,a47.of,reaating 
to, or consisting of anaphigory : absurd : 

AMPHIGORY, am'fl-gor-i, n. a meaning- 
less rigmarole : nonsense verses or the 
Uke : a nonsensical parody. [Fr. amphir 

AMPHISB JSNA, am-fi»4)§'na, n. a s^pent 
that can go both ways, forward or back- 
ward. I^Gr. amphts, amphi, on both 
sides, baino, to go or walk.] 

AMPHITHEATRE, am-fi-the'a-ter, n. an 
oval or circular edifice having rows of 
seats one above another, around an open 
space, called the arena, in which public 
spectacles were exhibited : anything like 
an amphitheatre in form. [Gr. amphd, 
round about, theatron, a place for seeing 
— tiieaomai, to see.] 

AMPLE, am'pl, aqj. spacious: large 
enough : liberal. — aav. AJi'fl.Y. — n. AM" • 
PLENESS. [L. amplvs, large.] 

AMPLIFICATION, am'pli-fi-ka'shun, «, 

AMPLIFY, am'pli-fi, v.t. to make more 
copious in expression : to add to. [L. 
amplus, large, and f ado, to make.] 

AMPLITUDE, am'pli-tud, n. largeness: 
the distance from the east point of a 
horizon at which a heavenljr body rises, 
or from the west point at which it sets. 

AMPUTATE, am'put-at, v.t to cut off, as a 
limb of an animal. — n. Amputa'tioh. 
[L. amb, round about, jmfo, to out.] 

AMRITA, am're-ta, n. in Hindu myth, the 
ambrosia of the gods : the beverage of 
immortality, that resulted from the 
churning of the ocean by the gods and 
demons. [Sans, amritam^ from a, priv., 
and mri, to die ; akin to L. mxyrs, deatiu 
See MoKTAli.] 

AMUCK, a-muk*, adv. wildly: madlv. 
[Malay, amok, intoxicated or excited to 

AMULET, am'll-let, n. a gem, scroll, or 
other object carried about the person, as 
a charm against evil. [L. amvJetum, a 
word of unknown origin ; curiously like 
the mod. Ar. himalah, -at, lit. "a car- 
rier," often applied to a shoulder-belt, by 
which a small Koran is himg on the 

AMUSE, a-muz', v.t. tooccupypleasantivi 
to beguile with expectaUoo. {¥r» 

AMUSTA, a-mu'-si-a, n. (med.) a disease 
in Vhich is lost the ability to recognize 
or to produce musical sounds. 

AMUSEMENT, a-mtlz'm^it, n, tiiafc which 

amuses: pastune. 
AMUSING, a-muz'ing', ac^'. affordii^ 

amusement : entertaming. — adv. Aisus^ 


AMYLOID, am'il-oid, n. a half-gelatinous 
substance like starch, found in some 
seeds. [Gr. amylon, the finest flour, 
starch ; lit. " unground " — a, neg^., myl^ 
a mill, and eidost form.] 



AN, an, adj., one: the indefinite article, 
used before words beginning' with the 
sound of a vowel. [A.S. an. See One.] 
AN, an, conj. if. [A form of And.] 
ANA, a'na, a suffix to names of persons or 

g laces, denoting a collection of memora- 
le sayings, as Johnsoniana, sayings of 
Dr. Johnson. [The neuter plural termi- 
nation of L. adjectives in -a»tts=pertain- 
ing to.] 

ANABAPTIST, an-a-bapt'ist, n. one who 
holds that baptism ought to be admin- 
istered only to adults (bv inunersion), 
and therefore that those baptized in in- 
fancy ought to be baptized again. — n. 
Anabapi'ism. [Gr. ana, again, baptizo, 
to dip in water, to baptize.] 

ANACHORISM, a-nak'6-rizm, n. something 
not suited to or inconsistent with the 
country to which it is referred. J. JR. 
Lowell. [Modelled on anachronism, from 
Gr. ana, here implying error or diverg- 
ence, and ehora, a country.] 

ANACHRONISM,an-a'kron-izm, n. an error 
in regard to time, wherebj' a thing is 
assigned to an earlier or to a later age 
than what it belongs to. — adj. Anachron- 
ist'ic. [Gr. ana, backwards, chronos, 

ANACONDA, an-a-kon'da, n. a large snake, 
a species of boa, found in South America^ 

ANACREONTIC, an-a-kre-ont'ik, adj. after 
the manner of the Greek poet Anacreon : 

ANEMIA, an-em'i-a, n. a morbid want of 
blood: the condition of the body after 
great loss of blood. [Gr. a, an, neg., 
haima, blood.] 

ANESTHETIC, an-es-thet'ik, adj. produc- 
ing insensibility. — n. a substance, a« 
chloroform, that produces insensibility. 
[Gr. a, an, neg., aisthesis, sensation — , 
aisthanomai, to feel.] 

ANAGLYPH, an'arglii, n. an ornament 
carved in relief. — adj. Anaglypt'ic. [Gr. 
ana, up, glypho, to carve.] 

ANAGRAM, an'a-gram, n. a word or sen- 
tence formed by rewriting (in a different 
order) the letters of another word or sen- 
tence : as "live" — "evil." — adj. Ay A.- 
grammat'ic, -al. [Gr. ana, again, grapho, 
to write.] 

ANAL, anal, adj. pertaining to or near 
the anus. 

ANALGESIA, an-al-je'si-a, n. in pathol. 
absence of pain whether in health or 
disease. Dunglison. [Gr. an, priv., and 
algos, pain.l 

ANALOGICAt., an-a-loj'ik-al, adj. having, 
or according to, analogy. 

ANALOGOUS, an-a'log-us, adj. having 
analogy : bearing some resemblance to : 

ANALOGUE, an'a-lSg, n. a word or body 
bearing analogj' to, or resembling an- 
other : (anat.) an organ which performs 
the same function as another, though 
differing from it in structure [See 


ANALOGY, an-a'15-ji, n. an agreement or 
correspondence in certain respects be- 
tween things otherwisr different : rela- 
tion in general : likeness. [Gr. ana, 
according to, and logos, ratio.] 

ANALPHABET, an-al'-fa-bet, n. an illiter- 
ate person, ignorant even of the alphabet. 

ANALYZE, an'a-liz, v.t. to resolve a whole 
into its elements : to separate into com- 
ponent parts. — adj. Analyz'able. [Gr. 
ana, up, lyo, to loosen.] 

ANALYSIS, an-a'lis-is, n. a resolving or 
separating a thing into its elements or 
component parts :—pl. Ana'lyses. [See 

ANALYST, an'al-ist, n. one skilled in 

ANALYTIC, -AL, an-a-lit'ik, -al, adj. per- 
taining to analysis : resolving into first 
principles. — adv. Analyt'ically. 

ANAPEST, an'a-pest, n. (in verse) a foot 
consisting of three syllables, two short 
and the third long, or (in Eng.) two un- 
accented and the third accented, as ap- 
pre-hend*. [Gr. anapaistos, reversed, 
because it is the dactyl reversed.] 

ANAPESTIC, -AL, an-a-pest'ik, -al, adj. 
pertaining to or consisting of anapests. 

ANAPHRODISIA, an-af'ro-diz'i-a, n. the 
absence of venereal power or desire : im- 
potence. [Gr. an, priv., and aphrodisios, 
venereal, from Aphrodite, the Greek 
goddess of love.] 

ANAPODEICTIC, an-ap'o-dlk'tik, adj. in- 
capable of being demonstrated. [Gr. an, 
priv., and apodeiktikos, demonstrable.] 

ANAPTOTIC, an-ap-tot'ik, adj. in philol. 
applied to languages which have a tend- 
ency to lose the use of inflections. [Gr 
ana, back, and ptosis, inflection.] 

AN AQUA, a-na'-kwa, n. {hot.) a tree bear- 
ing an edible fruit, native of Texas and 
Mexico. This tree is of the Borage fam- 
ily: is called also Knockaway. 

ANARCHIST, an'ark-ist, n. one who pro- 
motes anarchy. Old form Anarch. 

ANARCHIZE, an'ar-klz, v.t. to put into a 
state of anarchy or confusion. 

ANARCHY, an'ark-i, n. the want of gov- 
ernment in a state : political confusion. — 
adjs. Anarch'ic, Anarch'ical. [Gr. a, 
an. nes: . arche, government.] 

ANASEISMIC, an-a-sis'-mik, a. a violent 
up and down movement: a shaking as of 
an earthquake. [See Seismic] 

ANATHEMA, an-a'them-a, n. (orig.) ar 
offering made and set up in a temple : an 
ecclesiastical curse : any person or thing 
anathematized. [Gr. ana, up, tithemt, 
to set.] 

ANATHEMATIZE, an-a'them-at-Iz, v.t. to 
pronounce accursed. 

ANATOMIC, -AL, an-a-tom'ik, -al, adj. re- 
lating to anatomy. 

ANATOMIZE, an-a'tom-Tz, v.t. to dissect a 
bodj' : (fig.) to lay open minutely. [From 
Anatomy. 1 



ANATOMIST, an-a'tom-ist» n. one skilled 
ia. iuiatomy. 

ANATOMY, aa-a'tom-i, n. the -art of dis- 
secting any organized body : science of 
tlae structure of the body learned by dis- 
section. [Gr. ana, up, asunder, temno, 
to cut.] 

ANBURY, an'ber-i, n. a disease in turnips, 
ia which the root becomes divided into 
a niunber of parts — hence the popular 
name FlNOEfiS and Tc«:s. [From A-S. 
amxtre, a crooked swelling' veuu] 

ANCESTOR, an'ses-tur, n. one from whom 
a person has descended : a forefather. — 
fern. An'oestkess. — adj. Ances'tral. [O. 
*Fr. ancestre — ^L. antecessor — ante^ before, 
oedo, cessum, to go.] 

ANCESTRY, an'ses-tn, n. a line of ances- 
tors : lineage. 

ANCHOR, angk'ur, n. a hooked iron instru- 
ment that holds a ship by sticking into 
the ground : {fig.) anything that gives 
stability or security. — v.L to fix by an 
anchor : to fasten. — v.i. to cast anchor : 
to stop, or rest on. [Fr. ancre — L. aviGora 
— Gr. angkyra, from angfeost a bend — root 
angk, bent. Conn, with Angle.] 

ANCHORAGE, angk'ur-aj, n. ground for 
anchoring: duty imposed on ships for 

•ng'kor-ft, n. one who has withdrawn 
from the world : a hermit. [Gr. anachO' 
retes — ana, apart, choreo, to go.] 

ANCHORITISH, ang-ko-rit'ish, adj. of or 
pertaining to an anchorite, or his mode 
of life : anchoretic. " Sixty years of 
religious reverie and anchoritish self- 
denial." — De Quincey. 

ANCHORITISM, angTt6-rIt-izm, n the 
state of being secluded from the world : 
the condition of an anchorite. 

ANCHORLESS, ang'ker-les, adj. being 
without an anchor: hence, drifting: un- 
stable. " My homeless, anchorless, un- 
supported mind." — Charlotte Bronte. 

ANCHOVY, an-cho'vi, n, a small fidi of 
the herring kind from which a sauce is 
made. [Sp. and Port, anchova ; Fr. a»- 
chois. Of doubtful ety.l 

ANCIENT, an'shent, t^f. old: belonging 
to former times. — An'CIENTS, those 
who lived in remote times : va B., elders. 
— adv. An'ciently. — n. An'cientness. 
[Fr. aneien — Low L. antianus, old — ^L. 
ante, before, prob. conn, with And. See 

ANCIENT, an'shent, n. {cbs.) a Jlag or its 
bearer : an ensign. [Corr. of Fr. en- 
seigne. See Ensign.] 

ANCILLARY, an'sil-ar-i, adj. subservient. 
[L. ancilla, a maid-servant.] 

ANCORIST, ang'ko-rist, n. one withdrawn 
from the world : a hermit : an anchoret, 
or anchoress. " A woman lately turned 
an ancorist." — Fuller. 

AND, and, conj. signifies addition, and is 
used to connect words and sentences : in 

ILE. it was used for if. {A.8., aad in 
the other Teut. lang. : prob. allied to L. 
ante, Gr. anti, over against.] 

ANDANTE, aa-dan'te, adj.^ going esufSy: 
moderately slow : expressive. [It. — un- 
dare, to go.] 

ANDIRON, andl-um, n. the iron bars 
which support the &ada oi the logs in 
a wood-ftre, «r is which a Bfit turm. 
[Ety. dub.1 

ANDRADITE, an'-dra-dit, n. the common 
variety of garnet containing iron and 
lime. [Named after the Portuguese min- 
eralogist who first examined this stone.] 

ANDROCEPHALOUS, an-dro-sef'-a-lus, a. 
having the body of an animal and the 
head of a human being, as the Egyptian 

ANDROLEPSY, an'-dro-lep-se, ANDRO- 
LEPSIA, an-dr5-lep'-se-a, to. holding in 
captivity the citizens of one country by 
those (rf another in order to enforce a 
claim or secure justice. 

ANDROPHOBIA, an-dro-fo'-bi-a, n. the op- 
posite of gynephobia: a morbid dread of 
the sight or presence of men: distinct 
repugnance to the male sex. [See Gtne- 


GAL, an-ek-dot'i-kal, oc^., in the form of 
an anecdote. 

ANECDOTARIAN, an'ek-do-ta'ri-an, n. one 
who deals in or retails anecdotes : an an- 
ecd<^ist. **Our ordinary anecdoiarians 
make use of libels." — Eager North. 

ANECDOTE, an'ek-dot, n. an incident fA 
private life : a short story. [Gr., not 

Eublished — a, an, neg., and ekdotos, ptU>> 
shed — efc, out, and didomi, to give.! 

ANEXE, an-^r, v.t. to anoint wiih oil: to 
administer extreme unction. {A.S. on- 
elan — on, on, and ele, oil.] 

ANEMOMETER, a-nem-om'et-er, n. an in- 
strument for measuring the force of the 
vnnd. [Gr. anemos, wind, and Meter.] 

ANEMONE, a-nem'o-ne, n. a plant of the 
crowfoc^ family. [Said to oe from Gr. 
anemos, wind, because some of the spe- 
cies love exposed situations.] 

ANENT, a-nent', prep, near, or im the 
neighborhood: in proximity to: concern- 
ing: in respect to: about, or over 
against: on equality with. [See Even.] 

ANEROID, an'e-roid, adj. noting a barom- 
eter by which the pressure of the air is 
measured vnthout the use of liquid or 
quicksilver. [Gr. a, neg., neros, wet.] 

ANETIC, a-net'ik, Of^*. in med. reUevii^ or 
assuaging pain : anodyne. [Gr. anetikos, 

ANEURISM, an'ar-izm, n. a soft tumor, 
arising from the undening up or dilata- 
tion of an artery. [Gr. aneurisma — ana^ 
up, eurys, wide.] 

ANEW, a-nQ', adv. afresh : again. [M. K 
qf-neio—A.S. of. Of, and New.] 

ANGEL, an'jel, n. a divine messenger : a 



ministertng spirit : an old E. coin— 10s., 
bearing tne figure of an angel. — adjs. 
Angelic, an-jel'ik, Angel'ical. — adv. 
Anoel'ically. [Gr. angelos, a messen- 

ANGELHOOD, an'jel-liod, n. the state or 
condition of an angel : the angelic nature 
or character. E. B. Browning. 

ANGELOLATRY, an-jel-ol'a-tri, n. the 
worship of angels. [E. angel, and Gr. 
latreia, worship.] 

ANGER, ang'ger, n. a strong passion ex- 
cited by injury. — v.t. to make angry. 
J Ice. angr ; allied to Anguish.] 
TGEVIN, an'je-vin, adj. of or pertaining 
to Anjou, a former province in the north- 
west of France. 

ANGINA, anj-i'na, n. applied to diseases in 
which a sense of tightening or suffoca- 
tion is a prominent symptom. [L. See 

ANGLE, ang'gl, n. a corner: the point 
where two lines meet : (geom.) the in- 
clination of two straight lines which 
meet, but are not in the same straight 
line. [Ft. — ^L. angulus : cog. with Or. 
angkylos: both from root angle, ak, to 
bend, seen also in Anchor, Aotcle.] 

ANGLE, ang'gl, n., a hook or bend : a fish- 
ing-rod with line and hook. — v.i. to fish 
with an angle. — v.t. to entice : to try to 
gain by some artifice. [A.S. angel, a 
hook, allied to Anchor.] 

ANGLER, ang'gler, n. one who fishes with 
an an^le. — ^Angling, ang'gling, n. the 
art or practice of fishing with an angle. 

ANGLICAN, ang'glik-an, cuJ^'., English. 

J See English.] 
fGLICANISM, an^glik-an-izra, n. at- 
tachment to English institutions, esp. 
the English Church : the principles of 
the En^ish Church. 

ANGLICISM, ang'glis-izm, n. an English 
idiom or peculiarity of language. 

ANGLICIZE, ang'glis-I^ v.t. to express in 
English idiom. 

ANGLO-, ang'gl©, pfx., English — used in 
composition : as Anglo-Saxon, etc 

ANGLO-CATHOLICISM, an-glo-ka-thol'-i- 
sizm, n. the belief of certain members of 
the Church of England who accept a 
number of the practices and doctrines of 
the primitive Catholic Church, of which 
the Church of England is deemed to be 
a direct descendant. 

ANGLOMANIA, ang'glo-manl-a, n.> u 
mania for what is English : an indisorim- 
inate admiration of English insutui 

ANGLO-SAXON, ang'glo-saks'un, adj. aj> 

{)lied to the earliest form of the Englis.: 
anguage : the term Old English is no^ 
preferred by some. 
ANGRY, anggri, adj. excited with anger i 

inflamed. — ANGRILY, ang'gri-li, adv. 
ANGUISH, ang'gwish, n. excessive pain of 
body or mind : agony. [Fr. angoisse — L, 

angustia, a strait, straitness — ango, to 
press tightly : to strangle. See Angee.] 

ANGULAR, ang'gul-ar, adj. having an 
an angle or corner : (Jig.) stiff in man- 
ner : the opposite of easy or gracefuL — 
n. Angulartty. 

ANIGHTS, a-nits', adv., of nights, at night. 

ANILE, anil, adj. old-womanish : imbecile. 
— Anility, an-il'i-ti, n. [L. anus, an old 

ANILINE, an'il-in, n. a product of coal-tar, 
extensively used in dyeing. [Anil, an 
indigo plant, from which also it is made.] 

ANIMADVERSION, an-im-ad-ver'shun, w. 
criticism, censure, or reproof. 

ANIMADVERT, an-im-ad-vert', v.i. to 
criticise or censure. [L., to turn the 
mind to — animiis, the mind, ad, to, and 
verto, to turn.] 

ANIMAL, an'im-al, n. an organized being,- 
having life, sensation, and voluntary 
mot-ion : it is distinguished from a plant, 
which is organized and has life, but not 
sensation or voluntary motion ; the name 
sometimes implies tne absence of the 
highet laculties pecuUar to man. — a^j. 
of or belon^ng to animals : sensual. [Lc 
•—anima, aa*, ufe, Gr. anemos, wind — ad, 
aSmi, Sans, an, to breathe, to blow.] 

ANIMALCULE, an-im-al'kul, n., a small 
animal, esp. one that cannot be seen by 
the naked eye :—pl. Animal'cules, or 
Animal'cula. [L. animalculum, dim. of 
animal A 

ANIMALISM, an'im-al-izm, n. the state of 
being actuated by animal appetites only : 

ANBIALlVOROUS, an-i-mal-iv'-o-rus, a. 
eating animal food. 

ANIMATE, an'im-at, v.t. to give life to 2 
to enliven or inspirit.— adj. living: pos- 
sessing animal life. [See Animai*] 

ANIMATE, an'i-mat, v.i. to become en- 
livened or exhilarated : to rouse. " Mr. 
Arnott, animating at this speech, glided 
behind her chair." — Miss Burmey. 

ANIMATED, an'im-at-ed, adj. lively : full 
of spirit. 

ANIMATION, an-im-a'shun, n. liveliness: 

ANIMISM, an'im-izm, n. theory which re- 
gards the beUef in smHts, that appear in 
dreams, etc., as the germ of religious 
ideas. [L. anima, the souL] 

ANIMOSITY, an-im-os'i-ti, n. bitter har 
tred : enmity. [L. animositas, fullness 
of spirit. See AN1MAL.J 

ANEVIUS, an'im-us, n. mtention : spirit ; 
prejudice against. [L. animiis, spirit; 
soul, as dist. from anima, the mere Ufe. 
See Animal.] 

ANISE, au'is, n. aromatic plant, the seeds 
of which are used in making cordiats. 

JGr. anison.] 
flSOlVIETRIC, a-nfsS-met'rik, a4j. a 
term applied to crystals which are de- 
veloped dissimilarly in the three axial 
directions. [Gr. aniaos, unequal, and 
metron, a measure.] 

ATTisoTROPE— a:n^sweiiaele 


IC, an'i-s6-trop'ik, adj. having different 
properties in different directions: not 
isotropic: aeoiotropic 

ANKER, angk'er, n. a liquid measure used 
on tbe continent, formerly in England, 
varying from about seven to nine gallons. 


AtTKLE, angkl, w. the joint between the 
foot and Iq^, forming an angie or ben^. 
[A.S. ancleow, cog. with Ger. enkel, and 
conn, witii Angle.] 

ANKLET, angli'Iet, n. an ornament for the 
ankle. , , , .,, 

ANKUS, an'-kns, n. an elephant goad with 
a sharp spike and hook, reaembling a 
short-handled boathook. — EipKngr- [Hind. 
— Sans, atikurj.'] 

ANNA, an'a, n. an Indian coin worth 8 cts. 

ANNALIST, an'al-ist, n. a writer of annals. 

ANNALS, an'alz, records of events 
under the years in which they happened: 
year-books. [L. OMnalea — armits, a year.] 

ANNEAL, an-el', v.t. to temper glass or 
metals by subjecting them to great heat 
and gradually cooling : to heat in order 
to fix colors on, as glass. — n. ANNEAL'lNa. 
rA.S. ancelan, to set on fire — odan, to 

ANNELIDA, an-el'i-da, n. a class of am- 
mals having a long body composed of 
numerous rings, as worms, leeches, &c. 
[L. annellus, dim. of annulus, a ring.] 

ANNEX, an-neks', v.t. to add to the end; 
to affix. — n. something added. [L. — ad, 
to, necto, to tie.] 

ANNEXATION, an-neks-a'shun, n. act of 

ANNIHILATE, an-ni'hil-at, v.t. to reduce 
to nothing : to put out of existence. [L. 
ad, to, nihil, nothing.] 

ANNIHILATION, an-nl-hil-a'shun, n. state 
of being reduced to nothing : act of de- 

ANNIVERSARY, an-ni-vers'ar-i, adj., re- 
turning or happening every year: annual. 
— w. the day of the year on which an 
event happened or is celebrated. [L. an- 
ntis, a year, and verto, versum, to turn.] 

ANNOMINATE, an-nom'in-at, v.t. to name: 
especially, to give a punning or allit- 
erative name to. (Rare.) "How then 
shall these chapters be annominated t "— 

ANNOTATE, an'not-at, v.t., to tnake notes 
upon, [L. annoto—ad, to, noto, -atum, 
to marfc] 

ANNOTATION, an-not-a'shun, n. a-note of 
explanation: comment. 

ANNOTATOR, an-not-at'ur, n. a writer of 
notes : a commentator. 

ANNOUNCE, an-nowns', v.t. to declare : to 
give public notice of. — ». Announce' memt. 
[Fr. annoncer, L. annundare — ad, to, 
nuncfjQ, -are, to deliver news. J 

ANNOY, an-noi', v.t. to trouble: to vex: 
to tease :— pr,«. Annoy'ing ; pa.p. An- 
noyed'. [Ft. ervn-uyer. It. amwiare — L. 
m odio esfe, to be liatef ul to.] 

ANNOYANCE, aa-noi'^ans, n. that wfakb 

ANNUAL, an'na-ai, oc^., yearly: comintf 
every year: requiring to be renews 
every year. — n. a plant that lives but 
one year : a book published yearly. — adv. 
An'nually. [L. annualis — annuSf a 

ANNUITANT, an-nu'it-ant, n. one who re- 
ceives an annuity. 

ANNUITY, an-nu i-ti, n. a sum of money 
TO^ble yearly. [L. annus, a year.] 

ANNUL, an-nul', v.t. to make null, to re- 
duce to nothing : to abolish z—pr.p. Aif- 
NUUii'TNa : pa.p. Annuiued'. [Ft. annuier 
— ^L. ad, to, ntdlus, none.] 

ANNULAR, an'nul-ar, adj. ring«kaped* 
[L. annulus or anulus, a lii^;' — dim. oi 
anus, a rounding or ring.] 

ANNULATED, an'nul-at-ed, ac^'. formed or 
divided into rings. [L. See Annulak.] 

ANNUNCIATION, tm-nun-si-a'sfaun, n. the 
act of announcing. — ^Anntjnciation-day, 
the anniversary of the Angel's salutatioa 
to the Virgin Mary, the %th of March. 
JTi. See Announce.] 

ANODYNE, an'o-din, n. a medicine that al- 
lays F«in. [Gh*.a, an, n^.,and odyne,puu.'] 

ANOINT, an-oint', v.t., to smear with oint- 
ment or oil : to consecrate with oiL fO. 
Fr. enoindre — L. inungo, puu»etmmr-4n, 
and tmgo, to ameer.] 

ANOINTED (the), an-oinf ed, il. the Mes- 

ANOMALOUS, an-om'al-us, ad^f. irregular : 
deviating from rule. [Gr. andmaU)S — a, 
an, neg., and komatos, even — homos, 

ANOMALY, an-om'al-i, n. irregularity : 
deviation from rule. \See Anomalous.] 

ANON, an-on', adv., in one (instant) : im- 

ANONYME, an'on-Tm, n. an assumed or 
false name. [See Anonymous.] 

ANONYMITY, an-on-im'i-ti, n. the quality 
or state of being anonymous. 

ANONYMOUS, an-on'im-us, adj., wanting 
a name : not having the real name of the 
author. — adv. Anon'ymously. [Gr. ano- 
nymos — a, an, neg., arid onoma, name.] 

ANOTHER, an-uf/i^r, adj. not the same : 
one more : any other. [A.S. an, one, 
and Other.] 

ANSERINE, an'ser-In or -in, adj., relating 
to the goose or goose-tribe. [L. anser; 
cog. with E. Goose (which see). Sans. 

ANSEROtrS, an'ser-us, adj. of or pertain- 
ing to a goose or geese : like a goose : 
hence, foolish : silly : simple. Sydney 

ANSWER, an'ser, v.t. to reply to: to sat- 
isfy or solve : to suit. — v.t. to reply : to 
be accountable for: to correspond. — n. 
a reply : a solution. fLit. " to swear 
against," as in a trial by law, from 
A.S. and-, against, stverian, to swear.] 

ANSWERABLE, an'ser-a-bL adj. able to 



1)6 answered : accountable : suitable : 
equivalent. — adv. Ai^swerably. 

ANT. ant, n. a small insect : the emmet.— 
n. Ant-hill, the hillock raised by ants to 
form their nest. [A contr. of Emmet— 
A.S. cemeteJ] 

ANTACID, ant-as'id, n. a medicine which 
counteracts acidity. [Gr. antiy against, 
and ActD.J 

ANTAGrONlSM, ant-ag'on-izm, n., a con- 
tending or struggling' against: opposi- 
tion. [Gr. antij against— -ag^on, contest. 
See Agony.I 

ANTAGONIST, ant-ag'on-ist, n., one who 
contends or'struggles with another: an 
opponent. [Gr. antagonistes. See An- 


ANTAGONIST, an-tag;on-ist, ANTAGON- 
ISTIC, ant-ag-on-isrik, ac^. contending 
against, opposed to. 

ANTAGONIZE, ant-ag'S-nIz, v.t. to act in 
opposition to : to counteract : to hinder. 
(Bare.) " The active principle of valerian 
root is . . . found to greatly deaden the 
reflex excitability of the spinal cord, thus 
antagonizing the operation of strych- 
nine." — Amer. Ency. 

ANTAECTIC, ant-arkt'ik, adj., opposite the 
Arctic : relating' to the south pole or to 
south polar regions. [Gr. anti, opposite, 
and AJlCTlC.l 

ANTE, an'te, n. a bet placed in opposition 
to the dealer's bet m playing tne game 
of poker — hence to ante, to bet. 

ANTECEDENT, an-te-sed'ent, ad/., goinff 
before in time : prior. — n. that which pre- 
cedes in time : (gram.) the noun or pro- 
noun to which a relative pronoun refers : 
'-pi. previous principles, conduct, his- 
tory, etc. — adv. Anteced'ently. — n. 
Antecjed'ence. [L. ante, before, cedenSf 
•entis ; pr.p. of cedo, cessum, to go.] 

ANTECHAMBER, an'te-cham-ber, w. See 


ANTE-CHOIR, an'te-kwir, n. in arch. 
that part between the doors of the choir 
and the outer entrance of the screen, 
under the rood-loft, forming a sort of 
lobby or vestibule. Ency. Brit. Called 

&lso FORE-CHOm. 

ANTEDATE, an'te-dat. v4., to date before 

the true time: to anticipate. [L. ante, 

before, and Date.] 
ANTEDILUVIAN, an-te-di-la'vi-an, adj. 

existing or happening before the Deluge 

or the Flood. — n. one who lived before 

the Flood. [See Deluge.] 
ANTELIOS, an-te'li-os, n. the position of a 

heavenly body when opposite or over 

against the sun : used also adjectively. 

[Gr. antelios, opposite the sun — anti, 

against, and hdios, the sun.] 
ANTELOPE, an'te-lop, n. a quadruped in. 

termediate between the deer and S'oat* 

JEtv. dub.] 
rrfiMERIDIAN, an-te-me-ri'di-an, adj., 
before midday or noon. [See Meridian.] 
ANTE-:M0IITEM, an-te-mor'-tem, before 

death! used as an adjective, as ante- 
mortem examination, ante-mortem state- 
ment . [L.] 

ANTE-NAVE, an'te-nav, n. In arch, same 
as Gaixlee (which see). 

ANTENNA, an-ten'e, the feelers or 
horns of insects, [L. antenna, the yard 
or beam of a sail.] 

ANTENUPTIAL, an-te-nupsh'al, adj., be- 
fore nuptials or marriage. [L. ante, 
before, and Nuptial.] 

A^TTEPENULT, an-te-pen-ult', n. the syl- 
lable before the penult or next ultimate 
syllable of a word ; the last syllable of a 
word but two. — adj. Aj.ttepenult'imatb. 

JL. ante, before, and Penult.] 
rTERIOR, an-te'n-or, adj., before, in 
time, or place : in front. [L., comp. of 
ante, before.] 

ANTEROOM, an'te-room, n., a room before 
another : a room leading into a principal 
apartment. [L. ante, before, and Room.] 

ANTHELIOS, an-the'li-os, n. same as Antb- 

ANTHELMINTIC, an-thel-mint'ik, adj., 
destroying or expeUing worms. [Gr. 
anti, against, and helmins, helmintos. a 

ANTHEM, an'them, n. a piece of sacred 
music sung in alternate parts : a piece of 
sacred music set to a passage from Scrip* 
ture. [A.S. antefen — Gr. antiphona-^ 
anti, in return, phone, the voice.] 

ANTHEM, an'them, v.t. to celebrate or 
salute with an anthem or song. Keats. 

ANTHER, an'ther, n. the top of the sta* 
men in a flower, which contains the pollen 
or fertilizing dust. [Gr. antheros, flow- 
ery, blooming.] 

ANT-HILL. See under Ant. 

ANTHOGRAPHY, an-thog'ra-fl, n. that 
branch of botany which treats of flow- 
ers : a description of flowers. [Gr. an- 
thos, a flower, and graphe, description.] 

ANTHOID, an'thoid, adj. having the ^orm 
of a flower : resembling a flower. [Qi', 
anthos, a flower, and eidos, form.] 

ANTHOLOGY, an-thol'oj-i, n. (Jit.) a 
gathering or collection of flou^ers : a col- 
lection of poems or choice literary ex- 
tracts. — adj. Antholog'ical. [Gr. an' 
thos, a flower, lego, to gather.] 

ANTHRACITE, an'thras-It, n. a kind of 
coal that burns without flame, etc. [Gr. 
anthrax, coal.] 

ANTHRAX, an'thraks, n. a malignant boil : 
a splenic fever of sheep and cattle. [L.— 
Gr. anthrax, coal.] 

ANTHROPOCENTRIC, an-thr6'p5-«en'trik, 
adj. appellative of or pertainmg to any 
theory of the universe or solar system in 
which man is held to be the ultimate end, 
and in which he is assumed to be the 
chief or central part of creation. [Gr. 
anthropos, a man, and kentron, a centre.] 

ANTHROPOGENIC, an-thro'p5-je'nik, adj 
of or pertaining to anthropogeny. 

ANTHROPOGENY, an-thro'poj'en-l. n. 
the ~~'<^nce of the origin and develop^ 



ment or oiaxu [Qr. anthrqpoSi maDis 
and g ennad, to be^et.] 

ANTHROPOID, ai'throp-oid, adj',, in the 
form of or resembling vnaTU [Gr. aa^ 
tkropoii. man. eidoa. form.] 

ANTHROPOLOGY, an-throp-oroj-i, n. the 
natural history of man in its widest 
sense, treating- of his relation to the 
brutes, the different races, etc. — ad/. 
Anthropolog'icaIu [Gr. an Wiropos, man, 
and vogos, discourse — lego, to say.] 

AN T H R O P O M O R P H I S M, an-throp-o- 
morf izm, n. the representation of the 
Deity in the form of man or with bodily 
parts : the ascription to the Deity of hu- 
man affections and passions. — adj. An- 
thropomorph'ic. (Gr. anfhrOpos, man, 
morphe, form.] 

ANTHROPOPHAGI, an-throp-of aj-i., 
m,an-eaters, cannibals. — Anthropophag- 
ous, an-throp-of ag-us, adj> fGr. anthro- 
pos, man, phago, to eat. ] 

ANTHROPOPHAGY, an-ttirop-ofaj-i, ». 

ANTHROPOPHOBIA, an-thro-p6-f6'-bi-a, n. 
(med.) a disease characterized by a mor- 
bid dread of human beings: repugnance 
to society. [Gr. anthropos, man, and 
phobos, fear.] 

ANTHROPOPHYSFTE, an-thro-pof'-i-sit, n, 
one who believes God to be like man. 

ANTIANARCHIC, aatl-an-arTdk, ac^ op- 
posed to anarchy or confusion. "Your 
antianarchzc Girondins;" — Carlyle. 

ANTIBACTERIAL, an-ti-bak-te'-ri-al, a. for 
safeguarding against bacteria and the 
growth thereof. 

ANTIC, ant'ik, adj. odd: ridiculous.— -». 
a fantastic figure : a buffoon : a trick. 
[Ft antique-— L. antiquus, ancient — ante, 
beicre. Doublet of Antique.] 

ANTICHRIST, an'ti-krist, n. the great op- 
poser of Christ and Christianity. [Gr. 
anti, against, and Christ.] 

ANTICHRISTIAN, an-ti-krist'yan, adj. re- 
lating to Antichrist . opposed to ChriS" 

ANTICIPATE, an-tis'ip-at, v.t. to be before- 
hand with (another person or thing), to 
forestall or preoccupy : to foresee, [L. 
anticipo, -atum — ante, before, capio, to 
take 1 

ANTICIPAnON, an-tis-ip-a'shun, n. act of 
anticipatmg : foretaste : previous no- 
tion ; expectation. — adj. Anti'CIPATORY. 

ANTICLEVIAX, an-ti-kllm'aks, n., the op- 
posite of climax : a sentence in which the 
ideas become less important towards the 
close. [Gr. anti. against, and Climax.] 

ANTICLINAL, an-ti-klin'al, adj, sloping 
in opposite directions. — n. {geol.) the line 
from which the strata descend in op- 
posite directions. [Gr. ^nti, against, 
klino, to leanj 

ANTICYCLONE, an'ti-sl-kl6a, n. a meteor" 
©logical phenomenon presenting some 
features opposite to those of a cyclone. 
It consists of a region of high barometric 

• pressure, the pressiire being greatest la 

the centre, with light winds flowing out- 
wards from the centre, and not inwards 
as in the cyclone , accompanied with great 
cold in winter and with great heat in 

ANTIDOTE, an'ti-dot, n. that which is 
gizxn against anything that would pro- 
duce bad effects : a counter-poison : (fig.) 
anything that prevents evil. — adj. An'ti- 
dotal. [Gr. antidotos — anti, against, 
didomi, to give.] 

ANTILOGOUS, an-til'o-gus, adj. in elect. 
appUed to that pole of a crystal which i? 
negative when being electrified by heat, 
and afterwards, when cooUng, positive. 

ANTIMONY, an'ti-mun-i, n. a brittle 
white-colored metal much used in the 
arts and in medicine. — adj. Antimon'ial. 
[Ety. dub.] 

ANTINOMIAN, an-ti-nOm'i-an, n. one who 
holds that the law is not a rule of life 
under the Qxjspel. — adj. against the law : 
pertaining to the Antinomians. — n. Anti- 
nom'ianism. f Gr. anti, against, nomos, a 
law ] 

ANTIPARASITIC, an-ti-par-a-sit'-ik, a. 
(med.) for destroying, or hindering the 
growth of, parasites. 

ANTIPATHY, an-tip'ath-i, n. dislike ; re- 
pugnance : opposition. — adj. Antipa- 
thet'ic, [Gr. anti, against, pathos feel- 

ANftPHLOGISTIC, an-ti-floj-ist'ik, adf., 
acting against hieat, or inflammation. 
[Gr. anti, against, pMogiston, burnt — 
pfdegd, to huin.] 

ANTIPHON, an'tif-on, ANTIPHONY, an- 
tif'on-i, n., alternate chanting or singing. 
[Gr. anti, in return, and phone, voice. A 
doublet of Anthem.] 

ANTIPHONAL, an-tif'on-al, adj. pertain- 
mg to antiphony. — n. a book of anti- 
phons or anthems. 

ANTIPODES, an-tip'od-ez, those liv^ 
ing on the other side of the globe, and 
whose feet are thus opposite to ours. — 
€uij, Antip'odal. [Gr. anti, opposite to, 
pous, podos, a foot. J 

ANTIPOPE, an'ti-pop, n. an opposition 
pope : a pretender to the papacy. [Gr. 
anti, against, and Pope.] 

ANTIQUARY, an'ti-kwar-ij n. one who 
studies or collects ancient things : one 
skilled m antiquities. — adj. Antiquarian, 
an-ti-kwar'i-an. — n. Antiquar'ianism. 
[From Antique.] 

ANTIQUATED, an'ti-kwat-ed, adf., grown 
old, or out of fashion % obsolete. 

ANTIQUE, an-tek', adj. ancient : old-fash- 
ioned. — n. anything very old : ancient 
relics. — n. Antique'ness. [Fr. — L. an^ 
tiqu vbs, old, ancient — ante, before.] 

ANTIQUITY, an-tik'wi-ti, n., ancient times: 
grea t age : a relic of the past. 

ANTISABBATARIAN, an-ti-sab-at-a'ri-an, 
n. one who opposes the observance of 
the Lord's day with the strictness of the 
Jewish Sabbath. [Gr. anti, against, and 


ANTISCORBUTIC, an-ti-skor-bflt'ik, aSj. 
acting against scurvy. — n. a remedy for 
scurvy. [Gr. anti, against, and SOOB- 

ANTI-SEMITISM, -sem'-i-tiz'm, n. hatred 
of, or opposition to, Semites, particularly 
Jews. — n. Anti-Semite, -sem'-it. — a. Anti- 
Semitic, sem-it'ik. 

ANTISEPTIC, an-ti-sept'ik, a4f. and n., 
counteracting putrefaction. [Gr. anti, 
against, a nd se po, to make putrid.] 

ANTISTROPHE, an-tis'trof-e, n. (jpoet.) 
the stanza of a song alternating with 
the strophe. [Gr. anti, against, and 

ANTITHESIS, an-tith'e-sis, n. a figure in 
which thoughts or words are set in con- 
trast : opposition : — pi. Antith'eses, -sez, 
— acy. Ajntithet'ic, -al. — adv. Antiteth'- 
ICATJ.Y. [Gr. anti, against, tithemi, to 

ANTITOXIN, an-ti-tox'-in, n. a substance 
by which immunity may be secured from 
certain diseases: also used to counteract 
the effects of poison. [From pfx. anft, 
and toxin. See Toxin.] 

ANTI-TRADE, an'ti-trad, n. a name given 
to any of the upper tropical winds which 
move northward or southward in the 
same manner as the trade-winds, which 
blow beneath thera in the opposite direc- 
tion. These great aerial currents descend 
to the surface, after they have passed the 
limits of the trade-winds and form the 
south-west, or west-south-west winds of 
the north temperate, and the north-west, 
or west-north-west winds of the south 
temperate zones. 

ANTI-TRUST, an-ti-trust', a. opposed to 
industrial combinations, or trusts that 
may tend to centralize or control trade, 
manufacture, or any branch of industry. 

ANTITYPE, an'ti-tip, n. that which corre- 
sponds to the type: that which \a pre- 
figured by the type. [Gr. anti, corre- 
sponding to, and Type.] 

ANTLER, ant'ler, n. the branch of a stag's 
horn. — adj. Ant'leeed. [Ety. dub.] 

ANTONYM, an'to-nim, n. the opposite to 
synonym. [Gr. anti, against, and onoma, 
a name. 

ANTONY-OVER, an'to-ni-5ver, n. a game 
at ball played by two parties of boys on 
opposite sides of a schoolhouse, over 
which the ball is thrown. (Amer.) 

ANTOZONE, ant'o-zon, n. a compound for- 
merly supposed to be a modification of 
oxygen, and to exhibit qualities directly 
opposed to those of ozone, but now known 
to be the peroxide of hydrogen. 

ANUS, an'us, n. the lower orifice of the 
bowels. [L., for as-mus, " sitting-part,** 
from root as, to sit.] 

ANVIL, an'vil, re. an iron block on which 
smiths hammer metal into shape [A.S. 
anfilt, on flit — ore flllan, to strike down 
or fell. See Fell, r.f.] 

ANXIETY, ang-zi'e-ti, n. state of being 

ANXIOUS, angk'shus, adj. uneasy regard- 
ing something doubtful : soUcitoixt. — n. 
AiriaousNESS. — adv. An'xioi/slt. fL. 
anxiv^ — aregro, to press tightly. See 
Anger, Anguish.] 

ANY, en'ni, a^., one indefinitely: some: 
whoever. — adv. An'ything {B.), at all.— 
An'ywise, in any way. [A.S= cenig—an, 

ANYBODY, en'ni-bo-di, re. 1, any one per- 
son : as, anybody can do that.— 2, a well- 
known person : a person of importance 
or celebrity : as, is he anybody f [Colloq.] 

ANYONE, en'ni-wun, re. any person : any- 

ANYRATE, en'ni-rat, re. used only in the 
phrase at anyrate : that is, whatever con- 
siderations are to be taken account of : 
under any circumstances : whatever else : 
as, you at anyi^ate need not reproach 
me : he was going there at anyrate. 

ANYWHEN, en'ni-when, adv. at any time. 
"Anywhere or anywhen" — De Quincey, 

ANYWHERE, en'ni-hwar, adv, in any 

ANYWHITHER, en'ni-hwiiTi-er, adv. to 
any place. 

AONIAN, a-o'ni-an, adj. pertaining to 
Aonia in Greece, or to the Muses sup- 
posed to dwell there. 

AORIST, a'or-ist, re. the name of certain 
tenses in the Greek verb expressing in- 
definite time. — adj. indefinite • undefined. 
[Gr. aoristos, indefinite — a, priv.,»and 
noros, a limit.] 

AORTA, a-or'ta, re. the great artery that 
rises up from the left ventricle of the 
heart. — adjs. Aor'tal, Aor'tic. [Gr. 
aorte — aeiro, to raise up.] 

APACE, a-pas', adv. at a quick pace: 
swiftly : fast. [Prefix a, and Pace.] 

APACHES, a-pa'-chez, a group of 
North American Indian tribes, natives of 
Arizona and New Mexico: — sing. Apache, 

APART, a-parf, adv. separately: ^side. 
[Fr. aparte — L. a parte, from the part 
or side.] 

APARTMENT, a-part'ment, re. a separate 
room in a house. [Fr. appartement, a 
suite of rooms forming a complete dwell- 
ing, through Low L., from L. ad, and 
partire, to divide— j?ars, a part.] 

APATHY, ap'ath-i, n., want of feeling: 
absence of passion : indifference. — adj. 
Apathet'ic. [Gr. a, priv., pathos, feel- 

APE, ap, w. a tailless monkey : a silly imi- 
tator. — v.t. to imitate, as an ape. [A.S. 
apa, Grer. affe.] 

APEAK, arpek*, adv. (naut.) the anchor is 
apeak when the cable is drawn so as to 
bring the ship's bow directly over it. [a, 
on, and Peak.] 

APEDOM, ap'dum. APEHOOD, ap'bud, re. 
the state of being an ape, or of being 
apish. "This early condition of ape- 
dorn." — De Quincey. 



There's a dog-faced dwarf 

That gets to godship somehow, yet retahis 
His apehood. — Browning. 

APERIENT, a-pg'ri-ent, adj., opening: 
mildly purgative. — n. any laxative medi- 
cine. jLi. aperio, to open.] 

^ERITlVE, a-per'it-iv, w. an aperient. 
" Gentle aperitives.'^ — Richardson. 

APERTURE, a'pert-ur, n., an opening: a 
hole. [L. apertura — aperio, to open,] 

APEX, a peks, n., the summit or point :— 
pi. Apexes, a'peks-ez. Apices, ap'i- 
sez. [L.J 

APHANAPTERIX, af-an-ap'ter-iks, n. a 
genus of large RalUne birds, incapable of 
flight, the remains of which are found in 
the post-tertiary deposits of Mauritius. 
They survived into the human period, 
and were exterminated at a compara- 
tively late date. [Gr. aphanes, obscure, 
and pteryz, a wing.] 

APHAKIA, a-fa'zi-a, n. in pathol. a sympr 
torn of certain morbid conditions of the 
nervous system, in which the patient 
loses the power of expressing ideas by 
means of words, or loses the appropriate 
use of words, the vocal organs the wliile 
remaining intact and the intelligence 
sound. There is sometimes an entire 
loss of words as connected with ideas, 
and sometimes only the loss of a few. In 
one form of the disease, called Aphemia, 
the patient can think and write, but can- 
not speak ; in another, called Agraphia, 
he can think and speak, but cannot ex- 
press his ideas in writing. In a great 
majority of cases where post-mortem 
examinations have been made, morbid 
changes have been found in the left 
frontal convolution of the brain. [Gr. 
a, priv., and phasis, speech.] 

APHASIC, a-fa'zik, adj. of or pertaining 
to aphasia. 

APHASIC, a-fa'zik, n. a person affected 
with aphasia. 

APHELION, af-el'yun, n. the point of a 

J>lanet's orbit fartnest away from the sun. 
Gr. apo, from, helios, the sun,] 
/HELIOTROPISM, af-e'li-ot'ro-pizm, n. 
in bot. a tendency to turn away from the 
sun or the light, as opposed to Helio- 
TROPISM (which see). Darwin. [Gr. apo, 
away from, helios, the sun, and trope, a 

APHEMIA, a-fe'mi-a, n. in pathol. a form 
of aphasia in which the patient can 
think and write, but cannot speak. See 
Aphasia. [Gr. a, priv., and phemi, I 

APHERESIS, af-e're-sis, n. the taking ot a 
letter or syllable froin the beginning of 
a word. [Gr. apo, from, haired, to take.] 

APHORISM, af'or-izm, n. a brief pithy 
saying: an adage. [Gr. aphorizo, to 
mark off by boundaries — apo, from, and 
horos, a limit.] 

APHORIZMING, af-or-iz'ming, adj. much 
^ven to the use of aphorisms. "There 
is no art that hath been more cankered 

in her principles, more soiled and slab- 
bered with aphorizming pedantry, than 
the art of policy." — Milton. 
APHORISTIC, -AL, af-or-ist'ik. -al. adj. in 
the form of an aphorism.— adv. Aphob- 


APHRODISIAN, af-ro-diz-i-an, adj, of, or 
pertaining to, or given up to unlawful 

isexual pleasures. JGr. apkrodisios, per- 
taining to sexual pleasures, from Aphro- 
dite the goddess of love.] "They 

, showed me the state nursery for the 
children of those aphrodisian dames, 
their favorites." — 0. Beade. 

APIARY, ap'i-ar-i, n. a place where bees 
are kept. [L. apiarium — apis, a bee. J 

APIECE, a-pes'. cuiv,. in piece : to each. 

APIOLOGY, a-pi-ol'-o-ji, n, the study of 
honey-bees. [L. apis, bee, and ology—Gv. 
loQos, a discourse.! 

APISH, ap'ish, adj. like an ape : imitative : 
foppish.— adr. Ap'ishly. — n. Ap'ishness. 

APOCALYPSE, a-polc'al-ips, n. the name 
of the last book of the New Testament. 
— adj. Apocalypt'ic, -al. [Gr., a reve- 
lation, an uncovering — apo, from, ka- 
lypto, kalypso, to cover,] 

APOCOPE, a-pok'op-e, n., the cutting off 
of the last letter or syllable of a word. 

JGr. apo, off, kopto, to cut.] 
'NCEA, ap-ne'a, n. in med. absence of 
respiration : insensible respiration : as- 
phyxia. [Gr. a, priv., and pnoil, a 
breathing, from pneo, to breathe.] 

APOCRYPHA, a-pok'rif-a, n. certain books 
whose inspiration is not admitted.— adj. 
Apoc'ryphal. [Gr., "things hidden"— 
apo, from, krypto, to hide.] 

APOGEE, ap'o-je, n. the point in the 
moon's orbit furthest away from the 
earth. [Gr. qpo, from, ge, the earth.] 

APOGEOTROPISM, ap'o-ge-ot'ro-pizm, n. 
a tendency to turn or bend in opposi- 
tion to gravity, or away from the cen- 
tre of the earth, as opposed to Geotrop* 
ism (which see). Darwin. [Gr. apo, away 
from, ge, the earth, and trope, a turning.J 

APOLOGETIC, -AL, a-pol-oj-et'ik, -al, ac^. 
excusing : said or written in defence.— 
adv. Apologetic a t .t, y. 

APOLOGETIC, a-pol-oj-et'ik, n. an apol. 
ogy. "Full of deprecatories and apolo- 
getics." — Roger North. 

APOLOGETICS, a-pol-oj-et'iks, n. branch 
of theology concerned with the defence 
of Christianity. 

APOLOGIZE, a-pol'oj-Iz, v.i. to make ex- 

APOLOGIST, a-pol'oj-ist, n. one wno makes 
an apolo^ : a defender, 

APOLOGUE, a'pol-og, n. a moral tale : a 
fable. [Fr. — Gr. apologos, a fable — apo, 
from, logos, speech.] 

APOLOGY, a-pol'oj-i, n. something spoken 
to ward off an attack : a defence or justi- 
fication : an excuse. [Gr. — apo, from, 
logos, speech.] 

APOPHTHEGM, a'po-tham, n. a form of 



APOPLECTIC, -AL, a-po-plekt'ik, -al, adj. 
of or predisposed to apoplexy. 

APOPLEXY, a'po-pleks-i, n. loss of sensa- 
tion and of motion by a sudden stroke. 
[Gr. apopl&cia — apo, from, away, and 
plesso, to strike.] 

APOSIOPESTIC, ap'o-m-o-pes'tik, ac^: of 
or pertaining- to an aposiopesis. "That 
interjection of surprise . . . with the 
aposiopestic break after it, maj'ked thus, 
Z— ds. " — Sterne. 

APOSTASY, Al'OSTACY, ar^)ost'a-«i, n. 
abandonment of one's religion, prin- 
ciples, or party. [Gr, " a standing' 
away" — apo, from, stasig, a standing-. J 

APOSTATE, a-post'at, n. one guilty of 
apostasy : a renegade. — adj. false ; trai- 
torous : fallen. — Apostatize, a-post'at-iz, 
v.i. to commit apostasy. 

APOSTLE, a-pos'l, n. one sent to preach 
the Grospel : specially, one of the twelve 
disciples of Christ. — Apostleship, a-pos'l- 
ship, n. the office or dignity of an apostle. 
— Apostolic, -al, a-pos-tol'ik, -al, adj. 
[Gr., one sent away, apo, away, stello, to 

APOSTROPHE, a-post'rof-e, n. (rhet.) a 
sudden turning away from the subject 
to address some person or object present 
or absent : a mark ( ' ), showing- the omis- 
sion of a letter. [Gr. <ipo, from, and 
Strophe, a tumingr] 

APOSTROPHIZE, a-post'rof-Iz, v.t. to ad- 
dress bv apostrophe. 

APOTHECARY, a-poth'ek-ar-i, n. one who 
dispenses medicine. [Gr. apotheke, a 
storehouse — apo, away, and tithemi, to 

APOTHEGM, a'po-them, n. a terse pointed 
remark : an aphorism. [Gr. apo, from, 
out, phtJiengomai, to s|)eak plainly.] 

APOTHEOSIS, a-po-the'o-sis, n. deifica- 
tion. [Gr., a setting aside as a god — apo, 
away irom what he was, theos, a god. J 

APPAii, ap-pawl', v.t. to terrify : to dis- 
ra&y.—pr.p. appall'ing : pa.p. appalled'. 
[Ace. to Skeat, from Celtic pall, to 
weaken, and not from O. Fr. apalir, to 
CTOW paiej 

APPANAGE, ap'pan-aj, n. aprovision for 
younger sons : aliment. [Fr. apanage — 
L. ad, and pants, bread.] 

^PARATUS, ap-pap-at'us, n. things pre- 
pared or provided •, set of instnunents or 
tools. [ll ad, to, paratus, prepared.] 

APPAREL ap-par'el, n. covering for the 
body : dress. — v.t. to dress, adorn : — pr.p, 
appar'elling or appar'eling ; pa.p. ap- 
parelled or appar eled. \Yr. appareil — 
pareiller, to put hke to like, to assort or 
suit— parei'Z, like — L. par, equal, like.] 

APPARENT, ao-par'ent, a^. that may be 
seen : evident : seeming. — adv. Appak 
ENTLY. — n. Appar'entness. [L. c^ 
parens. See Appear. J 

APPARITION, ap-par-ish'un, n., an ap- 
pearance : something only apparent, not 
real : a ghost. — adj. Appahi'tional. [See 

APPARITOR, ap-par'it-or, n. an officer 
who attends on a court or on a magis*- 
trate to execute orders. [L. — root of 

APPEAL, ap-pel', v.i. to caU upon, have 
recourse to : to refer rto a witness ot 
superior authority). — vJ. to remove a 
cause (to another court). — n. act of ap- 
pealing-,- -adj. Appeal' able. [L. ajjpdm, 
-atum, to address, call by name.] 

APP^^ALINGNESS, ap-pel'ing-nes, n. the 
quaUty of appealing or beseeching, as 
for mercy, aid, sympathy, or the like. 
" Ready sympathy , . . made him alive 
to a certain appealingness in her be- 
havior towards him, " — George Eliot, 

APPEAR, ap-per*, v.i. to become visible : 
to be present : to seem, though not reaL 
[L. appareo — ad, to, pareo, pariium, to 
come forth.] 

APPEARANCE, ap-per'ans, n. the BtA of 
appearing ; the tning seen : apparent 
likeness : arrival : show. 

APPEASE, ap-pez*, v.t. to pacify; to quiet: 
to allay. — adj. Appeas'able. \Ft. apaiser 
— L. ad, to, pax, pacts, peaceri 

APPELLABILITY, ap-pel'a-bill-ti, n. the 
state or quality of being- appealable. 

APPELLABLE, ap-pera-bl, adj. capable of 
being appealed : appealable. 

APPELLANT, ap-pel ant, n. one who ap- 

APPELLATE, ap-pel'at, ac^j. relating to 

APPELLATION, ap-pel-a'shun, n. that by 
which anything is called : a name. [See 
Appeal 1 

APPELLATIVE, ap-pel'at-iv, n. a name 
common to all of the same kind, as dis- 
tinguished from a proper name. — adj. 
common to many : general. 

APPEND, ap-pend', v.t, to hang one thing 
to another : to add, [L. ad, to, pendo, 
to hang.] 

APPENDAGE, ap-pend'aj, to. something 

APPENDIX, ap-pend'iks, n. something ap» 
pended or added : a supplement -.—pi, 
Append' exes , -iks-ez, Append'ices, -is-ez. 

APPERCETVE, ap-per-cev', v.t. to compre- 
hend: to perceive: applied chiefly to 
one's own self. — n. Appebcepttois-, ap-per- 
eep'-shun, one's perception of the work- 
ings of one's own mind. 

APPERTMN, ap-per-tan', v.i., f® belong 
to. [Fr. from L. ad, to, pertineo, to be- 
long. See Pertain.] 

ap'pet-ens-i, n., a seeking after : desire, 
especially sensual desire. [L. ad, to, 
peto, to seek.] 

APPETIZE, ap'pet-iz, v.t. to create <« 
whet appetite. 

APPETIZER, ap'pet-Iz-er, n. something 
which whets the appetite. 

APPETITE, ap'pet-It, n. natural desire i 
desire for food : hunger. [Fr., from L. 
appetitus — appeto. See Appetence.] 

APPLAUD ap-plawd'. Vrt- to praise by 



clapping the hands : to praise loudly : tc 
extol. [L. applaudo — ad, to, plaudo. 
plausum, to clap. See Explode.] 

APPLAUSE, ap-plawz/, w. praise loudly 
expressed : acclamation. 

APPLE, ap'l, n. the fruit of the apple-tree 
— ^The apple of the eye, the eye-baU 
Apple brandy, a kind of brandy distilled 
from cider. Apple butter, a sauce made 
of apples stewed down in cider, which is 
put away like butter in tubs for use dur- 
ing the winter, Apple jack, same as 
apple brandy. Apple slump, a New 
England dish consisting of apples and 
mokusses baked within a bread pie in aa 
iron pot. (Amer.) [A-S. mpl: the W034! 
is found in all the Teutonic tongues, in 
the Celtic and the Slavonic] 

APPLIANCE, ap-pli'ans, n. anything ap- 
plied : means used. 

APPLICABLE, ap'plik-a-bl, adj. that may 
be applied: suitable. — adv. As'viacasl.y. 
— ns. Appucabil'ity, Ap'pucableness. 

APPLICANT, ap'plik-ant, n. one who ap- 
plies : a petitioner. 

APPLICATION, ap-plik-a'shun, n. the act 
of applying : the thing applied i close 
thought or attention : request : solicita- 

APPLY, ap-plf , v.t. to lay or put to : to 
employ : to fix the mind on. — v.i. to suit 
or agree : to have recourse to : to make 
request '.—pr.p. applying ; pa.p. af nlied'. 
[O. Fr. aplier, L. applico, -are — ctd, to, 
plico, -atum, to foldTj 

APPOINT, ap-point', v.t to fix : to settle : 
to name to an office : to equip. [O. EV. 
apointer, Prov. apuntar. Low L. appuno- 
tare — L. ad, to, punctum, a point.] 

APPOINTMENT, ap-point'ment, n. settle- 
ment : situation : arrangement : — pi. 

APPORTION, ap-pOr'shun, r.f., to portion 
out : to divide m just shares. — n. Appoe'- 
TiONMENT. [L. ad, to, and Portion.] 

APPOSITE, ap'poz-it, adj. adapted : suit- 
able. — txlv. Ap'positely. — n. Ap'posite- 
NESS. [L. apiiositus, pa. p. of appono, to 
put to— ad, to, pono, to put.] 

APPOSITION, ap-poz-ish'un, n. the act of 
adding ; state of being placed together or 
against: (gram.) the annexing of one 
noun to another, in the same case or 
relation, in order to explain or limit the 
first. [See Apposite.] 

APPRAISE, ap-praz*, v.t., to set a price on: 
to value with a view to sale. [Fr. ap- 
precier- O. Fr. apreiser, L. aj^pretio, -are 
— ad, to, pretium, price.] 

APPRAISEMENT, ap-praz^ment, n. a valu- 

APPRAISER, ap-prSz'er, n, one who values 

APPRECIATE, ap-pre'shl-at, v.t. {lit.) to set 
a price on : to estimate justly — used flg- 
uratively: also to raise the value of, 
(Amer.)— ad/. Appre'ciable. — adv. AJP- 
pre'ciably. [L. appretiattia, pa.p. of 
appretio. See Appraise.] 

APPRECIATION, ap-pre-shl-a'shun, ?i. the 
act of setting a value on : just estimation. 

APPRECIATIVE, ap-pre'shi-at-iv, APPRE- 
CIATORY, ap-pre'shi-at-or-i, o^/. imply- 
ing appreciation. 

APPREHEND, ap-nre-hend', v.t., to lay 
hold of: to seize oy authority : to catch 
the meaning of : to understand : to fear. 
— offo'. Apprehens'iblk. [L. apprehendo 
— ad, to, prehendo, -hensum, to lay hold 
of, from prce and root hend, which is for 
hed, the n being intrusive, and this akin 
to English get. Compare Gr. <JiandanO 
—root chad, to hold.] 

APPREHENSION, ap-pre-hen'shun, n. act 
of apprehending or seizing : arrest : con- 
ception : fear. 

APPREHENSI VB, ap-pre-hens'iv, adj, 
fearful: suspicious. — n. Appeehens'ivb- 


APPRENTICE, ap-prent'is, n, (tit.) a 
learner : one bound to another to team 
a trade or art. — v.t. to bind as an appren- 
tice. [Fr. apjprenti, O. Fr. apprentia-' 
apprendre — L. apprehendere, to learn. 
See Apprehend.] 

APPRENTICESHIP, ap-prent'is-ship, n. 
the state of an apprentice. 

APPRISE, ap-priz;', v.t. to give notice: to 
inform. [Fr. apprendre, pa. p. appriSf 
to instruct, from root of Apprehend.] 

APPROACH, ap-prOch', v.i. to draw near: 
to arrpopoximate. — vJ. to come near to s 
to resemble. — n. a drawing nee? to : ac- 
cess : a path or avenue. — adj. Appboach'- 
ABLB. rFr. approcher. Low L. appro^ 
piare—lj. ad, to, prope, near.] 

APPROBATE, ap'pro-bat, v.t. to express 
approbttion of. (Amer.) 

APPROBATION, ap-prob-a'shun, n. ap- 
proval. [See Approve.] 

APPROPINQUITY, ap-prS-ping'kwi-ti, n, 
the state of being near : nearness. Lamb. 

APPROPRIATE, ap-pro'pri-at, v.t. to take 
to one's self as one's own : to set apart 
for a purpose. — adj. set apart for a par- 
ticular purpose : peculiar : suitable. — 
adv. Appro'priately. — n. Appro'prlate- 
NESS. [L. approprio, -atum, — ad, to, 
proprius, one's own. See Proper.] 

APPROPRIATION, ap-pro-pri-a'shun, n. 
the act of appropriating : application to 
a particular purpose. 

APPROVAL, ap-M'oov'al, n. the act of ap 
proving: approoation. 

APPROVE, ap-proov', v.t. (lit.) to esteem 
good : to be pleased with : to commend : 
to sanction. — adv. Approv'ingly. [Fr. 
approuver, Prov. aprobar, L. approbo, 
•atum — ad, to, and probo, to test or try 
— probus, good.] [prove. 

APPROVEN, ap-prOov'n, old pa.p. of Ap- 

APPROVER, ap-proov'er, n. one who ap- 
proves : (law) an accomplice in crime 
admitted to give evidence against a pris- 

APPROXIMATE, ap-proks'im-at,ad/., near- 
est or next : approaching correctness.— 
•'.<• lo come near, to approach. — adv. 


Approxtmately. [L. approoeimo, -atum 
V — ad, to, proximtts, nearest, superlative 
• of prqpe, near. See Approach. J 

APPROXIMATION, ap-proks-im-a'shun, n. 

an approach. 
APPURTENANCE, ap-pur'ten-ans, n., thtit 
which appertains to: an appendage. — 
a<^'. Appur'tenant. [Fr. appartenance, 
O. Fr. apurtenaunset from root of Ap- 
APRAXIA, a-praks'-i-a, n. a form of aphasia 
characterized by loss of the power to rec- 
ognize an object or its nses. 
APRICOCK, a'pri-kok, n, old form of Apri- 

APRICOT, a[pri-kot, n, a froit of the plum 
kind. [O.E. apricock. Fr. abricot. The 
Fr. abricot was from Port. albricoque= 
At. alrbarquq. But barqu^ is a corrup- 
tion of Low Gr. praikokton, which is 
simply the L. prcecoquum or praxox, 
early ripe. See Precocious.] 
APRIL* a pril, n. the fourth month of the 
year, when the earth opens to bring forth 
fruits, etc [lu Aprilis==aperili9—aperio, 
to open.] 
APRON, a'prun. n. a cloth or piece of 
leather worn before one to protect the 
dress. — adj. A'proned. {O.E. and Fr. 
naperon — Fr. nappCt cloth, table-cloth. 
Low L. ma ppa, a napkin.] 
APRONEER, a-prun-er, n. one who wears 
an apron ; a tradesman or shopman. 
"Some surly aproneer." — Bp. Gavden. 
APROPOS, a-pro-po', adv.^ to theptirpose; 
appropriate^ : m reference to. [Pr. d 
propos. See Propose.] 
APSE, aps, n. an arched recess at the end 

of the choir of a church. [See Apsis.] 
APSIDAL, ap'sid-al, adj. pertaining to the 

apsides, or to the apse of a churco. 
APSIS, ap'sis, n. one of the two extreme 
points in the orbit of a planet, one at the 
greatest, the other at tne least distance 
from the eon i— pi. Ap'sides. Pj. apsw 
—Or. hapsis, a connection, an arch— 
hmyth, to connect. See Apt.] 
AFT, apt, adj. liable: ready: quick. JL. 
aptus, fit— apo, to join; cog. with Gr. 
APTERYX, ap'ter-iks, n. a bffd found in 
New Zealana, windless and tJiJllftgR. [Gr. 
Ojjmv., pttryx, wing,] 
APTlNUS, ap-tfnus, n. a genus of ooleop' 
terouB insects belonging to the Oaraki&' 
dae. [S ee Bombardier-beetle.] 
APTITUDE, apt'i-tud, n. fitness: tend- 
ency : readiness. — adv. Apt'ly. — n. Apt- 
ness. [Low L. aptitvdo — root of Apt.1 
AQUA-FORTIS, a'kwa-for'tis, n. {lit^ 
strong vxiter: nitric acid. JL. ajgua^ 
water, fortis, strong.] 
AQUA MA NILE, ak'wa-ma-nflg, n. the 
basin in which, according to the ancient 
church ceremony, the priest washes his 
bands in celebrating the mass. Also ap- 
plied to vessels of the ewer kind formerly 
used in private houses, and frequently 
made into grotesque forms representing 

a real or fabulous animal or the like. 
[From L. aqua, water, and manare, to 

AQUARIUM, akwS'ri-um, n. a tank or 
vessel for water plants and animals : a 
public collection of such tanks : — pL 
Aqua'riums or Aqua'ria. [L. — aqua, 

AQUARIUS, a-kwa'ri-us, n., the water- 
bearer, a sign of the zodiac. [L. aqua, 

AQUATIC, Brkwat'ik, adj., relating to 
water: living or growing in water. — 
Aquatics, a^kwat'iks, n. amusements on 
the water, as boating, etc. 

AQUA-VIT^, a'kwa-vrte, n. (lit.) water of 
life, a name given to ardent spirits. [L. 
aqua, water, vitce, of life, vita.\ 

AQUEDUCT, ak'we-dukt, n. an artificial 
channel for conveying vxiter. [L. aqua, 
water— dttco, ductum, to lead.] 

AQUEOUS, a'kwe-us, €ui(j. watery: depos- 
ited by wat-:". 

AQUILINE, a^'wil-in or -in, adj. relating 
to the eagle: hooked, like an eagle's beak. 

ARAB, ar'ab, n. a native of Arabia: a 
neglected or homeless boy or girl, usually 

ARABESQUE, ' ar'ab-esk, adj. after the 
manner of Arabian designs. — n. a tan* 
tastic painted or sculptured ornament 
among the Spanish Moors, consisting of 
foliage and other parts of plants curi- 
ously intertwined. [Fr. — It. arabeseo; 
-esco corresponding to Eng. -isft.] 

ARABIAN, ar-ab'i-an, ac^. relating to Ar- 
abia. — n. a native of Arabia. 

ARABIC, aKab-ik, adj. relating to Arabia, 
or to its language. — n. the language of 
Arabia. [L. Arabicus.] 

ARABLE, aKa-bl, adj. fit for ploughing or 
tillage. [L. arabilis — arc ; cog. with Gr. 
aroo, to plough, A-S. erian, E. Ear, ».<., 
It. araim.] 

ARAMAIC, ar-a-ma'ik, ARAMEAN, ar-a- 
me'an, adj. relating to Aramcea^ the 
whole of the country to the N.E. of 
Palestine, or to its language, a branch of 
the Semitic. 

ARAPAHOES, a-rap'-a-hoz, a tnbe of 
North American Indians now settled in 
Indian Territory; formerly a warlike, 
nomadic tribe roving over the Rocky 
Moimtain plains: — sing. Ar ap ahoe, a- 

ARBITER, arT)it-er, n. one chosen by par- 
ties in controversy to decide between 
them : a judge having absolute power of 
decision : an umpire •.—fern. Ar bitress. 
[L. — ar-^ad, to, and bito (cog. with Gr. 
hai-no), to go or come ; sig. one who 
co mes to look on, a witness, a judge.] 

ARBITRAMENT, ar-bit'ra-ment, n. the de- 
cision of an arbiter: determination t 
ch oice. 

ARBITRARY, arT)itr-ar-i, adj. depending 
on the will (as of an arbiter) : not bounl 
by rules : despotic ; absolute.— adv. AR'- 
bitrarily. — n, Ae'bitrariness. 



AEBiniATE, arnbitr-fit, v.i. to act as an 
arbiter : to determine. — n. Absitra.'tion. 

ABBITRATOR, arTii-tra-tur, n. same as 
Arbiter.— /em. Ar'bitratrix. 

ARBOR, Sr^ur, n. an inclosed seat in a 
garden, covered with branches of trees, 
plants, etc.: abower. [Acorr. of harboTt 
a shelter.l 

ARBOREOUS, ar-bor'e-iis, adj., of or be- 
longing to trees. [L. arboreua — arbor, a 

ARBORESCENT, ar-bor-es'ent, ady. grow- 
ing or formed like a tree. — n. Arbobes'- 
CENCE. [L. arboresco, to become a tree — 
arbor, a tree.] 

ARBORETUM, ar-bor-et'um, n. a place in 
which specimens of trees and shrubs are 
cultivated :—pl. ARBOReT'A. [L. — arbor, 

ARBORICULTURE, flr'bor-i-kult-ur, n., 
the culture of trees, esp. timber-trees. — 
adj. Arboricul'tural. — n. Arboricul'- 
TURiST. [L. arbor, and Culture.] 

ARBUTE, ar'but, ARBUTUS, ar'but-us, n. 
the strawberry tree: an evergreen shrub, 
which bears fruit resembling the straw- 
berry. [L, arbutus, akin to arbor, tree.] 

ARC, ark, n. a segment of a circle or other 
curve. — Electric arc, in electric light- 
ing, the Ught emitted by an electric cur- 
rent in crossing over the small interval of 
space between the carbon points. Called 
also Voltaic arc. [Fr. — L. arcus, a 

ARCADE, ark-ad', n. a walk arched over : 
a long arched gallery, lined with shops 
on both sides. [Fr. — L. areata, arched. 

ARCADIAN, ark-ad'i-an, adj. pertaining 
to Arcadia, a district in Greece: pastoral: 

ARCANUM, ark-an'um, n. a secret : a 
mystery : — pZ. Arcan'a. [L. — arcanus, 
secret, closed — area, a chest.] 

ARCH, arch, n. a construction of stones or 
other materials, arranged in the line of 
a curve, so as by mutual pressure to sup- 
port each other. — v.t. to cover with an 
arch : to bend into the form of an arch. 
[From Fr. arc, as ditch is from dyke — ^L. 
arcus, a bow.] 

ARCH, arch, adj. cunning : sly : waggish ; 
mirthful : shrewd. — adv. ARCH'ly. — n. 
Arch'ness. [A.S. earg, timid, slothful ; 
cog. with Ger. arg, mischievous, bad.] 

ARCH, arch (ark, before a vowel), adj. used 

from Lat. and Gr. archi- 

as a prefix : the first or chief. rA.S. arce, 
' i-, — Gr. arche, 

ARCll^otOGY, Qrk-e-ol'oj-i, n. knowl- 
e'dge of ancient art, customs, etc.: the 
science of ?^tiquities. — adj. Archjeolog'- 
ical. — a<^- Arch^oloo'ically. — n. 
ARCH^OL'oaiST. [Gr. archaios, ancient 
— arche, beginning, and logos, discourse.] 

ARCHAIC, -AL, ark-a'ik, -al, adj., ancient: 
obsolete. [Gr. archaikos — archaios, an- 
cient — arche, beginning.] 

ARCHAISM, ark'a-izm, n. an archaic or 
obsolete word or phrase. 

ARCHAIST, fir-ka'ist, n. an antiquarian : 
an archaeologist. E. B. Browning. 

ARCHANGEL, firk-an'jel, n. an angel of 
the highest order.— adj. ARCHA2fOEL'l0. 
[Arch, chief, and Angel.] 

ARCHBISHOP, arch-bish'up, n., a chief 
bishop : the bishop of a province as well 
as of his own diocese. — n. Abchbish'- 
OPRic. [Arch, chief, and Bishop.] 

AECHBISHOPESS, arch-bish'up-es, n. the 
wife of an archbishop. Miss Bumey. 

ARCHDEACON, arch-de'kn, «., a chief 
deacon : the officer having the chief 
supervision of a diocese or part of it, 
next under the bishop. -^n. Archdeia'- 
OONRY, the office, jurisdiction, or residence 
-^fan archdeacon. — n. Archdea'conship, 
i^e office of an archdeacon, [Arch, chief, 
and Deacon.]^ 

ARCHDIOCESE, arch-di'o-sez, n. the dio- 
cese of an archbishop. 

ARCHDUKE, arch-duk', n., a chief duke : 
a prince of Austria.— /em. Archduch'ess. 
—adj. Archdu'cal. — tis. Archduch'y, 
Archduke'dom, the territory of an arch- 
duke or archduchess. [Arch, chief, and 

ARCHER, arch'er, n. one who shoots unth 
a bow and arrows : — fern. Abch'eress. ' 
[Fr. — arc, L. arciis, a bow.] 

ARCHERY, arch'er-i, n. the art of shooting ^ 
with the bow. 

ARCHETYPE, ark-e-tip, n. the original \ 
pattern or model. — adj. Archetyp'al. /. 
[Gr. arche=archir, original, and typos, ^ 
a model.] > 

ARCHIDIACONAL, ark-i-di-ak'on-al, adj. '' 
pertaining to an archdeacon. [Gr. arclu^ 
IS here taken directly from Greek. See 

ARCHIEPISCOPAL, ark-i-ep-i'skop-al, adj. 
belonging to an archbishop. — Archiepis'- 
COPACY, n. dignity or province of an 
archbishop. [See Episcopal.] 

ARCHIPELAGO, ark-i-pe)'a-go, n. the chief 
sea of the Greeks, or the JEgean sea : 
a sea abounding in small islands. [Gr. 
archi-, chief, pelagos, sea.] 

ARCHITECT, ark'i-tekt, n. one who de- 
signs buildings and superintends their 
erection : a maker. [Gr. architekton — 
archi-, chief, and tekton, a builder.] 

ARCHITECTURE, ark'i-tekt'ur, n., the art 
or science of building: structure.-— cw^'. 

ARCHITECTURE, ark'i-tekt'ur, v.t. to con- 
struct: to build. 

This was arohitectur''d thus 
By the great Oceanus. — Keats. 

ARCHITRAVE, ark'i-trav, n., the chief 
beam : (arch.) the lowest di\'ision of the 
entablature resting immediately on the 
abacus of the column. [It. from Gr. 
archi-, ^hief, and L. trabs, a beam — the 
chief beam.] 

ARCHIVES, arkTvz, n. the place in which 
government records are kept : pubUc 
records. [Fr.— Gr. archeion — amhef gov- 



ARCHIVIST, firk'iv-iat, n. a keeper of 

archives or records. 
AJICHON, ark'on, n. one of nine chief 
mag^istrates Who at one time g-overned 
ancient Athens. |Gr. archo, to be first, 
to rule.] 

AfiCITWAY, archVa, 7i. a way or passage 
Tinder an arch. 

ABGOSGLIUM, ar-ko-so'Ii-uro, n. a term 
applied to those receptacles for dead 
todies of amartyrs in-the Catacombs-wiiich 
consist of a deep oicJhe cut in the -rocky 
wall, arched above, and under the arch 
a sarcophagiis excavated in 1;he sdlid 
Tock. The flat cover of the sarcophagus 
TOigirt be used as sa attar: and such 
tonjbs were often richly ornamented. 
^.1.. , from Ij. arcus, an arch, and soTium, 
^Hsarcopbagus, a throne.] 

ARCTIC, arkt'ik, adj, relating to rttie con- 
'Stellation the ^Great Sear, or the north, 
[Gr. arktos, a bear.] 

A«CTOGEAL, ark-to-jg'al, aefy. of or per 
taining to the colder parts of the uorth- 
em hemisphere. " The great arctogeal 
proATnce." — Huxley FGr, arctos^ the 
north, and gea, theranrh.] 

ARDENCY, ard'en-si, ARDOR, ard'or, «. 
^warmth of passion or feeling eager' 

ARDENT, ard'ent, a<^'., humiiw: ficay 
passionate. — adv. Aia)'ENTL'Y [Tj (rrdens 
— ardeo. to burn.] 

ARDLLLA, Sr-del-ya, n. a squirrel, [Sp.] 

ARD0IS SYSTEM, ar-dwa'-, (natit.) a bjb- 
*em of •electric signals on a ship, oper 
ated by pressing keys on a keyboard on 
deck. The signals inchide a series ot red 
and -whTte electric lamps carried op a, 
stay from a masthead. 

ARDUOUS, ard'u-us, ac^'. diflBcult to ao- 
complish : laborious. — adv. Akd^tiously 
— n. Ard'tjousness. [L. arduus, faigh» 
akin to Celt, ard, high, height.] 

ARE, ar, the plural of the present tndicar- 
tive of the verb to be. [M.E. ar-en was 
the northern form which took the place 
of A.S. sindon. Dan. er-es, ar-en=<t8-€n , 
er-€=es-e ; the root is as-, to be seen in 
L e»-m. »-wn f or es-«m. See Was.] 

AREA, a're-a, n. any plane surface or in- 
closed space : the sunken space around 
the basement of a building : {geom.) the 
superficial contents of any figure. [L,] 

ARENA, a-re'na, n. an open space strewed 
with sand for combatants : any plao« 
of pubhc contest. — adj. Aeena'ceous, 
sandy. [L. arena, sand.] 

aRENATED, ar'e-na-ted, ac^: reduced or 
ground into sand. [L. arena, sand,] 

ABEOPAGITE, ar-e-o'p'aj-It, n. a memt)er 
off tho Areopagus. 

AREOPAGUS ar-e-op'ag-us, n., Mar^ 
Hill, on which the supreme court of an- 
cient Athens was held : the court itself. 
[L. — Gr. Areioa pagos, hill of Ares — or 

aRETAICS, ar-e-ta'iks, n. in ethics, same 
as AiBETOLOGY. Orote, [Qr. areie, virtue. j 

ARETOL-OGY, ar-e-tol'o-ji, n. that pnrt trf 
moral philosophy which treats of virtue, 
its nature, and the means of attaining to 
it- [Gr. -avetej ^mrtue, jmd logoe, dia^ 
c ourse.] 

ARGENT, irj'ent, o^;. jnade of, or like 
silver, IFr. — L. argentum, silver — Gr. 
argos, white.] 

ARGILLACEOUS, Arj-m-a'shus, adj. of the 
nature df clay. [L, argUla — Gr. argilos, 
white clay — argos, white.] 

ARGONAUT, ar'go-nawt; n. one of those 
Who sailed in the sh^ Argo in search 
of the golden fleece. [Gr. Argo, and 
Tiautes, a sailor.] 

ARGOSY, ar'go-si, n. a large merchant- 
vessel richly laden. [Rrob, from the ship 
Argo. See AluJOKAin'.] 

A3W3UE, arg'u, v.t. to prove by argxunent ; 
to discuss. — v.t. to offer reasons to dis- 
pute -—pr.ja. ar'giiing ; pa p. ar'gued. 
fL. arguo, to prove — ttaxn root of Gr. 
argos, clear, and so=to make clear ] 

ARGUMENT, arg^u-ment, n. a reason of- 
fered as proof : a series of reasons i a 
discussion : subject of a discourse- [L, 
argumentum. See Abgtie.] 

ARGUSIENTATION, arg-u-ment-a'shun, 
n. an arguing or reasoning.— od/. AEau° 
ment'ative. — adv. AEGUMENtr'ATrvsijr, 


ARGUS, arg'us, n. a mythological bemg^, 
said to have had a hundred eyes, some of 
which w^ere always awake any very 
watchful person. [Gr. — argoe^ bngiit.J 

ARIAN, a'ri-an, adj., pertaining to Anus 
of Alexandria (4th e.), who denied the 
divinity of Christ. — n. one who adheres 
to the doctrines of Arius a Unitarian. 
— Arianism, a'n-an-izm, n-. the doctrines 
of the Anans. 

ARID, ar'id, adj., dry ' parched — ns. Abid'- 
TTY, Ak'idness. rti. arid^ls.^ 

ARIES, a'ri-ez, n., i7te Ram, the first of the 
signs of the zodiac, which the sun ear 
ters on March 21. [L.] 

ARIGHT, a-rit', adv. in a ngM way: 

A:RISE, a-riz', v.i., to rise up : to come into 
"View? to spring;— ^a.f. arose, a-roz'; 
pa.p. aris'en. [Prefix a (as in Aeoo;]^ 
and Rise.] 

ARISTOCRACY, ar-is-tok'rae-i, n., gaoem- 
•ment by the best men or nobles ' the 
Bobihty or chief persons of a state. [Gte, 
aristos, best, and kratos, power ] 

ARISTOCRAT, ar'is-to-krat or ar-is'-, i»c 
one Vrho belongs to or favors an ariBe 
tocracy ; a haughty pyerson. — Aristc>= 
CRATic, -AL, ar-is-to-krat'ik, -al, odQ, 
belonging to aristocracy. — a,dv. Abisto> 


ARISTO PAPER, a-ris'-to, n. a printing- 
cut paper used in photography. 

ARISTOTELIAN, ar-is-to-te'li-an, adj. re- 
lating to Aristotle or to his philosophy. 

ARISTOTYPE, a-ris'-to-tip, n. a photograph 
printed on aristo paper, on which the 

. silver salts are spiead with gelatin or 



collodion. [Name" gplven by Liesegang, 
who devised a printing art process.] 

ARITHMETIC, ar-ith'met-ik, n. the science 
of numbers : the art of reckoning by 
figures.— CK^'. Abithmet'ical. — adv. Ab- 
ithmet'ically. tOr. arithmetike CteehnS, 
art), retating to numbers — arithmos, 

ARITHMETICIAN, ar-ith-me-tish'yaji, n. 
one skilled in arithmetic. 

ARITHMOCRACY, ar-ith-mok'ra^si, n. 
rule or government by a majority. " A 
democracy of mere numbers is no democ- 
racy, but a mere brute arithmocracy." — 

AJIITHMOCRATIC, a-rith'mo-krat'ik, adj. 
of or pertaining to an arithmocracy or 
rule of numbers. "American democ- 
racy, being merely arithmocratic, pro- 
vides no representation whatsoever for 
the more educated and more experienced 
minority . " — Kingsley. 

ARK, ark, n. a chest or coffer : a large 
floating vessel : a large, flat boat used 
on some of the w^estern rivers of the 
United States, to transport merchandise. 
[A.S. arc — L. area, a chest — areeo, to 

ARM, arm, n, the limb extending from the 
shoulder to the hand : anything project- 
ing from the main body, as an inlet of 
the sea : (fig.) power. — n. Arm'ful. — adj. 
Aeu'less. — n. Arm'let, a bracelet. 
[A.S. ; cog. with L. armus, the shoulder- 
]oint, Gr. harmos, a joint. From root 
ar-. See Akms.] 

ARM, arm, n. a weapon : a branch of the 
military service. [Sing, of Arms.] 

ARM, arm, v.t. to furnish with arms or 
weapons : to fortify. — v.i. to take arms. 
[L. armo, to arm — arma, weapons. See 

ARMADA, arm-a'da, n. a fleet of armed 
ships. [Sp. — L. armatus, armed — armo, 
to arm.] 

ARMADILLO, arm-a-dill'o, n. a small 
quadruped, having its body arrned with 
a bony shell :— pZ. Armadill'os. [Sp. 
dim. of armado, armed.] 

ARMAMENT, arm'a-ment, n. forces armed 
or equipped for war : the guns, etc., with 
which a ship is armed. [L. armamenta 
— arma.'] 

ARMATURE, Sr'-ma-tur, n. armor: any- 
thing used or worn for bodily protection, 
esp. the protective equipment of certain 
plants and animals: in magnetism, a 
piece of soft iron used to complete thoi 
circuit oetween the two poles of a mag- 
net or electro-magnet, or to prevent the 
dissipation of the magnetic force: (arch.) 
iron bars used for strengthening a build- 
ing: ir electricity, a series of coils or 
groups -)t insulated conductors forming 
part oi a dynamo or electric generator. 
[L. armatura — armare, to arm.] 

ARMENxaN, ar-me'ni-an, adj. belonging 
to Armenia, a country ot Western Asia. 
— n. a native of Armenia 

ARMINIAN, ar-min'yan, adj. holding the 
doctrines of Arminiiis. — n. a follower of 
Arminius, a Dutch divine, who denied 
the Calvinistic doctrine of election. — n. 

ARMIPOTENT, arm-i'pot-ent, adj.,p(m}er- 
ful in arms. [L. arma, arms, potens, 
-entis^owertnt. ] 

ARMISTICE, arm'ist-is, n. a short suspen- 
sion of hostihties : a truce. [Fr. — Li. 
arma, arms, sisto, to stop.] 

ARMORED CRUISER, Sr'-mord cruz'-er, a 
protected cruiser: a man-of-war protected 
by iron or steel armor and large quanti- 
ties of coal. 

ARMORIAL, arm-or'i-al, adj. belonging ttj 
armor, or to the arms of a family. 

ARMORIC, ar-mor'ik, n. the language of 
the inhabitants of Armxyrica, the ancient 
name for Brittany. [L. Armoricus — 
Celt, ar, on, m,or, the sea.] 

ARMOR, arm'ur, n. defensive arms or 
dress : plating of ships of war. — n. 
Arm'or-bearer. — adj. Arm'or-plated. 

ARMORER, arm'ur-er, n. a maker or re- 
pairer of, or one who has the charge of 

ARMORY, arm'ur-i, n. the place in which 
arms are made or kept : a collection of 
ancient armor. 

ARMPIT, arm'pit, n. the pit or hollow un- 
der the shoulder. 

ARMS, armz, weapons of offence and 
defence : war : hostihty : armorial en- 
signs. [L. arma, (lit.) "fittings;" Gr. 
harmona, the tackling of a ship — ^root 
ar-, to fit ; conn, with Arm, the Imib.] 

ARMSWEEP, arm'swep, n. the length of 
reach or swing of an arm. Browning. 

ARMY, arml, n. a large body of men armed 
for war and under military command : a 
host. [Fr. armee — L. armata.] 

AROMA, a-ro'ma, n. sweet smell : the odor- 
ous principle of plants : (fig.) flavor of anv 
kind. [Gr.] 

AROMATIC, ar-o-mat'ik, adj. fragrant 

AROSE, a-roz', past tense of Arise. 

AROUND, a-rownd', prep, on all sides of. — 
adv. on every side : in a circle. [A, on, 
and Round.] 

AROUSE, a-rowz*, v.t. Same as Rouse. 

ARPENT, ar'oang, n. an acre. [Fr.] 

ARQUEBUS^, ARQUEBUSS, ar'kwi-bus, 
n. an old-fashioned hand-gun. [Fr. 
arquebuse, from Dut. haaMms — haak, 
hook, and Ims, box, barrel of a gun ; 
Ger. hakenbiichse.] 

ARRACK, ar'ak, n. an ardent spirit used 
in the East. [Ar. araq, juice or sweet.] 

ARRAIGN, ar-ran', v.t. to call one to ac- 
count : to put a prisoner upon trial : to 
accuse publicly. — n. Arraign'ment. [O. 
Fr. aragnier, Fr. arraisonner — Low L. 
arrationare — L. ad, to, ratio, reason.] 

ARRANGE, ar-ran j', v.t. to set in a rank 
or row : to put in order : to settle. [Fr. 
arranger— a, ( — L. ad, to), and ranger. 
See RANaE.} 



ABRANGELffiNT, AM-anj'meiit, n. act <rf 
^rr^nfrin g ; classificatloD settlemeot. 

A£BAI^, ar'caiit, ad^ downright, uoto- 
rious (used in « bad sense). [C«rr. of 
arghand, pr.p- of argh, the northern 
ioi-m of A.S. eargrtan, to be « oowatti, 
Ger arg, bad.] 

ARRAS, ar'ras.n. tapestry. \FTom Arras 
ID Northern J'canee, iMiere first manu- 

ARRAY, ar-ra', «. order : dress : equipage. 
— v.t. to ,put in order : to arrange r to 
drees, adorn, or equip. [O. Fr. arroi, 
arra-v, equipage — L. ad, and a Teut. root, 
found either in O. G«r. rat (Ger, raih), 
counsel, £. JSSAJEt, er in £. Skady, €ier. 

AB-RF-AR^ a,'rer, v.t. to cause to rise:: ito 
raise ly) - to rear. " A desperate pre- 
sumption arreared." — Puller. 

ARREAR, ar-rer', n, that which is in fhe 
rear or behind ; that which remains un- 
paid or undone (used mostly in pL) ; also, 
the rear. " ISie arrear consisting of be- 
tween three and four thousand foot." — 
Heylin. [Fr arridre, behind — ^L. ad, to, 
retro, bacK, behind.] 

ARREST, ar-rest', v.t. to stop : to seize : 'to 
apprehend by legal authority. — n. stop- 
page : seizure by warrant. [Fr. arreter 
for arrester — ^L. ad, to« resio, to stand 

ARRIEBQ, ar-ri-^ro', n. a muleteer. j^jp.J 

ARRIVAL, ar-ri v'al, n. the act of arriving : 
persons or things that arrive. 

ARRIVE, ar-riV, v.t. (fol. by at) to reach 
any place : to attain to any object. [Fr. 
arriver — Low L. adripare — L. ad, to, 
ripa, a bank ; as if, to reach the bankj 

ARROGAJ!iJCE, ar'rc^-ans, AREOGAiJCY, 
ar'rog-ans-i, n. lULOue assumption of im- 

ARROGANT, ar'rog-ant, a^. claiming too 
nauch : overbearing- — adv. Ab'bogajjtly. 

ARROGATE, ar'rop'-at, v.t. to claim as 
one's own : to claim proudly or unduly. 
TL. arrogo — ad, to, roflro, rogatum, to ask, 
to claim.] 

ARRONDIBSEMENT, ar-ron'des-mang, n. 
a subdivision of a French department. 
[Fr. — arrondir, to make round — L od, 
and Fr. rond. See Bound. ^ 

ARROW, ar'ro, n. a straight, pointed 
weapon, made to be shot from a bow.— » 
n. Arrow-heah, ar'ro-hed. — Arrow- 
HEADED, ar'ro-hed'ed, adj. shaped like the 
head of an arrow. [A.S. arewe ; Ice. or, 
akin perhaps to Ice. orr, the swift.] 

ARRGWLET, a'roJet, n. a little arrow 

AJBROWROOT, ar'ro-ro6t, n. a starch ob- 
tained from the roots of certain plants 
;growing chiefly in W. Indies, and much 
us«d as food for invahds and children. 
[Said to be so named because used by 
the Indians of S. America as an antidote 
against wounds caused by poisoned ar- 

ARROWY, ar'rC-i. adj. of or Jifc*» ttrroms. 

ARROYO, ar-ro'j^o, n. a ra«lne. tSp.] 

ARSENAL, ar'se-nal, n. a piibhc magazine 
or manufactory of naval and militarj 
stores. [Fr. and Sp.; from Ar. d&r, a 
house, and dna'at, ^ade. 

AESENIC, ar'sen-ik, n. a mineral poison : 
a soft, gray-colored metal. [Gr. arsen, 
male ; the alchemists fancied sonae met- 
al s ma le, .others female.] 

ABSENIC, -AL, ar-sen'ik, -al, ac^'. com- 
posed of or containing arsenic. 

ABSON, ars'on, n. the crime of willfully 
burning houses or other buildings. [O. 
Fr. arson— Im ardeo, arsum, to bum.] 

ART, art, 2d pers. sing, of the present 
tense of the verb to be. [A.S. eart.] 

AET, art, n. practical sMD guided by rules-: 
the rules and methods of doing certain 
actions : a profession or trade : contriv- 
ance : skill : cunning : artifice. [L. ars, 
artis. from root ar-, to fit. See Aim.] 

ARTERIALIZE, ar-te'ri-al-iz, v.t. to make 

ARTERY, ar*ter-i, n. a tube or vessel 
which conveys Mood from the heart. — 
adj. Arte'rlai,. [L. — Gr. arteria, orig. 
the windpipe, the bronchiae, then applied 
to the arteries : perh. conn, with artad, 
I fasten to, hang from.] 

ARTESIAN, ar-te'zhan, ac^j. applied to 
wells made by boring until water is 
reached. [Prom Artois (anc. Artesium), 
in the Jiorth of France, where these wells 
are said to have been first made.] 

ARTFUL, art'fool, acy. full of art ^ cun- 
ning. — adv. Art'fuiXiT. — n. Aet'jtulnbbs. 

ARTHROGRAPHY, ar-throg'ra-fi, n. in 
anat. a description of the joints. [Gr. 
artkron, a joint, and graphe, draciip- 

ARTHURIAN, ar-thu'ri-an, adj. of or per- 
taining to King Arthur, or to the legends 
connected with him and his knights of 
the Round Table. " Among the writers 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies the historical existence of Arthur 
was, with a few rare exceptions, denied, 
and the Arthurian legend regarded pure- 
ly as an invention of the worthy chron- 
icler, Geoff t-ey of Monmouth." — Ency. 

ARTIAD, ar'ti-ad, n. in cTicm. a name given 
to an element of even equivalency, as a 
dyad, tetrad, etc. i opposed to a perissad, 
an element of uneven equivalency, such 
as a monad, triad, etc. 

ARTICHOKE, ar'ti-chok, n. an eatable 
plant with large scaly heads, like the 
cone of the pine. [Fr. arfic^avi, It. ar- 
ticiocco, Sp. alcochqfa, Ar. aJharshaf.'] 

ARTICLE, art'i-kl, n. a separate element, 
member, or part of anything : a particu- 
lar substance : a single clause, or term : 
{gram.) one of the particles, an or a and 
fhe. — v.t. to draw^ up or bind by articles. 
[L. articuhis, a little joint — artus, a join^ 
— root or-, to join. 

ARTICDLAR, ar-tik'ul-ar, adj., belonffiriQ 
to the joints. [See ARTiciiE.J 



AEtnCULATE, ar-tik'ta-at, adg. distinct j 
cleai'. — v.t. to joint : to form into dis- 
tinct sounds, syllables, or words. — v.i. 
tospeak distinctly. — adu.ARTlC'ULATELY, 
— n. j^Tic'uLATENEas. jXi. articulo, 
-atum, to furnish with ioint$. to utter 
distinctly. See AfiTiciE. J 

AETICTILATION, fir-tik-M-a'shim, «., a 
joining, as of the bones : distinot utter- 
ajice : a consonant. 

ARTIFICE, art'i-fis, n. a, ofrntrivanoe : a 
trick or fraud. fL- artifieium — artifeXy 
-fids, an artificer — ars, arti&, and facio, 

AETIFICEK, ar-tif'is-er, n. a wofioaan: 
an inventor. 

AETIFICIAL, art-i-fish'yal, a(^:^ made hg 
art : not natural s omtivated : not in- 
digenous : feigned. — -CLdv. ABTEFic'iAiiLY. 
[See Artifice.] 

ARTILLERIST, ar-til'er-ist, n. one skilled 
in artillery or gunnery. 

ARTILLERY, ar-til'er-i, n. offensive weap- 
ons of war, esp. cannon, mortars, etc. ? 
the men who manage them : a branch 
of the military service : gunnery. [Fr. 
artillerie — O. Fr. artiller, to arm : from 
a supposed Low L. artillare — L. ar8,.a/rti8, 

ARTILLERY-MAN, ar-til'er-i-man, ». a 
soldier of the artillery, 

ARTISAN, art'i-zan, n. one skilled in any 
art or trade : a mechanic. [Fr. artisan. 
It. artigiano =- L. as if artitiarma— 
artitus, skiUed in the arts — ars, artis, 

ARTIST, art'ist, n., one who practices an 
art, esp. one of the fine arts, as paiixtiDg', 
sculpture, or architecture. [Fr. artiste^ 
Ital. artista — ^L. ars, artis, art.J 

ARTISTIC, -AL, art-ist'ik, -al, o4>*. accord- 
ing to art. 

AR'ttjESS, artles, adj, guHeless i simple. — 
n. Art'lessness. 

ARUSPTCY, a-rus'pi-si, ». divination by 
inspection of the entrails of beasts. [L. 
aruspicium, orig. dub.] 

ARYAN, a'ri-an, ac^'. relating to the family 
of nations otherwise called Indo-Euro- 

Ejan (comprehending the inliabitants of 
urope— except the Turks, Magyars and 
Finns — ^and those of Armenia, Persia, 
and N. Hindustan), or to their languag'es. 
XSans. arya, excellent, prob, allied to Gr. 
aristos, the best.] 

AS, az, adv. and conj. similarly : for ex- 
ample : while : in like manner. \As is a 
corr, of also — A.S. eal-swa, al so, alse, als; 
Ger. als. The primary meaning is, just 
so, quite in that way,] 

AS, rel. pro. from the Scand. [O. Ic, es. 
Mod. Ic. er. This use of as is provincial.] 

ASAFETIDA, as-a-fet'i-da, ri., fetid asa, 
a medicinal gum, having an offensive 
smell, made from a Persian plant called 

ASBESTOS, a-sbest'os, n. an incombustible 
mineral, a variety of hornblende, of a 
fine iibrous texture, xeBembling flax. 

[Gr. (Ut.) unquenchable— <a, aeg 

ASGENX), as-send', VoL, to olimb or mount 
up : to rise : to go backwards in the or- 
der of time.—^.t. to climb or go vep on. 
JL. a^cendo, asoensum-^cid, and scando, 
to olimb, Sans, ska/nd, to leap upwards.]' 

ASCENDANT, as-send'ant, adj. superior : 
above the horizon. — n. superiority^ {as- 
trol.) the part of the ecliptic rising 
aiKwe the horizon at the time of one's 
birth : it was supposed to have com- 
manding jnfluenoe over the person's 
life, hence the phrase, in the aseend- 

ASCENDENCY, as-send'en-si, n. ctmtrol- 
ling influence. 

ASCENSION, as-seu'shmi, n. a riedng' or 
g-oing up. HL. asceneio — ascenda.^ 

ASCENSION-DAY, as-sen'shun-da, n. the 
festival held on Holy Thursday, ten days 
before Whit-sunday, to commemorate 
Christ's asoemekm to heaven. 

ASCENT, as-sent', n. act of ascending: 
way o f ascending : degree of elevation. 

AfiCSIRTAIN, as-ser-ftan', v.t. to determine : 
to obtain certain knowledge of. — adj. 
Ascertain'able. [O, Fr. aoertainer. 

ASCETIC, as-set' ik, n., one rigidly self- 
>denying in reUgious observances : a strict 
hermit. — <m^'. excessively rigid : austere : 
recluse. — n. Asceticjism;, as-set'i-sizm. 
[Gr. aaketes, one that uses exercises to 
train himself.] 

ASCHAM, as'kam, n. in archery, a large 
case fitted up with the necessary drawers 
and compartments for the reception of 
the bow, arrows, string, and other neces- 
sary accoutrements. [After Roger As- 
cham, who in 1544 published " Toxophi- 
luB," a celebrated treatise on archery.] 

ASCITITIOUS, as-sit-ish'us, adj. Bee 

ASCRIBE, a-skrib', v.t. to attribute, im- 
pute, or assign. — adj. Asokib'able. [L. 
ascribo, -seriptum — ad, to, scribo, to 

ASCRIPTION, a-skrip'shun, n. act of as* 
cribing or imputing. 

ASEITY, a-se'i-ti, n. the state or condition 
of having an independent existence. 
" The absolute being and aseity of God.'* 
— Prof. W. R. Smith. " By what mysteri- 
ous light have you discovered that asedy 
is entaU'd on matter?" — Qentleman In- 
strueted, 1704. [L. a, from, and «e, one's 
self : IH. the state of being from or by 
one's self.] 

ASEMIA, a-se'-mi-a, n. (med.) a mental 
disorder wherein the power to express 
feelings or ideas by signs is lost, together 
with loss of comprehension of such modes 
of expression. 

ASH, ash, n. a well-known timber tree.— 
adj Ash'en. [A.S. cesc, Ger. esche. Ice. 
aski .] 

ASHAMED, a-shamd', ac^\, affected with 
shame. [Pa. p. of old verb ashame — ^pfx, 
a, inten.^ Aad-iSHAiaR] 



ASHES, ash'ez, n.pT. the dust or remains 
of anything burnt : the remains of the 
human body when burnt . (fig.) a dead 
body. [A.S, cesce. Ice. askaJj 

ASHLAR, ashlar, ASHLER, ashaer, n. 
* (lit.) stones laid in rows : hewn or squared 

stone used in facing a wall, as distin- 
guished from rough, as it comes from 
the quarry. (Tr. aisselle, dim. of ais, a 
plank ; L. assts, a plank — assula, a Utile 
plank, a shingle. Such little wooden 
boards were used to face walls before 
stones, and squared sitones took the 

ASHORE, a-shor', adv., onshore. [Pfx. a, 
and Shore.] 

ASH-WEDNESDAY, ash-wenz'da, n. the 
first day of Lent, so called from the 
Roman Catholic custom of sprinkhng 
ashes on the head. 

ASHY, ash'i, a^j. of or like ashes : ash- 
colored : pale. 

ASIDE, a-sid', adv., on or to one side : pri- 

ASIDERITE, a-sid'er-it, n. (min.) a me- 
teorite free from metallic iron. [Pfx. a, 
not. and siderite — Gr. sideros, iron.^ 

ASININE, as'in-In, adj. of or like an ass. 

J See AssJ 
ININITY, as-i-nin'i-ti, n. the quaUty of 
being asinine : obstinate stupidity. 

ASIPHONATE, a-sl'fon-at, adj. of or per- 
taining to the Asiphonata : not possess- 
ing a respiratory tube or siphon. H. A. 

ASK, ask, v.t.^ to seek : to request, inquire, 
beg, or question. — v.i. to request : to 
make inquiry. [A.S. acsian, ascian, 
Ger. heischen, Ice. ceskja, Sans, ish, to 

ASKANCE, a-skans*, v.t. to turn aside, as 
the eyes : to make look with indififer- 

O, how are they wrapp'd ia with infamies 
That from their own misdeeds askance their eyes. 


ASKANCE, arskans', ^^KANT, a-skant', 

adv. sideways : awry : obhquely. [O. 

Fr. a scanche ; It. schiancio, a slope, from 

the root of Slant.] 
ASKEW, a-skti', adv. on the Skew : awry 
ASKINGLY, ask'ing-li, adv. in an entreat 

ing manner : with expression of reques 

or desire. 

dow askingly its footsteps hither bend I 
It seems to say, " And tiave I fomid a friend ? " 


.^ jf JLANT, a-slant', ac^\ or adv. on the 
3lant : obliquely. 

i -JLEEP, a-slep', adj. or adv. in sleep : 1, 
sleeping. 2, having a peculiar nunib, or 
pricklv feeUng, as in the hands or feet. 
' His legge . . . was all aslepe, and in a 
■manner sterke stiff. " — Udall. 3, stunned i 
senseless. "So saying, she . . . gave 
:6usy such a douse on the side of the head 
as left her fast asleep for an hour and up- 
ward." — H. Brooke. 

ASLOPE, a-slop', adj. or adv. on the Slope. 

ASMEAR, a-smer', adf. smeared over : be- 
daubed. " I came into Smithfield, and 
the shameful place, being all asmear 
with filth, and fat, and blood, and foam, 
seemed to stick to me." — Dickens. 

ASP, asp. ASPIC, asp'ik, n. a very veno- 
mous serpent, [Fr. — L. and Gr. aspis.} 

ASPARAGUS, as-par'a-gus, n. garden 
vegetable. [L. — Gr. asparagosJ] 

ASPECT, as'pekt, n. look : view : appear- 
ance : position in relation to the points 
of the compass ; the situation of one 
planet with respect to another, as seen 
from the earth. [L. aspcct'u»—od, at, 
^pedo, to look.] 

ASPEN, asp'en, n= the trembUng poplaT.— 
adj. made of, or like the aspen. [A.S. 
cesp, Ger. d'spe.] 

ASPERITY, as-per'i'ti, n., roughness: 
harshness. [Fr. — L. asperitas — asper, 

ASPERSE, as-pers', v.t. to slander or ca- 
lumniate. [L. aspergo, -spersitm — ad, to, 
on, spargo, to scatter.] 

ASPERSION, as-per'shun, n. calumny j 

ASPHALT, as-falt', ASPHALTUM, as- 
falt'um, n. a hard, bituminous substance, 
anciently used as a cement, and now for 
ra\ing, etc. — adj. Asphalt'ic. [Gr. 
C- haltos, an Eastern word.] 

^-SPHODEL, as'fo-del, n. a kind of lily. 

JSoe Daffodil.] 
I'HYXIA, a-sfiks'i-a, n, (lit.) sasTpended. 
animation, suffocation. — adj. Asphyx*- 
L4.TED. [Gr., a stopping of the pulse — a, 
neg., sphyzo, to throb.] 

ASPHYXIANT, as -fiks'-i-ant, a. (med.) 
causing sufFocation: producing asphyxia: 
asphyxiating — n. an agent by which as- 
phyxiation is produced. 

ASPIRANT, as-plr'ant, n. one who aspires : 
a candidate. 

ASPIRATE, as'pir-at, v.t. to pronounce 
with a fiill breathing, as the letter h in 
house. — n. a mark of aspiration ( ' ) : an 
aspirated letter. — n. Aspiration, as-pir- 
a'shun, n. pronunciation of a letter with 
a full breathing. [L. ad, and spire, to 

ASPIRE, as-pir', v.i. to desire eagerly : to 
aim at high things. — adj. Aspir'ing. — 
adv. AspiR INGLY. — Aspira'tion, n. ea^er 
desire. [L. aspiro, -atum — ad, to, spiro, 
to breathe.] 

ASQUAT, a-skwot', adv. in a squat or hud- 
dled up manner: coweringly. "Sitting 
asquat between my mother and sister.^ 
— Richardson. 

ASQTjTNT, a-skwint', adv. towards the 
corner of the eye : obliquely. [Pfx. a, 
on, and Squint.] 

ASS, IS, n. a well-known quadruped of the 
horse family : (fig.) a dull, stupid fellow, 
[A.S. assa. The word, orig. perhaps Se- 
mitic, has spread into all the Eur. lang. -, 
it is a dim. in all but Eng. — It. as-inu.% 
Ger. eji-el.] 

ASSAFETIDA, same as Asapetida. 



ASSAIL, as-«Bf , r/f. to assatilt : to attacfc 
— adj. Assail'able. [Fr. assaiUir, L- 
tusiiim — <xd, upon, and >8aito, to ieap.] 

ASSAILANT, as-sSl'ant, n. one who assails 
or attacks. 

ASSASSIN, as-sas'sm, n. one who kills by 
surprise or secretly. [Fr. — Ar. hashishin, 
the followers of an Eastern robber-chief, 
who fortified themselves for their adven- 
tures by hashish, an intoxicating drink 
made from hemp.] 

ASSASSINATE, as-sas'sin-at,t;.f. to murder 
by surprise or secret assault. 

ASSASSINATION, as-sas-sin-a'shun, n. se- 
cret murder. 

ASSAUIiT, as-sawlt', n. a sudden attack : 
a storming, as of a town. — v.t, to make 
an assault or attack upon. [Fr, aasaut, 
O. Ft. asalt — ^L. ad, upon, santts, a leap. 
See Assail.] 

ASSAY, as-sa,', v.t., to examine or weigh 
accurately : to determine the amount of 
metal in an ore or alloy. — v.i. to attenipt : 
to essay, — n. the determination of the 
quanti^ of metal in an ore or alloy : the 
tning tested. [See EssAY.] 

(AflSEGAI, as's^^, n. a spear or javelm 
used by the Kaffirs of S. Africa. £Sp. 
azagai/a—Ar. al-khaziq.] 

ASSEMBIjAGE, as-sem'blaj, n. a callr**ion 
of persons or thiags. 

ASSEMBLE, as-sem'bl, v.t. to call or bring 
to the same place, or together : to collect. 
— v.i. to meet together. [Fr. assembler. 
Low Lat. assinnulare — ^L. ad, to, simul, 
together, at the same time ; Gh". homos, 
A.S. sam, same ; Sans, sam, together.] 

ASSEMBLY, as-sem'bli, n. a collection t)f 

, individuals assembled in the same place 
for any purpose. 

ASSENT, as-sent', v.i., to think with : agree. 
— n. an agreeing or acquiescence ; com- 

£liance. — adv. Absentzngly. [L. — ixd, 
\>, sentio, to think.] 

ASSENTOK, as-sent'-er, n. one who agrees 
or assents: in English law, one who in- 
dorses the nomination of a candidate for 

ASSERT, as-sert', v.t. to declare strongly: 
to affirm. fL. assero, assertum, to lay 
hold of, declare — ad, to, sero, to join, 

ASSERTION, as-ser'shun, w. affirmation. 

ASSESS, as-ses', v.t. to fix the amount of, 
as a tax: to tax: to fix the value or 
profits of, for taxation : to estimate.— 
a^'. Assess' ABLE. [Fr. asseoir — ^L. a,ssi- . 
dere, assessum, to sit by, esp. of judges 
in a court (in Low L. to set, fix a tax), 
from ad, to, sedeo, to sit.] 

ASSESSMENT, as-ses'ment, n. act of assess- 
ing : a valuation for the purpose of taxa- 
tion : a tax. 

ASSESSOR, as-ses'or, iv. a legal adviser who 
Bits beside a magistrate. — adj. AssESSO- 
RIAL, as-ses-o'ri-al. [See Assess.] 

ASSETS, as'sets, the property of a 
deceased or insolvent person, considered 
;as chargeable for all debts, etc. ; the eu- 

lire property of all sorts belonging to a 
inerchant nr to a trading association. 
•[M.E. aseth, Fr. assez, enough— L. ad, to, 
scttis, enough.] 

ASSEVERATE, as-sev'er-at, v.t. to declare 
seriously or solemnly. — n. Asseveea'tiok. 
[L. assevero, -atwrn—ajd, to, aeverus, sen- 
o us. Se e Severe.] 

ASSEVERATORY, as-sev'er-a-to-ri, adj. 
of the nature of an asseveration: sol- 
emnly or positively affirming or aver- 
ring '■'• After divers warm and assevero- 
tory answers made by Mr, Atkins, the 
captain stopped short in his waUc."— 
Roger "North. 

ftSBEBILATION, a-sib'i-la'shon, n. the act 
of making sibilant.: specifically, in philoL 
the assimilation Of a dental or guttural 
consonant with a following i-sound, as in 
the word nation, in which in pronuncia° 
tion the ti ia assibilated. 

A6SEDERATI0N, as-sid-er-a'-shim, n. a 
form of homicide, esp. infanticide, in 
which it is sought to jprevent knowledge 
■of the cause of death by submerging the 
victim for a long time in ice-cold water. 
[It. assiderato, benumbed with cold.] 

ASSIDUTTY, as-sid-u'i-ti, n. constant ap- 
plication or diligence. [L. assiduitas-^ 
assidutm. See ASSIDUOUS.] 

AI^IDUOIJS, as-sid'Q-us, a^f. constant or 
unwearied in application.: diligentt— adv. 
ASSID'UOUSL .. — n. Assid'uousness. [L. 
assiduus, uting close at — ad, to, at, 
sedeo, t sit.] 

ASSIG ■', ac-sin', v.t., to sign or mark ofut to 
one : to allot : to appoint : to allege : to 
transfer. — n. one to whom any property 
or right is made over. — Assignable, as- 
sln'a-bl, adj. that may be assigned. [Fr. 
assigner — L. assignare, to mark out— -od, 
to, signum, a mark or sign.] 

ASSIGrNATION, as-sig-nashun, n. an ap- 
pointment to meet, used chiefly of love- 
appointments ; the making over of any- 
thing to another. 

ASSIGNEE, as-sin-e', n. otie to whom any 
right or property is assigned:—^, the 
trustees of a sequestrated estate. 

ASSIGNMENT, as-sln'ment, n. act of as- 
signing : anything assigned : the writing 
by which a transfer is made. 

ASSIMILATE, as-sim'il-at, v.t., to make 
similar or like to : to convert into a like 
substance, as food in our bodies. — n. As- 
similation. [L. assimilo, -cUum — ad, to, 
similis, like.] 

ASSIMILATIVE, as-sim'U-at-iv, ooj;. hav- 
ing the power or tendency to assimilate. 

ASSIST, as-sist', v.t. to help. [L. a^sisto, 
to stand by — ad, to, sisto, Gr. histemi, to 
make to stand.] 

ASSISTANCE, as-sist'ans, n. help : relief. 

ASSISTANT, as-sist'ant, ae?/. helping or 
lending aid. — n. one who assists: a 

ASSIZE, as-siz*, v.t., to assess: to set or fix 
the quantity or price. — n. a statute set- 
tling the weight, measure, or price of 



anything :—pL the sessions or sittings of 
a court held in English and Canadian 
counties twice a year, at which causes 
are tried by a judge and jury. [O. Fr. 
assise, an assembly of judges, a set rate 
— asseoi r — ^L. assiaeo.] 
ASSIZER, as-slz'er, n. an officer wh<v in- 
spects weights and measures. 
ASSOCIATE, as-so'shi-at, v.t. to join with, 
as a friend, or partner : to unite in the 
same body. — v.i. to keep company with : 
to combine or unite. [L. associo—ad, to, 
socius, a companion.] 
ASSOCIATE, as-so'shi-at, adj. joined or 
connected with. — n. one joined or con- 
nected with another; a companion, 
friend, partner, or allv. 
ASSOCIATION, as-so-shi-afehun, n., act of 
associating: union or combination: a 
society of persons joined together to pro- 
mote some object. 
ASSOILZIE, as-soil'ye, v. to free one ac- 
cused from a charge : a Scotch law term, 
the same as the archaic assoil, to absolve 
from sin, discharge, pardon. [Through 
Fr. from L. ahsolvere.\ 
ASSONANCE, as'son-ans, n. a correspond- 
ence in sound : in Sp. and Port, poetry, 
a kind of rhyme, consisting in the coin- 
cidence of the vowels of the correspond- 
ing syllables, without regard to the con- 
sonants, [li. ad, to, sonans, sounding.] 
ASSONANT, as'son-ant, adj. resembling m 

ASSORT, as-sort', v.t. to separate into 
classes : to arrange. — v.i. to agree or be 
in accordance with. [Fr. assortir — L. 
ad, to, sors, a lot.] 
ASSORTMENT, as-sort*ment, n. act of as- 
sorting : quantity or number of things 
assorted : variety. 
ASSUAGE, as-swaj', v.t. to soften, miti- 
gate, or allay. — v.i. to abate or subside. 
[O. Fr., formed as if from a L. assuor 
mare — suavis, mild.] 
ASSUAGEMENT, as-swaj'ment, n. abate- 
ment : miti gation. 
ASSUASIVE, as-swa'siv, adj. softening, 

mild. [See Suasive.] 
ASSUME, as-sQm', v.t. to take upon one s 
self : to take for granted : to arrogate : 
to pretend to possess. — v.i. to claun un* 
duly : to be arrogant. [L. — ad, to, sumOi 
sunmtum, to take.] 
ASSUMING, as-siim'ing, a^j. haughty : 

ASSUMPTION, as-svmi'shim,ri. act ot 

assuming: a supposition. 
ASSURANCE, ash-shoor'ans, n. confi- 
dence : feeUng of certainty : impudence : 
positive declaration : insurance, as ap- 
plied to lives. 
ASSURE, ash-shoor', v.t. to make sure or 
secure : to give confidence : to tell posi- 
tively : to insure. [Fr. assurer — ad, dud 
sAr, sure. See SUBE.] 
ASSURED, ash-shoord', adj. certain : with- 
out doubt : insured : overbold. — adv. 
Assur'edly. — n. Assur'edness. 

ASSYRIOLOGIST, as-sir'i-ol'o-jist, n. one 
sMUed in or well acquainted with the 
antiquities, language, etc., of ancient 

ASTASIA, as-ta'shi-a, n. (med.) incoordi- 
nation of the action of the muscles result- 
ing in inability to stand or sit erect. 

ASTATKI, as-tat'ki, w. a by-product of 
petiolemn shipped from the distilleries 
as a fuel. [Also written Abtaki. From 
the local name on the shores of the Cas- 
pian Sea.] 

ASTER, as'ter, n. a genus of plants with 
compound flowers, like little stars. [Qr. 
aster, a star.] 

ASTERISK, as'ter-isk, n. a star, used in 
printing, thus*: in the Greek Ch. an 
appliance in the form of a star or cross, 
with the ends bent to serve as supports, 
placed during the liturgy over the paten 
so as to keep the cover of the latter 
from touching the sacred bread. [Gr. 
asteriskos, dim. of aster, a star.] 

ASTERN, a-stern', adv. on the stem : to- 
wards the hinder part of a ship : behind. 
J See Stern, n.] 
TEROID, as'ter-oid, n. one of the minor 
planets revolving between Mars and 
Jupiter. — adj. Asteroid' AJL. [Gr. aster , 
a star, eidos, form.] 

ASTHMA, ast'ma, n. a chronic disorder of 
the organs of respiration. [Gr. — ad, 
a^mi, to breathe hard.] 

ASTHMATIC, -AL, ast-mat'ik, -al, adj. 
pertaining to or affected by asthma. 

ASTONIED, as-ton'id, pa.p. of obs. v. 

ASTONISH,, as-ton'ish, v.t. to impress with 
sudden surprise or wonder : to amaze : 
[M. E. astonien, due to a confusion of 
A.S. stunian (see Stun) and O. ¥v. e«- 
tonner (Fr. etonner) — Low L. extonare, 
— L. ex, out, tonare, to thunder.] 

ASTONISHING, as-ton'ish-ing, adj. very 
wonderful : amazing. — adv. Aston'ish- 


ASTONISHMENT, as-tou'ish-ment, n. 
amazement : wonder. 

ASTOUND, as-townd', v.t. to amaze. [M.E. 
astonien ; a doublet of Astonish.] 

ASTRAGAL, as'tra-gal, n. {arch.) a small 
semicircular molding or bead encircling 
a colvunn : a round molding near the 
mouth of a cannon. [Gr. astragalos, one 
of the vertebrae, a molding.] 

ASTRAKHAN, as'tra-kan, n. a name given 
to sheep-skins with a curled woolly sur- 
face obtained from a variety of sheep 
found in Bokhara, Persia and Syria: 
also, a rough fabric with a pUe in imita- 
tion of this. 

ASTRAL, as'tral, adj. belonging to th& 
stars : starry. [L. antrum, a star ; conn. 
with Star.] 

ASTRAY, a-stra', adv. out of the right 
way. (TreQx a, on, and Stray.] 

i^STRICTION, as-trik'shun, n. a binding at 
contraction. [L. See Astringent.] 

ASTRIDE, a-strld', adv- with the leg* 



Mart, or across. p*fx. a, on, and 
ASTRINGENT, as-trinj'ent, adj., binding i 
contracting : strengtheoin^ :— ». a medi- 
cine that causes contractionc— adtJ. R* 


tringo — ad, to, stringo, to biod.] 
ASTROGENY, as-troj'e-ni, n. the creation 

or evolution of the celestial bodies. H. 

Spencer. [Gr. astron, a star, and gennad, 

to producej 
ASTROLABE, as'tro-lab, n. an instrument 

for measuring the altitudes of the sun or 
■ stars at sea, now superseded by Hadley's 

quadrant and sextant. [Gr. astron, -s^ 

star, lab, lambano, I takcj 
ASTROLOGER, as-trol'o-jer, n. one versed 

in astrolo gy. 
ASTRO LOGUE, as'tro-i5g, w. an astrologer, 

Tom UUrfey. 
ASTROLOGY, as-trol'o-ji, n. the infant 

stage of the science of the stars (now 

called Astronomy): it was occupied 

chiefly in foreteUing events from the 

positions of the heavenly bodies. — adj. 


LY. [Gr. astrologia — astron^ star, logos, 

ASTRONOMER, as-tron'o-mer, n, one 
versed in astronomy. 

ASTRONOMY, as-tron'om-i, n. the Icetps or 
science of the stars or heavenly bodies.— 
adj. Astronom'ic. — adv. Astronom'icaj> 
LY. [Gr. astronomia — astron, star, nomos, 
a law.] 

ASTRO-PHYSICS, as-tro-fiz'-iks, n. {astr.) 
science treating of the physical charac- 
teristics, chemical constitution, atmos- 
phere, heat, light, etc., of heavenly bodies. 

ASTUCIOUS, as-tu'shus, adj. designing: 
subtle : a tute. " Louis . . . like all as- 
tudous p rsons, was as desirous of look- 
ing into the hearts of others as of cou- 
ching las own." — Sir W. Scott. 

ASTUCITY, as-tu'si-ti, n. the quality of 
being astute: astuteness. "With aS' 
tticity with swiftness, with audacity."— 

ASTUTE, ast-ut', ac^'., crafty: cunning: 
shrewd : sagacious. — adv. Astute'ly. — 
n. A;'TcrTE NESS. [L. astutus — astus, 
craft, akin perhaps to Acute.] 

ASUNDER, a-sun'der, adv. apart: into 
parts : separately. [Pfx. a = on, and 

ASURA, as'u-ra or a-su'ra, n. in Hind. 
myth, one of the demons born from the 
thigh of Brahma while the quality of 
darkness pervaded his body. Asura is a 
general name for all the giants and dem- 
ons who composed the enemies of the 
gods and the inhabitants of Patala ; and 
a special designation for a class of these 
of the first order. Garrett. 

ASYLUM, a-sll'um, n. a place of refuge 
for debtors and for such as were accused 
of some crime : an institution for the 
care or relief of the unfortunate, such as 
the blind or insane : any place of refuge 

or protection. [L. — Gr. asyUm — a, priv., 
syle, right of seizure.] 

ASYMPTOTE, a'sim-tot, n. {math.) a lin& 
that continually approaches nearer to 
some curve without ever meeting it.— 
adj. Asymptot'ical. [Gr, asymptotes, 
not coinciding — a, not, syn, with, ptotos, 
apt to fall — piptOt to falL] 

ASYNCHRONOUS, a-sin'-kro-nus, o. not 
concurrent in time: not simultaneous: 
the opposite of synchronous. [Pfx. a, 
not, and synchronous. See Synchro- 

AT, at, prep, denoting presence, nearness, 
or relation. [A.S. oet ; cog. with Goth, 
and Ice. at, lu ad; Sans, adhi, on.] 

ATAVISM, at'av-izm, n. the recurrence of 
any peculiarity or disease of an ancestor 
in a later generation. [L. atavus — avus, 
a, 2:randfather.] 

ATAXIA, a-taks'-e-a, n. (med.) a nervous 
disease characterized by lack of power to 
coordinate the movements of muscles. 
Written also Ataxy. 

ATE, at or et, did eat, pat. of Eat. 

ATHANASIAJ^, ath-a-naz'yan, adj. relat- 
ing to Athanasiiis, or to the creed attrib- 
uted to him. 

ATHEISM, a'the-izm, n. disbelief in the 
existence of God. [Fr. atheisme — Gr. a, 
priv., and theos, God.] 

ATHEIST, a'the-ist, «. one who disbelieve& 
in the existence of God. 

ATHEISTIC, -AL, a-the-ist'ik, -al, a4j. re- 
lating to or containing atheism.--adv. 


ATHEN^UM, ATHENEUM, ath-e-ne'uni, 
n. a temple of Athena or Minerva at 
Athens, in which scholars and poets 
read their works : a public institution 
for lectures, reading, etc. [Gr. Athe- 
naion — Athena or Athene, the goddess 

ATHENIAN, a-the'ni-an, adj., relating to 
Athens, the capital of Greece. — n. a na- 
tive of Athens. 

ATHERMANCY, a-ther'man-si, n. the 

Eower or property of absorbing radiant 
eat : corresponding to opacity in the 
case of hght ; as, the athermancy of ole- 
flant gas and of other compound gases. 
Prof. Tyndcdl. [Gr. a, priv.jandf/iermm- 
no, I heat,] 

ATHIRST, a-therst', adj., thirsty: eager 
for. [A.S. of, very, and THIRST.] 

ATHLETE, ath'let, n., a contender for vic- 
tory in feats of strength : one vigorous 
in body or mind. [Gr. athletes — athlos 

ATHLETIC, ath-let'ik, adj. relating to ath- 
letics : strong, vigorous. 

ATHLETICS, ath-let'iks, n. the art '^f 
wrestling, running, etc. : athletic exer- 

ATHROB, a-throb', adj. or adv. throbbmg ; 
in a throbbing or palpitating state or 
manner. E. B. Browning. 

ATHWART, a-thwawrt', prep, across.— 
adv. sidewise : wrongly : perplexingly. 



ATLANTEAN, at-lan-te'an, adj., relating 
to, or like Atlas : strong : gigantic. [See 
Atlas 1 

ATLAOT^, at-lan'tez,, figures of 
men used instead of columns. [From 

ATLANTIC, at-lan'tik, adj. pertaining to 
Atlas, or to the Atlantic Ocean. — n. the 
ocean between Europe, Africa, and Amer- 
ica. [From Mount Atlas, in the north- 
west of Africa.] 

ATLAS, at^as, n. a collection of maps. 
[Gr. Atlas (the bearer), a god who bore 
the world on his shoulders, and whose 
figure used to be given on the title-page 
of atlases — prob. from a (euphonic), and 
tlao, to bearj 

ATMOSPHERE, at'mo-sfer, n. the air that 
surrounds the earth : (fig.) any surround- 
ing influence. [Gr. atmos, air, sphaira, 
a sphere.] 

ATMOSPHERIC, -AL, at-mo-sfer'ik, -al, 
adj. of or depending on the atmosphere. 

ATOLE, a'tol, n. Indian corn gruel. [Sp.] 

ATOM, at'om, n. a particle of matter so 
small that it cannot be cut or divided : 
anything very small. — adjs. Atomic, 
a-tom'ik, Atomical, a-tom'ik-al. [Gr. 
atomos — a, not, temno, to cut.] 

ATOMISM, at'om-izm, n. the doctrine that 
atoms arranged themselves into the uni- 

ATOMIST, at'om-ist, n., one who believes in 

ATOMIZATION, at-um-i-za'-shun, n. the 
act of reducing to atoms, or minute par- 
ticles: (med.) the reduction of fluids to 
fine spray. — v.t. Atomize, at'-um-ize. — 
n. Atomizer, at'-um-i-zer, an instrument 
by which liquid for cooling, disinfecting 
or perfuming is reduced to fine spray: 
one who atomizes. 

ATONE, at-on', v.i. (with for) to give satis- 
faction or make reparation. — v.t. to ex- 
piate. [At and one, as if to set at one, 
reconcile ; the old pronunciation of one 
is here preserved, as in only.^ 

ATONEMENT, at-6n'ment, n. ihe act of 
atoning : reconciliation : expiation : repa- 

ATRABILIARY, at-rarbU'yar-i, adj. of a 
melancholy temperament : hypochon- 
driac. [L. ater, atra, black, bilis, gall, 
bile. See BnJE.] 

ATROCIOUS, a-tro'shus, adj extremely 
cruel or wicked : heinous. — adv. Atro- 
ciously. — n. Atro'ciousness. [L. atrox, 
atroci.9. -^ruei.] 

ATROCITY, a-tros'i-ti, n. shocking wicked- 
ness or cruelty. 

ATROPHY, a'trof-i. n. a wasting away 
from want of nourishment owing to 
some defect in the organs of nutrition^ 
[Gr. a, priv., and trophe, nourishment. 

ATTACH, at-tach', v.t. to bind or fasten 5 
to seize : to gain over. [Fr. attacher^ 
from a ( — L. ad) and Tack. J 

ATTACHABLE, at-tach'a-bl, adj. that may 
be attached- 

ATTACHfi, at-tash-5', n. a young dipTo«> 
maitist attached to the suite of an axa- 
bassador. [Fr.] 

ATTACHMENT, at-tach'ment, n. a bond of 
fidelity or affection : the seizure of any 
one's goods or person by virtue of a legal 
process. ' 

ATTACK, at-tak*, v.t. to lall upon vio- 
lently : to assault : to assail with un- 
friendly words or writing, — n. an assault 
or onset : severe criticism or calumny. 
[Fr. attaguer. See Attach, of which it 
IS a doubtlet.] 

ATTAIN, at-tan', v.t. to reach or gain by 
effort : to obtain. — v.i. to come or arrive : 
to reach. [Fr. atteindre — L. attingo, -ere 
— ad, to, tango, to touch.] 

ATTAINABILITY, at-tan-a-bil'i-ti, n. state 
of being attainable. 

ATTAINABLE, at-tan'a-bl, adj. that may 
be reached, — n. Attain' ableness. 

ATTAINDER, at-tan'der, n. act of attaint- 
ing: (law) loss of civil rights through 
conviction for high treason. [Fr. at- 
teindre, to come to, reach ; O. Fr. attain- 
dre, to convict, from L. attingo. See 

ATTAINM.ENT, at-tan'ment, n. act of at- 
taining : the thing attained : acquisition. 

ATTAINT, at-tan t', v.t. to convict : to de- 
prive of rights for being convicted of 
treason. [See Attainder, Attain.] 


ATl'EMPER, at-tem'per, v.t. to mix in du© 
proportion : to modify or moderate : to 
adapt. [L. attempero — ad, to, and tem° 
pero. See Te3JPER.] 

ATTEMPT, at-temt', v.t., to try or en- 
deavor : to make an effort or attack 
upon, — v.i. to make an attempt or trial. 
— n. a trial : endeavor or effort. [Fr. 
attenter — L. attento — ad, and tempto, 
tento, to try — tendo, to stretch.] 

ATTEND, at-tend', v.t. to give heed to : to 
wait on or accompany : to be present at : 
to wait for. — v.i. to yield attention : to 
wait. [L. attendo — ad, to, tendo, to 
strctcii I 

ATTENDANCE, at-tend'ans, n. act of at- 
tending : presence : the persons attend- 

ATTENDANT, at-tetd'ant, adj. giving at- 
tendance : accompanying. — n. one who 
attends or accompanies : a servant : 
what accompanies or follows. 

ATTENT, at-tent', adj. {B.) giving atten- 

ATTENTION, at-ten'shun, n. act of attend- 
ing : steady application of the mind ; 
heed : care. [L. attentio — attendo. See 

ATTENTIVE, at-tent'iv, adj. full of atten- 
tion : mindful. — adv. Attent'ively. — n, 

ATTENUATE, at-ten'u-at, v.t., to make 
thin or lean: to. break down into finer 
pai'ts. — v.i. to become thin or fine : tc 
grow loss. [L. attenuo, -atum — ad, to, 
fep'iis, thin.] 



at-ten'a-at-ed, adj. made thin or slender : 
made less viscid. — n. Attenuation, at- 

ATTEST, at-test', v.t.y to testify or hear 
VTitness to : to affirm : to give proof of, 
to manifest. [L. attestor — ad, to, testis, 
a wi tness.] 

ATTESTATION, at-test-a'shun, n. act ol 
'ATTIC, at'ik, a4j', pertaining to Attica or 
to Athens '- chaste, elegant. — n. Att'io 
ISM, a chaste, elegant expression. [L. 
atti eus- Gr.] 

ATTIC, at'ik, n. (arch.) a low story above 
the cornice that terminates the main 
part of an elevation : a sW-lighted room 
m the roof of a house. [Ety. dub.] 

ATTIRE, at-tir', v.t. to dress, array, or 
adorn : to prepare. — n. dress : orna- 
mental dress : (B.) a woman's head-dress. 
[O. Fr. atirer, from a^ad, and a Teut. 
root found in Ger. zier, ornament, A.S. 
tir, splendor. See Tike, dress.] 

ATTITUDE, at'ti-tud, n. posture or posi- 
tion : gesture. — oc{/. Attitud'inal. [Fr., 
from It. attitudine, a fit position — ^L. 
aptitu do — apttts, fit.] 

ATTITUDINIZE, at-ti-tud'in-iz, v.i. to as- 
sume affected attitudes. 

ATTORNEY, at-tur'ni, n. one legally au- 
thorized to act for another : one legally 
qualified to manage cases in a court of 
law : a solicitor : a solicitor or attorney 
prepares cases and does general law busi- 
ness, while a barrister pleads before the 
courts :^pL Attor'neys. — n. ATTORNErr- 
smp, at-tur'ni-ship. [O. Fr. atome. Low 
L. attornatus — atorno, to commit busi- 
ness to another — L. ad, to, and tomo, to 

jen'er-al, n. in England, the chief law- 
officer of the crown, whose duty it is to 
manage cases, in which the crown is 
interested : in the United States, one of 
the President's Cabinet, who is the legal 
adviser of the Government, and must 
represent the United States in all suits 
brought against it. The individual 
States have an officer with similar duties. 

ATTRACT, at-trakt', v,t., to draw to or 
cause to approach : to aUure : to entice. 
[L. attraho, attractus — ad, to, iraho, to 

ATTRACTABLE, at-trakt'a-bl, acU., that 
may be attracted. — n. Attractabil'ity. 

ATTRACTION, at-trak'shun, n., act of at- 
tracting : tha force which draws or tends 
to draw bodies or their particles to each 
other : that which attracts. 

ATTRACTIVE, at-trakt'iv, adj., having the 
power of attracting : alluring. — advs. 
Attract'ively, Attract'ingly. — n. At- 


ATTRACTIVITY, at-trak-tiv'i-ti, n. attrac- 
tive power or influence. 

ATTRIBUTE, at-trib'ut, v.t. to ascribe: 
assign, or consider as belonging. — adj. 

Attrib'utaboi. [L. attribuo, -tr^jutnm 
~~ad , to, tribuo, to give.] 

ATTRIBUTE, at'trib-ut, n. that which is 
attributed : that which is inherent in : 
that which can be predicated of any- 
thing : a quality or property. 

ATTRIBUTION, at-trib-u'shun, n, act of 
attributing : that which is attributed j 

ATTRIBUTIVE, at-trib'ut-iv, adj. express- 
ing an attribute. — n. a word denoting an 

ATTRIST, a-trist', v.t. to grieve : to sad- 
den. " How then could I write when it 
was impossible but to attrist you t when 
I could speak of nothing but unparaUel* 
ed horrors." — H. Walpole. [Prefix at 
for ad, and L. tristis, sad.] 

ATTRITION, at-trish'un, n. the rubbing 
of one thing against another : a wearing 
by friction. [L. ad, and tero, tritum, to 

ATTUNE, at-tun', v.t., to ]put in tune: to 
make one sound accord with another : to 
arranp^ fitly. [L. ad, to, and Tune.] 

AUBADE, o-bad, n. open-air music per- 
formed at daybreak, generally at the 
door, or imder the window, of the person 
whom it is intended to honor. [Fr.] 
Distinguished from Serenade (which 
see). Longfellow. 

AUBERNAGE, 6-bar-nazh', n. (hort.) a 
contagious disease of the grape-vine. 

AUBURN, aw'burn, adj. reddish brown. 
[The old meaning was a Ught yellow, or 
Bghtish hue ; Low L. albumus, whitish 
— L. albus, white.] 

AUCTION, awk'shun, n. a public sale in 
which one bidder increases the price 
on another, and the articles go to him 
who bids highest. [L. auctio, an increas- 
ing — augeo, atictum, to increase.] 

AUCTIONEER, awk-shun-er', one who is 
licensed to sell by auction. 

AUDACIOUS, aw-da'shus, adj., daring: 
bold : impudent. — adv. Auda'ciously. — 
ns. Auda'ciousness, Audacity, aw-das'i- 
ti. [Fr. avdadeux — ^L. audax — audeo, 
to darej 

AUDIBLE, awd'i-bl, ac(j., able to be heard. 
— adv. AuD'iBLY. — n. Aud'ibleness [L. 
audibilis — audio, to hear, conn, with Gr. 
ous, otos, the ear.] 

AUDIENCE, awd'i-ens, n. the act of hear- 
ing : admittance to a hearing : an as- 
sembly of hearers. 

AUDIENT, aw'di-ent, adj. playing the 
part of a hearer : listening. E. B. Brown- 
ing. [L. audiens, hearing. See Audi- 

AUDIOMETER, aw-di-om'et-er, n. an in- 
strument, among the constituted parts 
of which are an induction-coil, a micro- 
phone key, and a telephone, devised to 
measuv e with precision the sense of hear- 
ing. [L. audio, to heai*, and Gr. metron, 

AUDIOMETRIC, aw'di-o-met'rik, ary. of 
or pertaining to audiometry. 



AUDIOMETRY, aw-di-om'et-ri, n. the test- 
ing of the sense of hearing, especially by 
means of the audiometer. 

AUDIPHONE, av/di-fon, n. an acoustic 
instrument by means of which deaf per- 
sons are enabled to hear, and even deaf- 
mutes can be taught to hear and to 
speak. The essential part of the instru- 
ment is a fan-shaped plate of hardened 
caoutchouc which is very sensitive to the 
influence of sound waves. The sufferer 
from deafness holds the instrument in 
his hand and touches the top-edge against 
his upper teeth ; and the sounds are col- 
lected and conveyed by the teeth to the 
auditory nerve without having to pass 
through the external ear. [L. audio, to 
hear, and Gr. phone, a sound.] 

AUDIT, awd'it, n. an examination of ac- 
counts by one or more duly authorized 
persons. — v.t. to examine and adjust. 
Vh. auditris, a hearing — audio, to hear. 
See Audible.] 

AUDITOR, awd'it-or, n., a hearer: one 
who audits accounts. — n. AuD'irORSHiP, 

AUDITORIUM, awd-it-or'i-mn, n. in an 
opera-house, public hall, or the like, the 
space allotted to the hearers. 

AUDITORY, awd'it-or-i, adj, relating to 
the sense of hearing, — n. an audience : a 
place where lectures, etc., are heard. 

AUGEAN, aw-ie'an, adj. filthy : difficult, 
[From Augeas, a fabled king of Elis in 
Greece, whose stalls, containing 3,000 
cattle, and uncleaned for 30 ^ears, were 
cleaned by Hercules in one day.] 

AUGER, aVger, n. a carpenter's tool used 
for boring holes in wood. [A corr. of 
nauger, A.S. nafegar — nafu, a nave of a 
wheel, gar, a piercer. See Nave (of a 
wheel), Gore, a triangular piece.] 

AUGHT, awt, n. a whit : ought : anything : 
a part. [A.S. awiht — a, short for an, 
one, and loiht, a wight, a thing.] 

AUGMENT, awg-ment', v.t. to increase : to 
make larger. — v.i. to g^ow larger. [L. 
au,gmentum, increase — augeo, to increase, 
Gr. auxano.] 

AUGMENT, awg'ment, n, increase s (flfrawioj 
a prefix to a word, 

AUGMENTATION, awg-ment-a'shim, n, 
increase : addition. 

AUGMENTATIVE, awg-ment'at-iv, ac^\ 
having the quality or power of aug- 
menting. — n. (gram.) a word formed 
from another to express increase of its 

AU GRATIN, 6-gra-tan' containing cheese 
and with a brown crust as the result of 
baking. Potatoes, eggs, spaghetti, etc., 
may be served au gratin. [Fr.] 

AUGUR, aw'gur, n. among the Romans, 
one who foretold events by observing 
the flight and the cries of birds : a 
diviner : a soothsayer, — v.t. to foretell 
from signs. — v.i. to guess or conjecture. 
[L., prob. from avis, bird, and root gar, 
in L. garrire, to chatter. Sans, gir, 

AtiiiURY. aw'gur-i, n. the art or practice 
of auguring : an omen. — adj. Augurai^ 
aw'gur-al. (L. augurium — augur.] 

AUGUST, aw-gxist', adj. venerable : im- 
posing : majestic. — adv. August'ly. — n. 
August'ness. [L. augustus — augeo, to 
increase, honor.] 

AUGUST, aw'gust, n. the eighth month of 
the year, so called after Caesar Augustus, 
one of the Roman emperors. » 

AUGUSTAN, aw-gust'an, adj. pertaining 
to Atigu^tus (nephew of Julius Caesar, 
and one of the greatest Roman emper- 
ors) or to the time in which he lived : 
classic t refined. 

aw-gus-tin'i-an, n. one of an order of 
monks, so called from St. Augustine. 

AUK, awk, n. a web-footed sea-bird, found 
in the Northern Seas. [Low L. alca, 
Ice. alka.] 

AULIC, awl'ik, adj. pertaining to a royal 
court. [L. auhcus — aula, Gr. aiM, a 
royal court.] 

AUNT, ant, n. a father's or a mother's 
sister. [O, Fr, ante — L. amita, a father's 

A\TKEIAA, awT-el'ya, n. the chrysalis of 
an insect, from its golden color» [L. au- 
rum, gold.] 

AUREOLA, awr-e'o-la, ADHEOLE, awr'e- 
61, n., the gold-colored light or halo with 
which painters surround the head of 
Christ and the saints- [L. aureolus., dim. 
of aureus, golden,] 

AU REVOIR, o-re-vw!ir', adieu: good by for 
the present or until we meet again. [Fr. 
Lit. "to the seeing again."] 

AURICLE, awr'i-kl, n, the external ear :— 
pi. the two ear-like cavities of the heart. 
TL. auricula, dim. of auris, the ear.] 

AURICOMOUS, awr'ik-o-mus, adj. 1, hav- 
ing golden hair : 2, applied to a prepara- 
tion which gives a golden hue to the 
hair. Lord Lytton. [L, aurum, gold, 
and coma, hair.] 

AURICULA, awr-ik'ul-a, n. a species of 
primrose, also called bear's-ear, frona the 
shape of its leaf. 

AURICULAR, awr-ik'ul-ar, adj., pertain- 
ing to the ear : known by hearing, or by 
report. — Auricular confession, secret, 
told in the ear. — adv. Auric'ularly. 
[See Auricle.] 

AURICULATE, avtr-ik'ul-at, ad/., ear 
shaped. [Low L. auriculatus — ^L. aur^ 

AURIFEROUS, awr-ifer-us, adj., hearing 
or yielding gold. [L. aurifer — aurum, 
gold, fero, to bear.] 

AURIFIC, awr-if'ik, adj. capable of trans- 
muting substances into gold : gold-mak- 
ing. " Some experiments made with an 
aurific powder." — Southey. [L. aurum, 
gold, and facio, to make.] 

AURIFORM, awr'i-form, acU., ear-shaped. 
[L. auris, ear, arid Form.] 

AURIST, awr'ist, n. one skilled in diseases 
of the CO"- 



AUROCHS, awr'oks, n. the European bison 
or wild ox. [Ger. auerochs, O. Grer„ 
urohso — Ger. ur (L. urus, Gr. ouros), a 
kind of wild ox, and ocJis, ox.] 

AURORA, aw-ro'ra, n. the dawn : in 
poetry, the goddess of dawn. [L. for 
ausosa; cog. with Gr. eos; from a root 
seen in Sans, ush, to burn.] 

AURORA BOREALIS, aw-ro'ra bo-re-a'lis, 
n., the northern aurora or light : a me- 
teor seen in northern latitudes. — ^Aurora 
AusTRALis, aws-tra'lis, n. a meteor in the 
S. hemisphereo [L. borealis, northern 
—boreas, the north wind. See Austral.] 

AURORAL, aw-ro'ral, ac^. relating to the 

AUSCULTATION, aws-kult-a'shun, n. the 
art of discovering diseases of the lungs 
and heart by applying the ear to the 
chest, or to a tube in contact with the 
chest. [L. ausculto, to listen, from ausi- 
cula for auricula. See Auricle.] 

AUSCULTATORY, aws-kult'a-tor-i, adj. 
relating to auscultation. 

AUSONIAN, aws-o'ni-an, ac^'. of or per- 
taining to Italy or the Italians. Long- 
fellow. (Poetical.) [L. ^Msowia, a poetical 
term for the whole Italian peninsula, 
from Ausones, the name given to the 

{)rimitive inhabitants of middle and 
ower Italy.] 

AUSPICE, aw'spis, n. an omen drawn from 
observing birds : augury — ^generally used 
in pi. Auspices, aw'spis-ez, protection : 
patronage. [Fr. — L. auspidum — au^ex, 
auspicis, a bird-seer, from avis, a bird, 
specio, to observe.] 

AUSPICIOUS, aw-spish'us, adj. having 
good auspices or omens of success : favor- 
able : fortunate. — adv. AuSPl'ClOUSLY. 

AUSTERE, aws-ter', adj. harsh : severe : 
stern. — adv. Austere'ly. [L. austerus — 
Gr. auMeros — aud, to dry. 

AUSTERENESS, aws-ter'nes, AUSTER- 
ITY, aws-ter'it-i, n. quality of being 
austere : severity of manners or life : 

AUSTRAL, aws'trai, adj., southern. [I* 
australis — auster, the south wind.] 

AUSTRALASIAN, aws-tral-a'shi-an, adj., 
pertaining to Australasia, or the coun- 
tries that lie to the south of Asia. 

AUSTRALIAN, aws-tra'U-an, adj., of or 
pertaining to Australia, a large island 
between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.— 
n. a native of Australia. 

AUSTRIAN, aws'tri-an, adj., of or pertain- 
ing to Austria, an empire of Central 
Europe. — n. a native of Austria. 

AUTHENTIC, -AL, aw-thent'ik, -al, adj. 
having authority or genuineness ■*■,. if 
from the author's oum hand: ocigiiil: 

f genuine : true. — adv. Authen'tically. 
Gr. authentes, one who does Anything 
with his own hand — autos, self.] 
AUTHENTICATE, aw-thent'ik-at, v.t. to 

make authentic : to prove genuine. 
AUTHENTICATION, aw-thent-ik-a'shun, 
n. act of authenticating : confirmation. 

AUTHENTICITY, aw-thent-is'it-i, n. quaJ- 
.ity of being authentic : genuineness. 

AUTHOR, awth'or, n., pne who originates 
or brings into being : a beginner or first 
mover : the writer of an original book : — 
fern. Auth'oress. [Fr. auteur, L. auctor 
— augeo, auctum, to cause things to in- 
crease, to .produce.] 

AUTHORITATIVE, awth-or'it-at-iv, adj. 
having authority : dictatorial. — adv. 
Author'itatively. — n. Acthor'itati ve- 


AUTHORITY, awth-or'it-i, n. legal power 
or right : power derived from omce or 
character : weight of testimony ; permis- 
sion : — pi. Authorities, precedents : 
opinions or sayings carrying weight : 
persons in power. 

AUTHORIZE, awth'or-iz, v.t. to give au- 
thority to : to sanction : to establish by 
authority. — n. Authoriza'tion. 

AUTHORSHIP, awth'or-ship, n. state of 
beinj an author. 

AUTO, aw'-to, -pfx. used in combination with 
other words, with the meaning of self, 
one's self, one's own, itself, its own; also 
an abbreviation of automobile: hence 
used as a prefix meaning self-propelling, 
self- moving: as, auto-carriage, auto-truck> 
auto-car, etc. [Gr.] 

AUTOBIOGRAPHER, aw-to-bi-og'raf-er, 
n. one who writes his own life. 

AUTOBIOGRAPHY, aw-to-bi-og'raf-i, n., 
the biography or life of a person written 
by himself. — adjs. Autobiograph'ic, Au- 
TOBioaRAPH'iCAL. [Gr. autos, one's self, 
bios, life, grapho, to write.] 

AUTOCRACY, aw-tok'ras-i, n. an absolute 
government by one man : despotism. 
tGr. autos, self, Tcratos, power.] 

AUTOCRAT, aw'to-krat, n. one who rules 
by his oum power : an absolute sovereign. 
— adj. Autocrat'ic. [Gr, autokrates — 
autos, self, Tcratos, power.] 

AUTO-DA-FE, aw'to-da-fa', n. the execu- 
tion of persons who were condemned by 
the Inquisition to be burned :—^l. AuTOS- 
DA-FE. [Port., from auto- L. acttis, act ; 
da, L. de, of ; and fe, L. fides, faith — an 
act of faith.] 

AUTODIAGNCJSIS, aw-to-dl-ag-no'-sis, n. 
(med.) a diagnosis of his own condition 
or disease by a patient. 

AUTOGONY, aw-tog'o-ni, n. the genera- 
tion of simple organisms from an in- 
organic formative fluid. Rossiter. [Gr. 
autos, self, and gone, generation, birth.] 

AUTOGRAPH, aw'to-graf, n,, one's oum 
hsbudun-iting : a signature. — adj. AuTO- 
qraph'ic. [Gr. autos, self, graphe, 

AUTOGRAPHOMETER, aw-to-graf-om'-e- 
ter, n. an instrument on wheels used in 
surveying, which automatically records 
the topography of places over which it 

AUTOHARP, au'-to-harp, n. a zither in 
much simplified form. 

AUTOKINETlCAli, aw'to-ki-net'i-kal, a<fy\ 



self-moving. Dr. H. More. [Or. autoa, 
sell, and ktneO, to move.] 

AUTOLOGY, aw-tol'-o-ji n. the science of 

AUTOMATISM, aw-tom'at-i2an, n. auto- 
matic action : power of self-moving, 

AUTOMATIZE, aw-tom'a-tiz, v.t. to make 
an autoroaton or self-acting machine of. 
" A god-created man, all but abnegating 
the character of man ; forced to exist, 
automatized, muxnmy-wise , . . as Gen- 
tleman or Gigman. "—CarZ^Ze. 

AUTOMATON, aw-tom'a-ton, n., a self- 
moving machine, or one which moves by 
concealed machinery i—pL ^.utom'a-TONS 


MAT'iCAL. [Gr. automutos, self-moving 
— aiitos, self, and a stem mat-, to strive 
after, to move.] 
AUTOMOBILE, aw'-to-mo'-bil, or mo-bel' , 
n. a self-propelled mechanism or vehicle. 
— o. {mech.) self-propelling: comprising 
means of propulsion within itself. Ako 
AuTOMOTOB. [See Auto and Mobile.] 

AUTONOMIST, aw-ton'o-mist, n. one who 
advocates or favors the principle of 

AUTONOMY, aw-ton'om-i, n. the power or 
right of self-government. — ac^'. AUTON*- 
OMOTJB, self-governing. [Gr. — autos, and 
nomos, law.] 

AUTONYM, aw'-to-nim, n. the opposite of 
pseudon^Tn: a real name. Also, a book 
or work bearing the actual name of the 

AUTOPSY, aw'top-si, n., personal inspeo 
Hon, esp. the examination of a body after 
death. [Gr. — autos, self, and apsis, 

AUTOEIAL, aw-to'ri-al, aclj. of or pertam- 
ing to an author. "Testing the autoriai 
power. " — Poe. 

AUTOTHEISM, aw-to-thf'izm, n. the wor- 
ship of one's self ; excessive self-esteem. 
Nin eteenth Century. 

AUTOTHEIST, aw-to-the'ist, n. one given 
to autotheism ; one who makes a god of 
himself. " He begins to mistake more 
and more the voice of that very flesh of 
his, which he fancies he has conquered, 
for the voice of God, and to become with- 
out knowing it an autotheist.^^ — Kingsley. 

AUTOTYPE, aw'-to-«p, n. a photographic 
picture obtained, by a certain process, 
from a gelatin plate: a jfee-simile. 

AUTUMN", aw'tmn, n. the fhird season <tt 
the year when fruits are gathered in, 
popularly co«nprising the months of 
August, September, and October. — adj. 
Autum'nal. [L. autumnus, auctumnus 
-^ugeo, auctum, to increase, to produce.] 

AUXILIAR, awg-zH'i-ar, n. an auxiliary. 
'* My auxiliars and allies" — Sir. H. Tay- 

AUXILIARY, awg-^ril'yar-i, adj. helping. 
— n. a helper : an assistant : (gram.) a 
verb that helps to form the moods and 
tenses of other verbs. [Ij.- ^auxUiuTn, 
Jielp — auaeo, to increase.) 

AUXOLOGY, awks-ol'-6-ji, n. that branch 
of ZDoloffF relating to embryology and 
reproduction. [From Gr. auxano, grow, 
and logos, discourse.] 

AVAIL, to- val', v.t., to beofttalue or service 
■to : to benefit. — vd. to be of use : to ac, 
«we- the purpose — n. benefit: profit o 
ser dee. — Avails, profits : proceeds. 
(Amer.) [Fi-, — ^L. aa, to, valeo, to be 
strong, to be worth.] 

AVAILABLE, a-val'a-bl, adj, that one may 
avail one's self of : profitable : suitable 
—adv. Avail' ABLY. 

ABILITY, a-valra-bil'i-ti, n. quality of 
being available : power in pronooting an 
end in view : validity. 

AVALANCHE, av'al-ansh, n. a mass of 
snow and ice shding do^N-n from a moun- 
tain : a snow-slip. [Fr. — avaler, to slip 
down — L. ad, to, vatlis, a valley.] 

AVARICE, aVar-is, n. eager desir^ for 
"wealth: covetousness. [ft. — h. avariHa 
— avarus, greedy — aveo, to pant after ] 

AVARICIOUS, av-rar-ish'us, adj. extremely 
covetous : greedy. — adv. AVARl'CIOUSLY. 


AVAST, a-vast', int. {naut.) hold fasti 
stop ! [Dut. houd vast, hold fast.] 

AVATAH, a-va-tar', n., the descent of a 
Hindu deity in a visible form : incarna- 
tion. [Sans. — ava, away,down, and tara, 
passage — tri, to cross.] 

AvAUNT, a-vawnt , int. move on : be^ 
gone ! [Fr. avant, forward — L. CEb^ 
from, ante, before.] 

AVE, ji've, 71., be well or happy: hail, an 
address or prayer to the Virgin Mary : in 
full, Ave Marl'a. [L. aveo, to be well or 
pro pitious.] 

AVENGE, a-venj', v.t. (B.) to inflict pim- 
isliment for. — n. AvENaEMENT, a-venj'- 
ment. [Fr. venger — L. vindicare. S^e 

AVE NGER, a-venj'er, n. one who avenges. 

A"VENOUS, a-ve'nus, adj. in bot. wanting 
veins or nerves, as the leaves of certain 

AVENUE, av'«n-fi, i». an alley of trees 
leading to a house j in Amer. a wide 
street. [Fr,, from L. ad, to, venio, to 

AVER, Br-ver', v.t. to declare to be true: 
to affirm or declare positively : ^pr.p^ 
averring ; pa.p. averred'. [Fr. averei'-^ 
L. ad, and verus, true.] 

AVERAGE, av'er-aj, n. the mean value or 
quantity of a number of values or quan- 
tities. — adj. containing a mean value.— 
v.t. to fix an average. — v.i. to exist in, or 
form, a mean quantity. [Low L. aver- 
agium, carrying service due to a lord by 
his tenants with their averia or cattle ; 
loss, expense in carrying — averium, 
" havings," goods, cattle — O. Fr. aver— 
L. habere, to have ; confused with Dut, 
averij, Fr. avarie — Ar. awar, damage; 
hence a contribution towards damage to 
a> cai^ formerly levied on each me^ 



chant in proportion to the goods car-^ 

AVERMENT, a-ver'ment, n. positive asser- 

AVERSE, a-vers', adj. having a disinclina^ 
tion or hatred : disliking. — adv. Averse'= 
LY. — n. AVERSE'NESS. [L. aversus, turned 
away, pa.p. of averto. See Avert.] 

AVERSION; a-ver'shun, n. dislike : hatred s 
the object of dislike. [See Avert.] 

AVERT, a- vert', v.t. to turn from or aside 5 
to prevent. [L. averto — ab, from, verto, 
to turn.] 

AVIARY, a'vi-ar-i, n. a place for keeping 
birds. JXi. aviarium — avis, a bird. 

AVICULTURE, a'vi-kul-tur, n. the breed- 
ing and rearing of birds. Baird. 

AVIDITY, a-vid'it-i, n. eagerness : greedi- 
ness. [L. aviditas — avidus, greedy — 
aveo, to pant after.] 

AVOCATION, a-vo-ka'shun, n. formerly 
and properly, a diversion or distraction 
from one's regular employment : no"- 
one's proper business=VocATlON : busi- 
ness which calls for one's time and atten- 
tion. [L. avocatio, a calling away — ah, 
from, voco, to call.] 

AVOID, a- void', v.t. to try to escape from : 
to shun. — adj. Avoid' able. [Pfx. a=Fr. 
es=lj. ex, out, and Void.] 

AVOIDANCE, a-void'ans, n. the act of 
avoiding or shunning : act of annulling. 

AVOIRDUPOIS, av-er-du-poiz', adj. or n. 
a system of weights in which the lb. 
equals 16 oz. [Fr. avoir du pois, to have 
(of the, weight — L. habeo, to have, pen- 
sum, that which is weighed.] 

AVOUCH, a-vowch', v.t. to avow : to as- 
sert oi own positively. [Fr. d, and O. 
Fr. vocher — L. voco, to call. See Vouch.] 

AVOW, a- vow', v.t. to declare openly : to 
own or confess. — adv. Avow'edly. — adj. 
Avow' ABLE. [Fr. avouer, orig. to swear 
fealty to — L. aid, and votum, a vow. See 

AVOWAL, a-vow'al, n. a positive declara- 
tion : a frank confession. 

AWAIT, a-wat', v.t. to wait or look /or ; to 
be in store for : to attend. [Through Fr. 
from root of Ger. wacht, a watch.] 

AWAKE, a-wak', v.t. to rouse from sleep : 
to rouse from a state of inaction. — v.i. to 
cease sleeping : to rouse one's self : — 
pa.p. awaked' or awoke'. — adj. not 
asleep : vigilant. [A.S. awacan — a- (Ger. 
er-, Goth, us-, Ice. or-), inten. or causal, 
and wacan, to wake.] 

AWAKEN, a-wak'n, v.t. and v.i. to awake. 

A.WAKENING, a-wak'n-ing, n. the act of 
awaking or ceasing to sleep : a revival of 

AWARD, a-wawrd', v.t. to adjudge : to de- 
termine. — n. judgment : final decision, 
esp. of arbitrators. [O. Fr. eswardeir or 

. esgardeir, from es=L. ex and a Teutonic 
root seen in E. Ward.] 

AWARE, a-war', adj. wary : informed. 
[From an A.S. geivcer, from prefix ge- 
and tt'cpr, cautious. See Wary.] 

AWAY, a-wa', adv. out of the way : ab- 
sent. — int. begone ! — (I cannot) Away 
wiTH-=bear or endure : Away with (him) 
=take away : (make) Away wiTH=de- 
stroy. [A.S. aweg — a, on, weg, way, (lit.) 
"on ones way."] 

AWE, aw, n. reverential /ear ; dread. — v.t. 
to strike with or influence by fear. [Ice. 
agi, A.S. ege, fear ; cog. with Gael, eag- 
hal, Gr. achos, anguish. From root ag-, 
seen in Anger, Anxious.] 

AWEARY, a-we'ri, n. weary. [Pfx. a, 
and Weary.] 

AWE-STRUCK, aw'-struk, adj. struck or 
affected with awe. 

AWFUL, aw'fool, adj. full of awe. — adv. 
Aw'FULLY. — n. Aw'fulness. 

AWHILE, a-hwir, adv. for some time : for 
a short time. [Pfx. a, and While.] 

AWKWARD, awVward, adj. clumsy : un- 
graceful. — adv. Awk'wardly. — n. Awk'- 
wardness. [M.E. awk, contrary, wrong, 
and A.S. ward, direction.] 

AWKWARD-SQUAD, awk'-ward-squad, 

(mil.) a number of new recruits receiv- 
ing their lessons preceding regular drill. 

AWL, awl, n. a pointed Instrument for 
boring small holes in leather. [A.S. eel.'] 

AWN, awn, n. a scale or husk : beard of 
corn or grass. — adjs. Awned, Awn'less. 
[Ice. ogn; Ger. ahne; from root ak-, 
sharp, seen in Acute.] 

AWNING, awn'ing, n. a covering to shel- 
ter from the sun's rays. [Ety. dub.] 

AWOKE, a-w6k', did awake— j?asi tense of 

AWRY, a-rl', adj. twisted to one side : 
crooked : wrong : perverse. — adv. un- 
evenly : perversely. [Pfx. a, on, and 

AXE, aks, n. a well-known instrument for 
hevving or chopping. — Axe TO grind, a 
member oi Congress who supports some 
favorite project which makes him ap- 
pear generous, while he acts from a self- 
ish motive, is said to have an axe to 
grind. (Amer.) [A.S. cex; L. ascia; Gr. 
axine, perhaps from root ak-, sharp.] 

AXEMAN, aks'man, n. one who wields an 
axe : one who cuts down trees : a wood- 
man. Whittier. 

AXIOM, aks'vum, n. a self-evident truth : 
a universally received principle in an art- 
or science. — adjs. Axiomat'ic, Axiomat'- 

ICAL. — adv. AXIOMAT'ICALLY: [Gr. ax- 

ioma — axiod, to think worth, to take for 

granted — axios, worth.] 
AXIS, aks'is, n. the axle, or the line, real 

or imaginary, on which a body revolves : 

—pi. Axes, aks'ez. — adj. Ax'iAi,. [L. 

axis; cf. Gr. axon. Sans, aksha, A.S. 

AXLE, aks'l, AXLE-TREE, aks'1-tre, n. 

the pin or rod in the nave of a wheel on 

which the wheel turns. [Dim. from A.S. 

eax, and axle ; Sw. aa;e^J 
AY. AYE, I, adv., yea: yes: indeed. — 

Aye, 1, rt. a vote in the affirmative. [A 

form o* Yea.] 



AYAH, a'ya, n. a native Indian waiting- 

AYE, a, adv., ever: always: for ever. 
[Ice. ei, ever, A.S. a ; conn, with Age, 
E\t;r.] .„ _ 

AYRY. a'ri, n. a hawk's nest. [See Eyby.J 

AZALEA, a-za'-le-a," n. {hot.) a low, branch- 
ing shrub found chiefly in the White 
Mountains of New Hampshire; IMt. Al- 
bert, Quebec; and Northern Europe and 
Asia. Hence, Trailing Azalea. 

AZIMUTH, az'im-uth, n. the njec of th. 

norizon between the meridian of a place 
and a vertical circle passing through any 
celestial body, [Ar. al samt, the direc- 
tion. See Zenith.] 

AZOTE, a-z6t', n. nitrogen, so called be- 
cause it does not sustain animal life.— 
adj. AzoT'ia [Gr. a, neg., and zoo, to 

AZURE, a'zhur. adj. of a faint blue: sky- 
colored. — n. a deucate blue color : the 
sky. [Fr. azur, corr. of Low L. lazur, 
lazulum, azolum, blue ; of Pers. origin.] 


BAA, ba, n. the cry of a sheep. — v.i. to 
cry or bleat as a sheep. [From the 

BABBLE, bab'bl, v.i. to speak like a hahy : 
to talk childishly : to tell secrets. — v.t. 
to prate : to utter. [E.; connected with 
Dut. babbelen, Ger. oabbeln, Fr. habiller, 
from ha, ha, representing the first at- 
tempts of a child to speak.] 

BABBLE, bab'bl, BABBLEMENT, bab'bl- 
ment, BABBLING, bab'bUng, n. idle 
senseless talk. 

BABBLER, bab'bler, w., one who babbles. 

BABE, bab, BABY, ba'bi, n. an infant: 
child. — adj. Ba'byish. — n. Ba'byhood. 
[Ba, ba. See Babble.] 

BABEL, ba'bel, n. a confused combination 
of sounds. [From Heb. Babel (confusion), 
where the language of man was con- 

BABOON, ba-boon', n, a species of large 
monkey, having a long face, dog -like 
tusks, large lips, and a short tail. [lY. 
babouin ; remoter origin dub.] 

BABOUCHE, ba-boosh', n. an oriental slip- 
per without heel or quarters, largely used 
in the United States as a bath-slipper. 
[Ar. buhush — Pers. papush.] 

BABUL, ba-bool', n. (hot.) a species of 
acacia, which yields a gum used as a 
substitute for real gum arable. 

BACCALAUREATE, bak-ka-law'-re-at, n. 
the university degree of bachelor. [L.] 

BACCARA, bak'ka-ra, BACCARAT, bak*- 
ka-rat, a game of cards introduced from 
France into England and America. It 
is played by any number of players, or 
rather bettors, and a banker. The latter 
opens the play by dealing two cards to 
each bettor, and two to himself, and 
covering the stakes of each individual 
with an equal sum. The cards are then 
examined, and those belonging to the 
bettors which when added score nine 
points, or nearest that number, take 
their own stake and the banker'.s. Should 
he, iaowever, be nearest the winnmg 
numbor of points, he takes all the stakes 
on the table ; in any case he takes the 
stakes of the players who have not 
scored so near the winning points as 
himself. Various other numbers, as 19. 

29, 18, 28, etc., give certain advantagea 
in the game. Court cards count as tea 
points, the others according to the num= 
ber of pips. [Fr., origin unknown.] 

LIAN, bak-ka-na'U-an, n. a worshipper 
of Bacchus : one who indulges in drunken 
revels. — adj. relating to drunken revels. 
[L. Bacchus, Gr. Bacehos, the god of 

BACCHANALIA, bak-ka-na'li-a, • BAC- 
CHANALS, bak'ka-nalz, orig. 
feasts in honor of Bacchus: drunken 

BACCIFORM, bak'si-form, adj. shaped like 
a berrv. [L. hacca, a berry, and forma, 

BACHELOR, bach'el-or, n. an unmarried 
man : one who has taken his first degree 
at a university. — ns. Bach'elorhood, 
Bach'elorship. [O. Fr. bacheler, a 
young man. Ety. disputed ; according 
to Brachet from Low L. baccalarius, a 
farm - servant, originally a cow-herd ; 
from baccalia, a herd of cows ; and this 
from bacca. Low L. for vacca, a cow.] 

BACILLUS, ba-sil'lus, n. a species of rod-like 
microscopic organisms belonging to the 
genus Bacterium. Certain diseases are 
beUeved to be caused by these bodies 
being introduced into the system. 

BACK, bak, n. the hinder part of the body 
in man, and the upper part in beasts : 
the hinder part. — adv. to the place from 
which one came : to a former state oi 
condition : behind : in return : again. — • 
Back and forth, backward and forward. 
(Amer.) — v.t. to get upon the back of: 
to help, as if standing at one's back : to 
put backward. — v.i. to move or go back. 
— To BACK OUT, to retreat from difl[iculty : 
to withdraw from an engag'ement or 
contest. (Amer.) [A.S. bcec, Sw. bak, 
Dan. bag.] 

BACKBITE, bak'bit, v.t. to speak evil of 
any one behind his back or in his ab- 
sence. — ns. Back' BITER, Back'biting. 

BACKBONE, bak'bon, n. the bone of the 
back, the vertebral column ; also, firm- 
ness, stabilitv of purpose, energj'. (Amer.) 

BACKDOOR, 'bak'dor, n. a door in the 
back part of a building. 



BACKED, bakt, adj. provided with a back : 
— used in composition, as Hump-backed. 

BACKER, bak'er, n. one who backs or sup- 
ports another in a contest. 

BACKFURROW, bak'-fur-ro, vA. and t. to 
plow in such a way as to throw, or turn, 
the soil from the first two furrows to- 
gether, leaving a clear furrow on each 

BACKGAMMON, bak-gam'un, n. a game 
played by two persons on a board with 
dice and fifteen men or pieces each. 
[Ety. dub., perhaps A.S. hcBC, back, and 
gamen, game.] 

BACKGROUND, bak'grownd, n. ground at 
the back : a place of obscurity : the space 
behind the principal figures of a picture. 

BACK-HANDED, bak'-hand-ed, adj. with 
the hand turned backward (as of a blow) : 

bak'-plat, n. a piece or plate of armor for 
the back. 

BACK-SCRAPER, bak'-skrap-er, BACK- 
SCRATCHER, bak'-skrach-er, n. same a» 
Scratch-back, 2. "A back-scratcher of 
which the hand was ivory." — Southey. 

n., a gift or present of money, in the East. 

BACKSLIDE, bak-slld', vA. to slide or fall 
back in faith or morals :—pa.p. backslid' 
or backslidd'en. — ns. Backslid'er, Back- 

BACKSTAIRS, bak'starz, back or pri- 
vate stairs of a house. — adj. secret or 

BACK-STRING, bak'-string, n. a leading- 
string by which a child is supported or 
guided from behind. "The back-string 
and the bib." — Cowper. 

bak'wardz, adv. towards the back : on 
the back : towards the past : from a bet- 
ter to a worse state. [Back and affix 
Ward. Wards, in the direction of.] 

BACKWARD, bak'ward,ad/. keeping back : 
unwilling : slow : late ; also, bashful, 
timid. (Amer.) — adv. Back'wardly. — n. 

BACKWOODS, bak'woodz,, the for- 
est or uncultivated part of a country be- 
yond the cleared country, as in N. Amer. 
— n. Backwoods'man. 

BACON, ba'kn, n. swine's flesh salted or 
pickled and dried. — To save one's bacon, 
to preserve one's self from harm. (Amer.) 
[O. Fr. — O. Dutch, bak, a pig.] 

BACONIAN, bak-on'i-an, adj. pertaining 
to Lord Bacon (1561-1636), or to his phi- 
losophy, which was inductive or based on 

BACTERIOID, bak-te'-ri-oid, adj. resem- 
bling, or allied to, bacteria. [Bacterium 
and oid.] — n. Bacteboid, bak'-te-roid, any 
organism resembling bacterium. — n. Bac- 
TEBiosis, bak-te-ri-o'-sis, (hort.) any bac- 
terial disease of plants. [7i.] 

BAD, bad, adj. ill or evil : wicked : hurt- 
ful : — comp. Worse ; superl. Worst. 
fEty. dub., perhaps from Celt, baodh, 
oolish, wicked.] 

BADAUB, ba-do', n. one who expresses 
wonder or astonishment at everything 
he sees or hears: a credulous idler or 

BADDISH, bad'ish, adj. somewhat bad : 
not very good. [Bad, and dim. termina- 
tion ish.J 

BADE, bad, past tense of Bid. 

BADGE, baj, n. a mark or sign by which 
one is known or distinguished. [Low L. 
bagia, a mark, baga, a ring, from a Teut. 
root, seen in A.S. beah, a ring, mark of 

BADGER, baj'er, n. a burrowing animal 
about the size of a fox, eagerly hunted 
by dogs. — v.t. to pursue with eagerness, 
as dogs hunt the badger : to pester or 
worrj. [A corr. of bladger—O. Fr. 
bladter. Low L. bladarius, a corn-dealer, 
from bladum, corn, because the creature 
was believed to store up corn. Ace. to 
Diez, bladum is from h.ablatum, " carried 
away." See Ablative.] 

BADINAGE, bad'in-azh, n. light playful 
talk : banter. [Fr. badinage--badin, 
playful or bantering.] 

BADLY, bad'li, adv. in a bad manner : not 
well: imperfectly: wrongly .-w. Bad'ness. 

BADMINTON, bad-min'ton, n. a kind of 
claret-cup or summer beverage, so called 
from being invented at the Duke of Beau- 
fort's seat of that name. " Soothed or 
stimulated by fragrant cheroots- or beak- 
ers of Badminton." — Disraeli. 

BAFF, baf, v.t. and i. to beat, or to strike; 
as with clubs, in the ga ^ of golf. 
Hence Baffing Spoon, or Baffy. [Scot, 
from an int. imitating the sound of a 

BAFFLE, baf'fl, v.t. to elude or defeat by 
artifice : tc check or make ineffectual. 
[O. Fr. bifler, to deceive, to mock ; It. 
oeffa, a scoffing.] 

BAFT, baft, adv. {Tiaut.). See Abaft. 

BAG, bag, n. a sack or pouch. — v.t. to put 
into a bag : to capture :—pr.p. bagg'ing : 
pa.p. bagged'. [A.S. bcdg, bag, belly ; 
Celt, bag, balg, belly, wallet.] 

BAGASSE, ba-gas', n. the dry remains of 
the sugar-cane, after the juice has all 
been pressed out — used as fuel in boiling 
the juice. (Amer.) 

BAGATELLE, bag-a-tel', n. a trifle: a 
game played on a board with nine balls 
and a cue. [Fr.; It. bagatella, a conjur- 
er's trick, a trifle.] 

BAG-FOX, bag'-foks, n. a fox kept in con- 
finement, and sUpped from a bag, when 
no other victim of a hunt is to oe had. 
Miss Ferrier. 

BAGGAGE, bag'aj, n. the tents, provisions, 
and other necessaries of an arniy : travel- 
ler's luggage. [Fr. bagage — O. Fr. baguest 
goods or effects ; from Celt, bag, a 



BAGFGAGE, baff^j, n. a worthless -woman: 
a saucy female. [Fr. bagasse, a prosti- 

BAGOING, bag'ing, n. cloth or material 
for bags : usually made of hemp, when 
used for packing- cotton. (Amer.) 

BAGGY, bag'i, a^j. loose like a bag. 

BAGMAN, bag'man, n. a commercial 

BAGNIO, ban'yd, n. a hoose of ill-fanBe. 
[It. bagno — L. balneum, a bath.] 

BAGPIPE, bag'pip, h. a musical wind-in- 
strument, consisting of a leathern bag, 
which acts as a bellows, and pipes. — n. 

BAGUIO. ba-nfe'-o. n. a rnjetporolopipal term 
used in the Philippine Islands, meaning 
a typhoon. [8p. from a native name.] 

BAH, ba, i7it. an exclamation of disgust or 

BAHAUDUR, ba-haw'der, n. a title of respect 
or honor giver^ to distinguished person- 
ages and high officials by the natives in 
India; used colloquially and in state 
documents. [Hind. ; lit. hero, champion.] 

BAHIA, ba-e'-a, n. a Spanish place name, 
usually meaning a bay. 

BAHUT, ba-hoot', n. a cabinet or chest used 
chiefly as- an ornament: {arch.) a wall 
above the main cornice supporting the 
roof. [Fr. ban,] 

BAIGNOmE, ba-nwar', n. a box of tlie low- 
est tier in a theatre. — Du Maurier. [Fr.; 
lit. bath-tub.] 

BAIL, buil, 11. one who procures the release 
of an accused person by becoming guar- 
dian or security for his appearing in 
court : tlie security given. — v.t. to set a 
person free by giving security for him : 
to release on the security of another. 
rO. Fr. bail, a guardian, a tutor ; Low L. 
haila, a nurse, from L. bajulus, a carrier.] 

BAIL, bal, n. one of the cross pieces on the 
top of the wicket in cricket ; also, the 
handle of a pail, bucket or kettle. (Amer.) 
[O. Fr. bailies, sticks, a palisade.] 

BAIL, bal, v.t. to clear (a boat) of water 
with buekets. — To bail one's own boat, 
to mind one's own business without 
waiting for help from others. (Amer.) 
[Dut. balie, a tub, Fr. bailie (whence 
Diez derives the Dut. word). Also spelled 

BAILABLE, bal'a-bl, adj. admitting of 

BAILIE, bal'i, n. a municipal oflBcer in Scot- 
land corresponding to an alderman. [Fr. 
bailli, land-steward, officer of justice. 
See Bailiff.] 

BAILIFF, bal'if, n. a sheriffs officer: an 
agent or land-steward. [O. Fr. baillif 
(old form of bailli, see Bailie); from root 
of B.UL.] 

BAILIWICK, bal'i-wik, n. the jurisdiction 
of a bailiJ9f. [O. Fr. baillie, lordship, au- 
thority, and A.S. vnc — L. vieus, a -village, 

BAIRN, barn, n. a child. [Scot, bairn, 
A.S- beam—beran, to bear.] 

I BAIT, bat, n. food put on a hook to allur* 

I fish or make them bite : any allurement : 

I a refreshment taken on a journey. — v.t. 

to set food as a lure : to girve refreshment 

on a journey. — v.t. to take refreshment 

on a journey. [See Bait, v.] 

BAIT, bat, v.t. to provoke an animal by in- 
citing doge to bite it : to harass. [Ice. 
beita, from root of Bite.] 

BAIZE, bas, n. a coarse woollen cloth, 
[From pi. of Fr. baye ; so called from its 
color. See Bay, adj.] 
» BAKE, bak, v.t. to dry, harden, or cook by 
the heat of the sun or of fire : to prepare 
food ha an oven. — v.i. to work as a baker. 
rA.S. bacan ; cog. with Gter. backen, to 
bake, Gr.jphogo, to rodrst.1 

BAKEHOITSE, bak'hows, n. a house or 
place used for baking in. 

BAKER, bak'er, n. one who bakes bread, 

BAKERY, bak'er-i, n. a bakehouse. 

BAKING, bak'ing, n. the process by which 
bread is baked : the quantity baked at 
one time. 

BAKING-POWDER, bak'ing-pon-der, n. a 
powder used in baking bread chiefly as a 
substitute for yeast. The common in- 
gre<lients are powdered tartaric acid, bi- 
carbonate of soda, and potiiLO farina. 

BALAAM, ba'-lam, n. a prophet who strives 
to mislead, like Balaam in the Book of 
N^rmbers in the Bible: unimportant para- 
graphs kef>t in readiness ia a newspaper 
office for fillers. 

BALANCE, bal'ans, n. an instrument for 
weighing, usuaUy formed of two dishea 
or scales hanging from a beam supported 
in the middle : act of weighing two 
things : equality or just proportion of 

weight or power, as the balance o^ 
power : the sum required to make the 
two sides of an account equal, hence the 
surplus, or the sum due on an account : 
also the remainder of anything ; as, the 
" balance of the party stayed." (Amer.) 
— v.t. to weigh in a balance : to counter 
poise : to compare : to settle, as an ac-= 
count. — v.i. to have equal weight or 
power, etc.: to hesitate or fiuctuatec 
[Fr. — L. bilanx, having two scales— dig, 
double, lanx, lands, a dish or scale.] 

BALANCE - HANDLED, bal'ans-han-dld, 
adj. a term applied to table-knives whici 
have the weight of the handle so ad- 
justed that when the knives are laid on 
the table the blades do not touch the 

BALANCE-SHEET, bal'ans-shet, n. a sheet 
of paper showing a summary and bal* 
ance of accounts. 

BALANIFEROUS, bal-a-nifer-us, ax^ 
bearing, yielding, or producing acorns. 
[L. balanus, Gr. balanos, an acorn, and 
jero, to bear.] 

BALANOID, bal'a-ncad, adj. having the 
form or appearance of an acorn : rela4> 
ing or pertaining to the cirnped family 
Balanidse or acorn sheils. 



BALANOID, bal'a-noid, n. a cirriped of the 
family Balanidaa or acorn-shells. 

BALCONY, balk'on-i, n. a platform or gal- 
iery outside the window of a room. Tit. 
balcone ; from O. Ger. balcho (Grer. oal- 
ken), a beam, cog. with E. Balk in the 
obs. sense of beam, partition.] 

BALD, bawld, adj. without hair on the 
head : bare, unadorned, — adv. Baid'- 
LY. — n. Bajld'ness. [Orig. "shining," 
"white," Celt, bal, "white" spot; or 
conn, with Bold, which in Goth, balthai 
meant the " brave," " shining," Ice, 
Baldr, "Lightgod."] 

BALDERDASH, bawl'der-dash, n. idle, 
senseless talk : anything jumbled to- 
gether without judgment. [Ety. dub.] 

BALDHEAD, bawld'hed, n. a person bald 
on the head. 

BALDICOOT, bawl'di-kot, n. 1, the com- 
mon coot. Hence — 2, {fig.) a monk, on 
account of his sombre raiment and 
shaven crown. "Princesses that . . . 
demean themselves to hob and nob with 
these black baldicoots." — Kingsley. 

BALDRIB, bawld'rib, n. 1, a piece cut 
from the side of a pig lower down than 
the spare-rib, and consisting of a rib 
with flesh devoid of fat on it. " Baldrib, 
griskin, chine, or chop." — South. Hence 
— 2, {fig.) a lean, lanky person. T. Mid- 
dleton. (Rare.) 

BALDRICK, bawld'rik, n. a warrior's belt. 
[O. Fr. baldric, from O. Ger. balderich, 

BALE, bal, n., a ball, bundle, or package 
of goods. — v.t. to make into bales, [^e 

BALE, bal, v.t. to throw out water. [See 

BALEEN, ba-len', n. the whalebone of com- 
mer ce. [Fr. — li. balcena, whale.] 

BALEFUL, bal'fool, adj. full of misery, 
destructive : full of sorrow, sad. — adv. 
Bale'fully. [Obs. E. bale, A.S. beaJo, 
Ice. bol, woe, evil.] 

Balk, bawk, v.i. to stop abruptly in one*£ 
course, as a sulky horse. (Amer.) 

BALK, bawk, n. a hinderance or disap^ 
pointment. — v.t. to check, disappoint, or 
elude : to stop short at : omit. [A^. 
balca, a heap or ridge, also a beam, a 
partition; conn, with Bar. See Balcony.] 

BALL, bawl, n. anything round : a bullet : 
a well-known game. [Fr. balle. Weigand 
has shown that this is a Romance word, 
as in It. palla — Gr. pallo, to swing, akin 
to balls, to throw.] 

BALL, bawl, n. an entertainment of danc- 
ing. [Fr. 6aZ— It. and Low L. bailare, 
to dance, from Gr. ballO to throw, the 
game of ball-throwing having been as- 
sociated with music and dancing.] 

BALLAD, ball'ad, n. a short narrative 
poem : a popular song. [Fr. ballade. It. 
ooMata, from bailare, to dance ; a song 
sung in dancingj 

BALLADMONGER, ball'ad-mung-ger, n. 
a dealer in ballnds. 

BALLAST, ballast, n. heavy matter placed 
in a ship to keep it steady when it has 
no cargo : that which renders anything 
steady. — v.t. to load with ballast : to 
make or keep steady. [Dut.; ety. best 
seen in Dan. bag-last or ballast, from 
bag, " behind," the Back, and last, 
load ; a load placed behind or under to 
steady a ship.] 

BALLET, ball'a, n. a theatrical exhibition 
acted chiefly in dancing. [Fr. dim. of 
bal, a dance.] 

BALLISTA, ball-is'ta, n. a mihtary engine 
in the form of a cross-bow, used by the 
ancients for throvnng heavy arrows, 
darts, large stones, etc. [L.-— Gr. ballo, 
to throwj 

BALLISTITE, bal'-lis-tit, n. (cTiem.) a 
smokeless powder that contains soluble 
nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine in equal 

BALLOON, ball-oon', n. a large bag, made 
of light material, and filled with a gas 
lighter than common air, so as to make 
it ascend. — Ballooning, the operation of 
inflating shares or stock by publishing 
fictitious favorable reports or the like. 
(Stock exchange slang.) [Fr. ballon— 
balle, a ball ; the on is augmentative.] 

BALLOON - FORESAIL, -for'-sel, BAL- 
LOON- JIB; etc. n. {naut.\ sails of light 
weight used on yachts in light winds in 
place of the heavier but smaller sails 
generally used. 

BALLOT, bal'ut, n., a little ball or ticket 
used in voting : the act of secret voting 
by putting a ball or ticket into a box. — 
v.i. to vote by ballot i—pr.p. ball'oting ; 
pa.ip. ball'oted. [Fr. ballotte, dim. of 
baue, a ball. See Ball.] 

BALLOTAGE, bal'-lot-aj, n. a second ballot 
following an indecisive first ballot, to 
reach a decision between two or several 
candidates. [Fr. hallotage.'] 

BALL-PROOF, bawl'-proOf, a^f. proof 
against balls discharged l^om firearms. 

BALLROOM, bawl'room, n. a room for 
balls or dancing. 

BALM, bam, n. an aromatic plant : a frsv- 
grant and healing ointment obtained 
from sucii a plant : anything that heals 
or soothes pain. [Fr. baume, O. Fr. basme 
— L. balsamum. See Baj«am.J 

BALMORAL, bal-mo-ral', n. a kind of 
Scotch cap: a figured petticoat: a kind 
of shoelacing. 

BALMY, bam'i, adj. fragrant : soothing ; 
bearing balm. 

BALNEOGRAPHY, bal-ne-o^ra-fi, n. a de- 
scription of baths. Dunglison. nL. bal- 
neum, a bath, and Gr. graphe, a descrip- 

BALNEOLOGY, bal-ne-ol'o-ji, n. a treatise 
on baths or bathing : the branch of 
knowledge relating to baths and bath- 
ing. Dunglison. [L. balneum, a bath, 
and Or. logos, a discourse.] 

BALNEOTHERAPIA. bal'ne-o-ther-a-pl'a, 



the treatment of disease by baths. Dunn 
giiaon. [L. balneum., a oath, and Gr. 
therapeiay medical treatment.] 

BALSA3I, oawl'sam, n. the name of cer- 
tain plants : a resinous oUy substance 
flowing trom them. [L. ha]^inuin — Gr, 
balsanion — Heb. baai, a prince, and acha- 
man, oil.] 

BALSAMIC, oal-sam'ik, adj. soothing. 

BALUSTER, bal'»ist-er, n. a smaU pillar 
used as a support to the rail of a stai. - 
case, etc. — adj. Balustered, bal'ust-erd. 
[Fr. balustre — Low L. bcUaustium — Gr. 
bcdaicstion, the flower of the pomegran* 
ate ; from the similarity of form.] 

BALUSTRADE, oal'ust-rad, ». a row of 
balusters joined by a rail. 

BAMBINO, bam-be'-no, n. in art, the swad- 
dled figure of the infant Saviour exhib- 
ited at CJhristmas in Catholic churches. 
[It. dim. of hamio.'] 

BAMBOO, bam-boo', n. a gigantic Indian 
reed or grass, with hollow-jointed stem, 
and of hard texture. [Malay.] 

BAMBOOZLE, bam-boo' zl, v.t. to deceive : 
to confound. LEtv. dub.] 

BAMBUSA, bam-bu'-sa, «. a large bamboo 
tree: a ^nus of the largrest known 
grasses, natires of the warmer sections 
of Africa. South America, and Asia, often 
growine into trees 120 feet high and 8 
feet fn diameter. 

HAN. ban, n. a proclamation • a deniinoif^ 
tton s a curse. [A.S. ge-bann, a procla- 
mation, a widely diffused Teut. word, 
O. Grer. pannan, orig. meaning to "sum- 
mon to trial." See Abandon.] 

Banality, ba-nal'l-tl, n, the state of be- 
ing banal, trite, or stale : commonplace- 
ness : vulgarity or triviality in expres- 
sion. [Fr. banalite.l 

BANA1?A. ba-na-vH'. n. a hardwood tree 
fownd in the Philir»T>ine Islands. [Sp. 
from a native 'name.l 

BANANA, ba-nA'na, n. a gigantic herba- 
ceous plant, remarkable for its nutritious 

BANANALAND, ba-na'-na-land, n. the 
name given colloquially in Australia to 
Queensland, so called from the vast 
quantities of bananas produced. Banana- 
LANDEB, a native of Queensland. 

BANC^Uj, ban-kal', n. a highly ornamental 
carpet or leather cover for a window seat 
or bench — pi. Bancalks, ban-ka'-las. 
[Sp. from banco, banco, bench.] 

BAND, bauvt, n., that which binds to- 
gether: a tie. A.S. bend, from bindan, 
to bind. See Bind.] 

BAND, band, n. a number of persons bound 
together for an;^' common purpose • a 
body of nausicians. — v.t. to bind together. 
— v.i. to associate. [Fr. bande, from 
Ger. band, bond, thing used in binding — 
binden, E. Bind. See Banner.] 

BANDAGE, band'aj, n. a strip of cloth 
used to bind up a wound or fracture. — 
v.t. to bind with such. 

BANDANA, BANDANNA, ban-daii a. «, a 

kind of sUk or cotton colored handker- 
chief, originally from India. 

BANDBOX, band'boks, ». a thin kind f 
box for holdinsr bands, caps, etc. 

BANDEAU, ban'-do, n. a narrow band worn 
by wonaen to bind the hair. [Fr.] 

BANDERILLA, ban-da-rel'-ya, n. a weapon 
used in a bull-fight: the barbed dart car- 
rying a banderole thrust into the shouJ- 
der or neck of the bull Ky the handeri),' 
lero. [Sp. dim. of havdera, banner.] 

BANDERILLERO, ban-da-rel-ya'-ro, n. one 
who thrusts in the ianderillas at a bull- 
fight. [Sp.] 

BANDEROLE, band'-e-rol, n. a small flag, 
streamer, or banner. Written also Band- 
BOL, band'-rol. [Fr. banderole, dim. of 
handi^re, banner.] 

BANDIT, ban'dit, n. an outlaw : a robber -■ 
—pi. Bxs'mTS or Banditt'l [It. bandif 
— Low L. bannire, bandire, to proclai; 
from Ban.] 

BANDO, ban -do, n. a public proclamationt 
used in Spanish and Italian countries, 
meaning a formal notice to the public: 
— pi. Bandos, ban'-dos. 

BANDOG, ban'dog, n. properly band-dog, 
a large, fierce dog (which, on account of 
its fierceness, was kept bound or chained). 

BANDORE, ban-dor', n. a widow's veil for 
covering the head and face. Prior. 

BANDS, bandz, a portion of the dress 
worn by clergymen, barristers, etc, — a 
relic of the ancient amice. 

BANDY, ban'di, n. a club bent at the end 
for striking a ball : a game at ball with 
such a club. — v.t. to beat to and fro as 
w\tn a bandy : to toss from one to an- 
other (as words), like playing at bandy : 
—pa.p. ban'died. [Fr. bander, to bend 
— 3er, band, a tie, string.] 

BANDY-LEGGED, ban'di-legd, adj. nav- 
in^bandy or crooked legs. 

BANE, ban, n., destruction : death : mis- 
chief : poison. rA.S. bana, a murderer ; 
Ice. bani, death.] 

BANEFUL, ban'fool, adj. destructive. — 
adv. Bane'fully. 

BANG, bang, n. a heavy blow. — v.t. to 
beat : to strike violently. [Ice. bang, a 
hammering ; originally perhaps from the 

BANG, BANGUE, bang, n. an intoxicat- 
ing drug made from Indian hemp. [Pers. 

BANIAN. See Banyan. 

BANISH, ban'ish, v.t. to condemn to exile : 
to drive away. [^Fr. bannir — Low L. 
bannire, to proclaim, from Ban, and see 

BANISHMENT, ban'ish-ment, n. exile. 

BANISTER, ban'ist-er, n. corruption of 

BANJO, ban'io, n, a musical instrument 
hKC a fiddle. [Corr. of Fr. bandore oi 
pandore — ^L. pamittra — Gr. pandoura.] 

BANJORE, ban'ior, n. Same as Banjo. 
Miss Edgevxrrth. 

BAJNiK« baoffkt n. a moimd or ridge ol 



earth : the earthy margin of a river, 
lake, etc. : rising' ground in the sea,.—v.t. 
to inclose with a bank. [A.S. banc; 
Ger. bank. Conn, with Bench through 
the idea of " thing ridged or raised."] 

BANK, bangk, n. a place where money is 
deposited : an institution for the keep- 
ing, lending, and exchanging, etc., of 
money. — vt. to deposit in a bank, as 
money, pfr. banque — It. banco, a bench 
on which the Italian money-changers dis- 
played their monev— Qer.5awfc,E. Bencjh.] 

fiANKABLB, bangk'a-bl, o^/. received aii 
a bank, as bills : discountsLole, as noteSo 

BANK-BILL, bangk'-bil, n. a bank-note, 

BANKER, bangk'er, n. a vessel engag'ed im 
the Newfoundland fisheries. (Amer.) 

BANKER, bang-k'er, n. one who keeps a 
bank : one employed in banking busi- 

BANKING, bangk'in^, n. the business of a 
banker. — ad/, pertaining to a bank. 

BANKLESS, bangk'les, adj. without banks 
or limits. " The bankless sea." — Davies, 

BANK-NOTE, bangk'-not, n. a note issued 
by a bank, which passes as money. 

BANKRUPT, bangk^rupt,n. one who breaks 
or fails in business : an insolvent persouc 
— adj. insolvent. [Bank, a bench, and 
L. ruptus, broken.] 

BANKRUPTCY, bangk'rupt-si, n. the state 
of being or act of becoming bankrupt. 

BANK-STOCK, bangk'-stok, n. a share or 
shares in the capital stock of a bank. 

BANNER, ban'er, n. a military standard % 
a flag or ensign. [Ft. banniere. It. ban- 
diera — Low L. bandum, a standard, from 
Ger. band, a band, a strip of cloth, a 
waving or fluttering cloth, used as a flag 
— Ger. binden. See Band, Btnd.] 

BANNERED, ban'erd, adj. furn.shed with 

BANNERET, ban'er-et, n. a higher ciass off 
knight, inferior to a baron. [Fr., dim. of 

BANNOCK, ban'nok, n. a cake of Indian- 
meal fried in lard. 

BANNS, banz, a proclamation of mar- 
riage. jFrom Ban.] 

BANQUET, bangk'wet, n. a feast : any 
rich treat or entertainment. — v.t. to give 
a feast to. — v.i. to fare sumptuously. — n, 
Banq'uet-house. [Fr.— It. banchetto, 
dim. of banco, a bench or table— Ger. 
hank. See Bank, a bench.] 

BANQUETTE, ban-kef, n. a name for e 
sidewalk in Louisiana. 

BANSHEE, ban'she, n. a female fairy in 
Ireland and elsewhere, who usually ap- 
pears and utters a peculiar shrieking waiJ 
before a death in a particular family to 
which she is attached. [Ir. bean, a wo- 
man, sidhe, a fairy,] 

BANTAM, ban'tam, n. a small variety of 
the common fowl, brouglit liom the 
East Indies, and supposed to be named 
from Bantam in Java, — adj. of the ban- 
tam brfced. 

BANTER, bant'er, v.t. to assail with good- 
humored raillery : to joke or jest at . 
also, to challenge to a match : to provoke 
to a wager. (Amer.) — n. humorous rail- 
lery : jesting. [Ety. dub. J 

BANTING, bant'ing, n. a system of diet 
for reducing superfluous fat. [From W, 
Banting of London, who recommended 
it to the public in 1863.] 

BANTLING, bant'ling, n. a child. [So 
called from the bands in which it is 

BANTU, ban'-too, n.sing. a large group of 
South African tribes having similar lan- 
guages, including the Zulus and Kaffirs, 
and nearly all the native tribes with the 
exception of Hottentots and Bushmen: — 
pi. Bantus, ban'-tooz. [Native name.] 

BANYAN, ban'yan, n. one belonging tc 
the caste of merchants in India. — Ban 
yan-dav. a day without meat. [Sana 
banij, a merchant.] 

BANYAN, ban'yan, n. the Indian fig-tree 
whose branches take root and spread 
over a large area. [So called by the 
English because the Banyans (merchants) 
held their markets under it. ] 

BAOBAB, ba'o-bab, n. a large African tree. ' 
[W. African.] 

BAPTISM, bapt'izm, n. immersion in or 
sprinkling with water as a religious cere- 
mony. — adj. Baptism' Ai>. 

BAPTIST, bapt'ist, n. one who baptizes : 
one who approves only of adult Oaptisn! 
by immersion. 

BAPTISTEKY, bapt'ist-er-i, to. a place 
where baptism is administered. 

BAPTIZE, bapt-Iz', v.t. to administer bap- 
tism to : to christen. [Gr. baptizo—bapto, 
to dip in water.] 

BAR, bar, n. a rod of any solid substance : 
a bolt : a hinderance or obstruction : a 
bank of sand or other matter at the 
mouth of a river : the railing that in- 
closes a space in a tavern or in a court of 
law : any tribunal : the pleaders in a court 
as distinguished Irom the judges : a divis- 
ion in music. — v.t. to fasten or secure, ae 
with a bar : to hinder or exclude :—pr.p. 
barr'ing ; pa.p. barred'. [Fr. barire, It. 
barra ; of Celtic origin.] 

BARB, barb, n. the beard-like jag near the 
poipt of an /arrow, fish-hook, etc. — v.t. to 
arm with barbs, as an arrow, etc. [Fr. — 
L. barba, a beard.] 

BARB, barb, n. a swift kind of horse, the 
breed of which came from Barbary ic 
North Africa. 

BARBACAN, bar'ba-kan, BARBICAIS!, 
bar'bi-kan, n. an outer work or defence 
of a castle, esp. before a gate or bridge. 
[Low L. barbacanu, \)vob. from Pers.] 

BARBADOS, bar-ba'-doz, «. one of the 
Windward group of West Indian Isl- 
ands. Also the name given to a cherry 
and to a cedar-tree common to tropical 
countries. — Barbaoor Leg (med.), a dis- 
ease common in Barbados. 

^ \ kBADOS-TVUT, biLi-lia'doz-nut, w. the 




physic-nut, a product of Curcas purgana 
{Jatropha Curcas). [See Ctjrcas.1 

BARBARESQXJE, bar-bar-esk', adj. charac- 
teristic of barbarians : barbarous. De 
Quincey. (Rare.) 

BARBARIAN, bar-bar'i-an, adj. uncivil- 
ized : savage : without taste or refine- 
ment. — n. an uncivilized man, a savage : 
a cruel, brutal man. [L. barharus, Gr. 
barbaros — bar, bar, an imitation of unin- 
telligible sounds — applied by the Greeks 
(and afterwards the Romans) to those 
speaking' a different language from 

BARBARIC, bar-bar'ik, adj. foreign : un- 

BARBARISM, baKbar-izm, n. savage life : 
rudeness of manners : an incorrect form 
of speech. 

BARBARITY, bar-bar'i-ti, n. savageness: 

BARBARIZE, bSr'bar-iz, v.t. to make bar- 

BARBAROUS, bar'bar-us, adj. uncivilized : 
rude : savage, brutal. — adv. Bak'bab- 
OUSLY. — n. Bar'barousness. 

BARBECUE, barb'e-ku, v.t. to roast whole, 
as a pig. [Ety. dub.] 

BARBEL, barb'el, n. a fresh- water fish 
with beard-like appendages at its mouth. 
[O. Fr. barbel — L. barba, a beard.] 

BARBER, barb'er, n. one who shaves 
beards and dresses hair. [Fr. — L. barba, 
a beard.] 

BARBERRY, bar'ber-i, n. a thorny shrub 
with red berries, common in hedges. 
jTx)w L. and Sp. berberis — ^Ar. barbaris.l 

BARBETTE, biir-bet', n. a platform for 
heavy grims, in a fort: on ironclad ships, 
a heavily armored redoubt amidships. 

BARBICAN, bSr'bi-kan, n. same as Bar- 

BARCAROLLE, bar'-ka-rol, n. a boat song 

of the gondoliers of Venice: a musical 

composition resembling such song. [It.] 
BARD, bard, n. a poet and singer among 

the ancient Celts : a poet. (Celtic] 
BARDIC, bard'ik, acy. pertaining to hards 

or their poetry. 
BARE, bar, adj. uncovered, naked : poor, 

scanty : unadorned : mere or by itself. — 

v.t. to strip or uncover. — adv. Bake'ly. 

— n. Bare'ness. 
BARE, bar, old pa.t. of Beak. 
BAREFACED, bar'fast, adj. with the face 

uncovered : impudent. — adv. Bare'- 


BARGAIN, bar'gin, n. a contract or agree- 
ment : a favorable transaction. — Into 
THE BARGAIN, over : above : besides. — 
v.i. to make a contract or agreement : 
to chaffer. [Fr. barguigner — Low L. 
barcaniare ; ace. to Diez from barca, a 
boat, used in carrying goods about.] 

BARGE, barj, n. a boat used in the unload- 
ing- of large vessels : a pleasure or state 
boat. [O. Fr. barge — Low L, bargia. 
Prob. a aoublet wf Bark, a barge.] 

BARIC, bar'ik, adj. pertaining or relating 
to weight, more especially the weight of 
the atmosphere as measured by the bar- 
ometer. [Gr, barys, heavy.] 

BARILLA, bar-il'a, n. an alkaline ash ob- 
tained by burning several marine plants 
(that grow chiefly on the east coast of 
Spain), used for making soap, glass, etc. 


BARITONE, bar'i-ton, n. same as Bary- 

BARK, bark, n. the noise made by a dog, 
wolf, etc. — v.i. to yelp like a dog : to 
clamor. — ^To bark up the wrong tree, 
to mistake one's object : to pursue the 
wrong course to obtain it. In hunting, a 
dog drives a squirrel or other game into 
a tree, where by barking he attracts its 
attention until the hunter arrives. Some- 
times the game escapes, or the dog is 
deceived, and barks up the wrong tree. 
[A.S. beorcan, probably a variety of 
brecan, to crack, snap. See Break.] 

BARK, BARQUE, bark, n. a barge : a ship 
of small size : technically, a three-masted 
vessel with no square sails on her mizzen- 
mast. [Fr. barque — Low L. barca ; 
perh. from Gr. baris, a boat.] 

BARK, bark, n. the outer rind or covering 
of a tree. — v.t. to strip or peal the bark 
from. — To bark a squirrel, to strike 
with a rifle ball the bark on the upi>er 
side of a branch on which the animal sits, 
so that the concussion kills it without 
mutilation. (Amer.) [Dan. bark. Ice. 

BARKEN, bark'en, adj. consisting or made 
of bark. "Barken knots." — Whittier. 

BARLEY, barli, n. a grain used for food, 
but chiefly for making malt. [A.S. bcerlic 
— bere (Scot. bear) and ZM;=Zec,leek, plant; 
W. barllys — bara, bread, llys, a plant ; 
akin to L. far, corn — from root of to 

BARLEY-CORN, bar'li-korn, n. a grain of 
barley : a measure of length=the third 
part of an inch. 

BARM, barm, n. froth of beer or other fer- 
menting Liquor used as leaven : yeaot. 
[A.S. beorma, Dan. barme ; aJdn to L. 
fermentum, Eng. brew.] 

BARMAID, bar'mad, n. a female who waits 
at the bar of a tavern or beer-shop. 

BARMECIDE, bar'me-sld, adj. imaginary 
or pretended. [From a story in the 
"Arabian Nights," in which a beggar is 
entertained by one of the Barmecide 
princes on an imaginary feast.] 

BARMY, barm'i, adj. containing barm or 

BARN, barn, n. a building in which grain, 
hay, etc., are stored. — v.t. to store in q 
barn. — ns. Barn-door, barn'-dor. Barn* 
yard, barn'-yard. [A.S. berern, con- 
tracted bem, from bere, barley, ern, a 

BARNABY-BRIGHT, bar'na-bi-brit, n. the 
day of St. Barnabas the Apostle, the 11th 



of June, which in old style was the day 
of the sumn^r soJstice, or as put by the 
old rhyme : ''Bamaby-bright, the long-est 
day and the shortest nighL" " The 
steward . . . adjourned the court to 
Barnaby-hright that they mi^ht have day 
enough before them." — Addison. 

BARNACLE, bar'ua-kl, n. a sheU-fish 
which adheres to rocks and the bottoms 
of ships : a kind of goose. [Ety. dub.] 

BARNACLES, bar'na-klz, n. spectacles. 
[O. Fr. bericle, dim. from L. beryUus, 
oervl. crs'stal ; Grer. brille.] 

BARis^^STOEMER, bam'-stOrm-er, ■». a sec- 
ond-rate actor who played in bams; in 
latter days, a second-rate actor who plays 
in small town- ha Us when a theatre can- 
not be secured. Hence Babnstoeming. 

BARNUMIZE, bar'-num-iz, v.t. to display 
or advertise something on a large scale. 
[From Barnum (1810-1891), the great 
American showman.] 

BAR' J METER, bar-om'et-er n. an instru- 
ment by which the loeight of the atmos- 
phere is measured and <.'hanges of weath- 
er indicated. — ad^. BAROiffiT'Ric. — adv. 
Bakomet'kicaixy. [Gr. baros, weight ; 
ruetron, measure.] 

BAROMETRY, ba-rom'et-ri, n. the art or 
operation of conducting barometrical 
measurements, experiments, observa^ 
tions, or the like. 

A scrap of parchment hung- by g'eometry, 

(A. great refinement in barometry). 

Can, like the stars, foretell the weather. — SuAft. 

Baron, bar'on, n. a title of rank next 
above a baronet and below a viscount, 
being the lowest ''n the House of Peers : 
a title of certain judges : in feudal times, 
the peers or great lords of the reaim. 
[Fr. baron ; in the Romance tongues the 
word meant a man as opposed to a wo- 
man, a strong man, a warrior ; either 
from Celtic bar, a hero, fear, a man, or 
from O. Ger. bar, man. (O. Ger. bairan, 
E. Bear, to carry).] 

BARONAGE, bar'on-aj, n. the whole body 
of barons. 

BaRONESS, bar'on-es, n. a baron's wife. 

BARONET, bar'on-et, n. a title of rank 
next above a knight and below a baron — 
the lowest hereditary title in England. 
[Dim. of Babon.] 

BARONETAGE, bar'on-et-aj, n. Hie whole 
body of baronets. 

BARONETCY, bar'on-et-si, n. the rank of 

BARONIAL, bar-on'i-al, adj. pertaining to 
a baron or barony. 

BARONY, bar'on-i, n. the territory of a 

BAROUCHE, ba-r56sh', n. a double-seated 
four-wheeled carriage with a lulling top. 
[It. barrodo — L. birotus, two-wheeled, 
from bis, twice, rota, a wheel.] 

BARQUE, bark, n. same as Bark, a ship. 

BARRACLADE, bar'ra-klad, n. a home- 
made napless blanket. [D. baare klede^ 
ren., bare cloths.] 

BARRACK, bar'ak, n. a hut or building 
for soldiers, esp. in garrison (generally 
used in the plural). [Fr. baroque. It. 
baracca, a tent ; cf. Celtic barra^had, a 
BARRANCA, bar-rang'kaw, n. a deep ra- 
vine produced suddenly by heavy rains, 
and having steep banks. Used on Mexican 
border. (Amer.) 
BARRAQUE, bar-rak', n. a roof on four 
posts for sheltering hay or other produce. 
[Fr. baraqtie, barrack.] 
BARREL, bar'el, n. a round wooden vessel 
made of bars or staves : the quantity 
which such a vessel contains : anything 
long and hollow, as the barrel of a gun. 
— v.t. to put in a barrel. [Fr. baril — barre. 
See Bar.] 
BARREL-VAULT, bar'el-vawlt, n. the 
simplest form of vault, having a semi- 
circular roof. [See Vault.] 
BARREN, bar'en, adj. incapable of bearing 
offspring : unfruitful : dull, stupid. — Bar- 
kens, in the United States, elevated 
lands or plains on which grow small 
trees, unfit for timber. — n. Bare'enness. 
[Fr. brehaigne, O. Fr. baraigae.\ 
BARRETTE, bar-ret, n. the cross-bar of a 
foil used for fencing. [Fr. from harre, 
BARRICADE, bar'ik-ad, n. a temporary 
fortification raised to hinder the advance 
of an enemy, as in the street fights at 
Paris. — v.t. to obstruct : to fortify. [Fr. 
—iarre, a bar. See Bar.] 
BARRIER, bar'i-er, n. a defence against 
attack : a limit or boundary. [Fr. bar- 
BARRIO, bSr'-re-o, n. in Spain, Spanish 
colonies, and the Philippines, a district 
of a town: a suburban village: — pi. Bab- 
bios, bar'-re-oz. [Sp.] 
BARRISTER, bar'is-ter, n. one who is quali- 
fied to plead at the bar in an English 
BARROW, bar'ro, n. a small hand or wheel 
carriage used to bear or convey a load. 
[A.S. berewe — beran, to bear.] 
BARROW, bar'ro, n. a mound raised over 
graves in former times. [A.S. beorh— 
beorgan, to protect.] 
BARTER, bar'ter, v.t. to give one thing in 
exchange for another.— «.i. to traffic by 
exchanging.— w. traffic by exchange of 
commodities. [O. Fr. bareter.] 
BARYCENTRIC, bar-i-sen'trik, adj. of, 
pertaining, or relating to the centre of 
gravity.— BARYCENTRIC calculus, an ap- 
plication to geometry of the mechanical 
theory of the centre of gravity, executed 
in two distinct ways, according as metri- 
cal or descriptive geometrical properties 
are to be investigated. [Gr. barys, heavy, 
and kentron, centre.] 
BARYTONE, bar'i-ton, n. a deep-toned 
male voice between bass and tenor. [Gr. 
barys, heavy, deep, and tonos, a tone.] 
BASALT, bas-awlt', n. a hard, dark-colored 
rock of igneous origin. — -adj. Basaltic, 



[L. hascdtes ^an African word), a marble 
found in Ethiopia.] 

BASALTOID, ba-sawlt'oid, adj. allied in 
appearance or nature to ba^t : resem-t 
bUng basalt. [Basalt, and Gr. eidos, re- 

BASE, bas, n. that on which a thing rests : 
foot : bottom : foundation : support : the 
chief ingredient. — v.t. to found or place 
on a base :—pr.p. bas'ing ; pa.p. based. 
[Fr. — L. — Gr. basis — baino, to step.] 

BASE, bas, n. a skirt which hung down 
from the waist to the knees of a knight 
when on horseback. [From Base, adj-] 

6ASE, has, adj. low in place, value, esti- 
mation, or principle : mean : vile : worth- 
less : {New Test.) humble, lowly.— adv. 
Base'ly. — n. Base'ness. [Fr. bos— Low 
L. ba^sus, thick, fat, a vulgar Boman 
word, found also in name Bassus.] 

6ASE-BAIjL, bas'-bawl, n. a favorite game 
of ball iu the United States, so-called 
from the bases, four in number, set down 
so as to mark the form of a diamond, and 
which designate the circuit each player 
must complete, in order to score a run, 
after striking the ball. 

BASE-BORN, bas'-bawrn, adj. born of low 
parentage : illegitimate by birth : mean. 

BASE-BURNER, bas'-bern-er, n. a base- 
burning surface or stove. 

BASE-BURNING, bas'-bern-ing, adj. burn- 
ing at the base. — Base-burning furnace 
or STOVE, one in which the fuel burns at 
the bottom, and is renewed from a self- 
acting hopper or chamber above. 

BASELESS, bas'les, adj. without a base or 

BASEMENT, bas'ment, n. the base or low- 
est story of a building. 

BASE-SPIRITED, bas'-spir-it-ed, ady. 

BASE>-STRING, bas'-string, n. the string 
of a musical instrument that gives the 
lowest note. 

Base- VIOL, bas'-vl-ol, n. Same as Bass- 

BASHAW, ba-shaw*, n. com. written 
Pasha or Pacha (which see). 

BASHFUL, bash'fool, adj. easily confused : 
modest : shy : wanting confidence. — adv. 
Bash'fully, — n. Bash'fulness. [From 
root of Abash.] 

BASHLYK, bash'-lik, n. a cloth hood worn 
in Russia and Finland. [Russ. bashluik.] 

BASIC-SLAG, ba'-sik-slag, n. a by-product 
of steel manufacture by the Thomas proc- 
ess, containing a large percentage of lime 
and phosphoric acid, making it a rich fer- 
tilizer. "Called also Phosphatic-slag, 
Thomas-slag, and Odobless Phosphate. 

BASIHYAL, ba-si-hi'al, adj. in anat. re- 
lating to or connected with the body or 
basal portion of the hyoid bone. [See 
HYOm.] "• 

BASILIAN, ba-sil'-yan, adj. pertaining to 
Basilius, Bishop of Caesarea, fourth cen- 
tury, A.D. Hence Basilian Rule, a form 
of monastery government, especially in 

monasteries of the Greek ChurcK, accord- 
ing to the rules established by Basilius 
requiring bodily labor. — n. Bastlian, any 
member of a monastery or order living 
according to Basilian rule. 
BASILICA, baz-il'ik-a, n. among the Ro- 
mans, a large haU for judicial and com- 
mercial purposes, many of which were 
afterwards converted into Christian 
churches : a magnificent church built 
after the plan of the ancient basilica. 

ELi. basilica, Gr. basUike {oikia, a house), 
elonging to a king,from baMleus,a. king.] 

BASILISK, ba/il-isk. n. a fabulous serpent 
having a crest on its head like a crown : 
in modern zoology, a kind of crested 
lizard. [G. ba^liskos, dim, of basileus, a 

BASIN, bSs'n, n. a wide open vessel or 
dish : any hollow place containing water, 
as a dock : the area drained by a river 
and its tributaries. [Fr. bassin, It. bacino. 
Low L. bacchinus, perhaps from the Cel- 
tic bac, a cavity.] 

BASIOCCIPITAL, ba'si-ok-sip'i-tal, adj. in 
anat. pertaining to or connected with 
the base of the occipital bone. 

BASLPETTAL, ba-sip'e-tal, adj. tending to 
the centre. Specifically, in bot. a term 
appUed to a leaf in which the axis ap- 
pears first, and on its sides the lobes and 
leaflets spring from above downwards, 
the base being developed after the tip. 
[Xi. basis, a base, andpeto, to seek.] 

BASIS, bas'is, n. the foundation or that on 
which a thing rests : the pedestal of a 
column : the groundwork or first prin- 
ciple : — pi. Bases, bas'ez. [See Base, 

BASISPHENOID, ba-si-sfe'noid, adj. in 
anat. pertaining to or connected with 
the base or posterior portion of the 
sphenoid bone. 

BASK, bask, v.i. to lie in the warmth or 
sunshine. [From an O. Scand. form of 

BASKET, bas'ket, n. a vessel made of 
plaited twigs, rushes, or other flexible 
materials. [W. basged — basg, network, 

BASKET -BEAGLE, bas'ket-be-gl, n. a 
beagle used in hunting a hare that was 
slipped from a basket to be coursed. 
'• Gray-headed sportsmen, who had sunk 
from fox-hounds to basket-beagles and 
coursing." — Sir W. Scott. 

BASKET-HARE, bas'ket-har, n. a captive 
hare slipped from a basket to be coursed 
in the absence of other /^ame. 

BASKET-HILT, bas'ket-hilt, n. the hilt of 
a sword with a covering wrought Uke 
basket-work to defend the hand from in- 

BASKET-MEETING, bas'ket-met-ing, n. a 
picnic much in vogue in the United 
States. It derives its name from the 
practice of each member's bringing pro- 
visions in a basket. 

BASQUE, bask, ofilj. relatii^^ co Biscay, a 



district of Spain, or to the language of 
its natives. 

BAS-RELIEF, ba-re-lef , w. Same as Bass- 

BASS, bas, n. the low or grave part in mu- 
sic. — adj. low, deep, grave. — v.t. to sound 
in a deep tone. [See Base, low.] 

BASS, bas, n. Same as Bast (which see3. 

BASSAX.IA, baf5-saT-ya. n. the animal realm 
on the bottom of the ocean. fL. "bassuz, 
dpPT*. and the Gr. for assemWy.l 

BASSO, bass'-o, n. (mus.) the lowest part: 
the donhle basB: one who sings the bass. 
[It. — Ti. hassus."] 

BASSOON, bas-oon', n. a musical wind- 
instrument of a bass or verv low note. 
[It. bassone, augment, of hasso, low, 
from root of Base.] 

BA^-RELIEF, bas'-re-lef, n. (sculpture) 
figures which do not stand far out from 
the ground on whicli they are formed. 
[It. oasso-'rilievo. See Base^ low, and 


BASS-VIOL, bas'-\n-ol, n. a musical instru- 
ment with four strings, used for playing 
the bass : the violoncello. [See Bass, 
low, and Viol.] 

BAST, bast, n. the inner bark of the lime- 
tree : matting made of it. [A.S. bast; 
Dan., Sw., Grer. bastJ] 

BASTARD, bast'ard, n, a child born of 
parents not married. — adj. born out of 
wedlock : not genuine : false. [Fr. bd- 
tard ; O. Fr. JUs de bast, son of bast, bast 
or bdt being a coarse saddle for beasts of 
burden, and indicating contempt.] 

BASTARDIZE, bast'ard-iz, v.t. to prove to 
be a bastard. 

BASTARDY, bast'ard-i, n. the state oi 
being a bastard. 

BASTE, bast, v.t., to beat with a stick. 
[Ice. beynta, Dan. boete, to beat.] 

BASTE, bast, v.t. to drop fat or butter 
over meat while roasting. [Ety. un- 

baste;, bast, v.t., to fiezi; slightly or with 
long stitches. [O. Fr. baMir, from O. 
Ger. bestan, to sew.] 

BASTILLE, bast-el', n. an old fortress in 
Paris long used as a state prison, and 
demolished in 1789. [Fr.— O. Fr. bastir 
(Fr. batir), to build.] 

bast-in-ad'o, v.t. to beat with a baton I 
or stick, esp. on the soles of the feet ' 
(a foiTii of punishment in the East) : — I 
pr.p. bastinad'ing or bastinadoing ; pa.p. J 
bastinud'ed or oastinad'oed. — ns. Bastin- | 
aDE', BASTiNtD'o. [Sp. bastonada, Fr. i 
bastonnade — barton, b&ton. See Baton.] I 

BASTION, bast yun, n. a kind of tower at 
the angles of a fortification. [Fr.— O. 
Fr. bastir, to build.] 

BASTIONARY, bas'ti-on-a-ri, adj. pertain- 
ing to or cons'stmg of bastions ; as, 
systems of bastianai-^/ fortification. 

BASL'TU, bas-soo'-to, n.sing. one of the de- 
scendants of the Bantu tribe of South 
African people, now divided into many 

tribes under British Tule; originally can- 
nibals, but now following European cus- 
toms: — pi. Basutos, bas-soo'-toz. Called 
also Bechuanas and Sutos. 

BAT, bat, n. a heavy stick for beating or 
striking : a club for striking the ball in 
base-ball and cricket : a piece of brick. — 
v.i. to use the bat in cricket : — pr.p. 
batt'ing ; pa.p. batt'ed. [Celt, bat, the 
root of beat, an imitation of the sound 
of a blow.] 

BAT, bat, n. an animal with a body like a 
mouse, but which flies on wings attached 
to its fore-feet. [M.E. and Scot. baJcke 
— Dan. bakke. Ice. letherblaka, leather- 

BATCH, bach, n. the quantity of bread 
baked or of anything made at one time. 
[From Bake.] 

BATE, bat. v.t. and v.i. Same as Abate. 

BATEAU, biit-o', n. a light river boat, esp. 
those used on Canadian rivers. [Fr.] 

BATEMENT- LIGHT, bat'ment-llt, n. in 
arch, one of the lights in the upper part 
of a window of the perpendicular style, 
abated, or only half the width of those 

BATH, bath, n. water for plunging the 
body into : a bathing : a house for bath- 
ing: — pi. Baths, bathz. [A.S. bceth; 
cog. with Ger. bad.'\ 

BATH, bath, n. the largest Jewish liqviid 
measure, containing about 8 gallons. 
[Heb. " measured."] 

BATHE, ba^^, v.t. to wash as in a bath: to 
wash or moisten with any liquid. — v.i. to 
be or lie in water as in a bath. — n. the 
act of taking a bath. [A.S. bathian— 

BATHOS, ba'thos, n. a ludicrous descent 
from the elevated to the mean in writ- 
ing or speech. [Gr. bathos, depth, from 
bathys, deep.] 

BATING, bat'ing, prep., coating, excit- 

BATLET, batiet, n. a wooden mallet used 
by laundresses for beating clothes. [Dim. 
of Bat.] 

BATON, Dat'on, n. a staff or truncheon, 
esp. of a policeman : a marshal's staff 
[Ft. b&ton — Low L. baeto, a stick ; of un. 
known origin.] 

BATRACHIAN, ba-tra'ki-an, adj of or be- 
longing to the frog tribe. £Gr. batradioSy 
a frog.J 

BATRACHOPHIDIA, bafrar-ko-fid'i-a, 
Same as Ophiomorpha. [Gt. batrachos, 
a frog, and ophis, a serpent.] 

BATSMAN, bats'man, n. one wlio wields 
the bat at base-ball, cricket, etc. 

BATTALION, bat-al'j^n, n. in the infantry 
of a modern army, the tactical unit or 
unit of command, being a body of soldiers 
convenient for acting together (number' 
ins: from 500 to 1,(KK)) ; several companies 
iom* a battalion, and one or more oat- 
taJions a regiment ; a body of men drawn 
up in battie-array. [Fr. ; from root of 



BATTAILOUS, bat'il-us, adj. arrayed for 
battle, or appearing to be so. 

BATTEN, bat'n, v.i. to grow fat : to live in 
luxury. — v.t. to fatten : to fertilize or en- 
rich. [Ice. batna, to grow better. See 
Better. 1 [as Baton . ] 

IBATTEN, bat'n, n. a piece of board. [Same 

BATTER, bat'er, v.t., to beat with successive 
blows : to wear with beating or by use : 
to attack with artillery. — n. ingredients 
beaten along with some liquid into a 
paste. — Batter-cake, a cake of Indian 
iHeal, made \vith buttermilk or cream : 
(ctrch.) a backward slope in the face of a 
wall. [Fr. battre. It. battere — L. bat' 
tuere ; conn, with Beat.] 

BATTER, bat'er, n. one who uses the bat 
at base-ball or cricket. 

BATTERING-RAM, bat'er-ing-ram, n. an 
ancient engine for battering down walls, 
consisting of a large beam with an iron 
head like that of a ram, suspended in a 

BATTERY, bat'er-i, n. a number of can- 
non with their equipment : the place < n 
which cannon are mounted t e men 
and horses attending a battery . an in- 
strument used in electric cnu galvanic 
expe iments : {law) an assault b^ beataig 
o r wo unding. 

Batting, bat'lng, n. the management of 
a bat in playing games. 

BATTLE, batl, n. a contest between oppos- 
ing armies : a fight or encounter. — v.i. to 
join or contend in fight. [Fr. batcUle-^ 
b attr e, to beat. See Batter.] 

BATTLE, bat'l, n. the body of an army. 

BATTLE-AXE, bat'1-aks, n. a kind of axe 
formerly used in battle. 

n. a light bat for striking a ball or shut- 
tle-cock. rSp. batidoTf a beater, a wash- 

BATTLEMENT, bat'1-ment, n. a wall or 
parapet on the top of a building with 
openings or embrasures, orig. used only 
on fortifications. — adj. Battlkmented. 
[Prob. from O. Fr. bastillement — bastir, 

BATTUE, Dat-t55', n. a sporting term : in 
a battue, the woods are beaten and the 
game driven into one place for the con- 
venience of the shooters. [Fr. — battre^ 
to beat.] 

BAUBLE, baw'bl, n. a trifling piece of 
finery : a child's plaything. [Fr. babiole 
— It. babbole, toys — habbeOy a simpleton.] 

??AUDRIC, bawd'rik. Same as Balx>rick. 

BAUXITE, bo'-zlt, n. a clay yielding alu- 
mina. Written also Beauxite, [From Les 
Baux or Beaux, France.] 

BAVARDAGE, ba-var'-dazh, n. garrulous- 
ness, chatter, or prattle: too much, talk- 
ing.— Byron. [Fr.] 

BAWBLE, baw'bl. Same as Bauble. 

BAWD, bawd, n. a procurer or procuress 
of women for lewd purposes. — ji.Bawd'ry. 
[O. Fr. baud, bold, wanton, from root of 

BAWDY, bawd'i, a^j. obscene : unchaste. 
— n. Bawd'ixess. 

BAWL, bawl, v.i. to shout or cry out loud- 
ly. — n. a loud cry or shout. [Ice. baula^ 
to bellow.] 

BAY, ba, adj. reddish-brown inclining to 
chestnut. [Fr. 6ai, It. b(yo — L. badius, 
chestnut-colored. ] 

Bay, ba, n. the laurel-tree : — pi. an honor- 
ary garland or crown of victory, ori^. of 
laurel : literary excellence. [Fr. bate, a 
berry — L. bacca.] 

Say, ba, n. an inlet of the sea, an inward 
bend of the shore ; also, in the U. S., ap- 
plied to a tract of low swampy land 
covered with bay-trees. [Fr. bate — Low 
L. baia, a harbor ; ety. dub. Ace. to 
Littre from Baice, name of a town on 
the Campanian coast.] 

BAY, bft, v.i.f to bark, as a dog at his 
game. — v.t. to bark at : to foUow with 
barking. — ^At bay, said of hounds, when 
the stag turns and checks them, makes 
them stand and bark. [O. Fr. dbbayer 
— L. ad, and batibarit to yelp.] 

BAYAAIO, ba-ya'-mo, n. a violent thunder- 
storm common to the southern coast of 

BAY-ICE, ba'-is, n. ice recently formed on 
the ocean. 

BAY-LEAF, ba'-lef , n. the leaf of the sweet- 
bay or laurel-tree {Laurus nobilis). These 
leaves are aromatic, are reputed stimu- 
lant and narcotic, and are used in medi- 
cme, cookery, and confectionery. 

BAY-MAHOGANY, ba'-ma-hog-an-i, n. 
Same as Bay-wood. 

BAYONET, ba' n-et, n. a dagger for fixing 
on tne end of a musket. — v.t. to stab 
with a bayonet. [Fr. baumHCtte — Bay- 
onne, in iFrance, where it was first 
made J 

BAYOU, bl'oo, n. the outlet of a lake, a 
channel for water. (Amer.) 

BAYS, baz, n. a garland. [See Bay, a 

BAY-SALT, ba'-sawlt, n. sait obtained 
from sea-water by evaporation, esp. from 
salt-marshes along the; coast of France, 
otc. [See Bay, an inlot.l 

BAY-WINDOW, ba'-win-d6, n. a window 
pioiecting so as to form a bay or recess 

BAY WOOD, bji'-wood, n. that variety of 
mahogany exported from Honduj-as. It 
is softer and less finely marked than the 
variety known as Spanish mahogany, 
but is the largest and most abundant 
kind. [See Mahogany.] 

BAZAAR, BAZAR, ba-zar', n. an Eastern 
market-place or exchange : a large hall 
or suite of rooms for the sale of goods. 

iArab, bazar, a market.] 
'ELLIUM, del'i-um, n. a kind of gum. 
[Gr. bdellion, from Heb. bedbiach.] 
BE, be, v.i. to live : to exist " to have 4 
certain state or quality :—pTp. be'ing 
V(i.p. been {pin). [A.S. &er>«. •Gter. hin ; 
'rat, bi. to exist : W. \/w, u* live ; Qr. 



pkv.S, L. fui, flo. Sans. bhu,bo be, ori^^ 

nally meaning, to grow.] 

BEaCH, bech, n.the shore of the sea or of 

. e- L*J>i.e,>espeeiaUy when saiujy or pebbly : 

the -straaa. [Ice. ^bakki, ^a variety of 

BiiiACHED, b€cbt, oc^'. having a beach: 

driven «ia-0, beach. 
■ BEACHY, beob'i, adj. having a, bea^h or 

-:BEAGON, be'ko, %. a fire on -an Mninence 
used as a »ign Of danger : anything that 
waros of danger; — n>.t. to act as a bettcon 
to : toJight up. , [A.S. beaeen^ a beacon, 
a sign ; conn, with IJegkon.] 
.BEAD, bed, n. a little ball pierced for 
-Stringing, used in counting tne prayers 
rrecited, also used as an ornament : <any 
small ball.— 'To DBA w a BE5ad, to fire, 
•from the practice of the Western hunts- 
man, in taking aim, of gradually raising 
.the front sight, which resembles a bead, 
to a level with the hind sight, and firing 
the moment the two are in a line. 
■ (Amer.) [A.S, b&i, geb&i, a prayer, from 
biddan, to pray. See Bid.] 
BEADING, b'^ I'ing, j > 1, in arch, a mold- 
-ing iniiuitation of bead ; 2/ a prepara- 
^tion add'd to weak spirituous liquors to 
cause them to carrv a bead, and to hang 
-in pearly drops about the sides of the 
bottle or glass when poured out or 
shaken. It being a popular notion that 
spirit is strong in proportion as it shows 
such globules. A very svaaii quantity 
of oil of vitriol or oil of almonds mixed 
with rectified spirit is oftfsi' used fortius 
-BEADLE, bed'l, n. a naessenger or crier of 
a court : a petty oflScer of a church, col- 
lege, parish, «tc. JA.S. bydel — be&tow^ 
to proclaim, to bid. J 
BEAD-ROLL, bed'-r61, «. among R. Catho- 
lics, a roll or list of tJiedead to be prayed! 
for. [See Bead.] 
BEADSMAN, hedzfvaan,tn. one emfloy^ 

to pray for others.— /lem.' Bsads'woman. 
BEAGLE, be'gl, n. a small hound chiefly 
used in hunting hares. [Ety. unknown.} 
iBEAGLING, be'=gling, n. hunting the hare 

with beagles. 

rBEAK, bSk, w. the bill 6f a bird : anything 

pointed cv projecting : in ■ the ancient 

igailey, a pointed iron fastened to 'the 

prorw for piercing the enemy's vesseK — 

(odj. Beak/ed. [Fv.bee — Gelt, beic, akin 

"t -PEjiJC, ftEE.]' 

BEAKEE, b'k'er, n. w large drihking-bowl 

or cup. [Ice. bikarr (Scot. tncker)-^Lovr 

iL. bicarifumi, 8.ce. to EHez^ from Gr. bikos ; 

of Eastern origin;] 

TEAK-HEAD, bek'hed, n. an ornament re- 

?8€!mbling the heatl 'and beak of a bird, 

used as an enrichment of moldings in 

- N ;mian ariihitecture. 

BEAM, bem, n. a large and straight piece 

f timber or iron forming one of tlie 

inain supports of a' building, ship, etc.^ 

the part of a balance from which the 

scales hcng : the pole of a carriage : a 
cylinder of wood in a loom : a ray of 
light. — v.t. tosend forth light : to shioCo 
[A.S. beam, a tree, stock of a tree, a ray 
■ of lisrht r Qer. bawm, a tree ; Gr. phyvfta, 
a H-rowth — ^97^/-, tog^row.] 

BEAMAGE, bem'-aj, n. sm allowance of two 
pounds per side or more to allow for 
evaporation in the cooling of the flesh, 
when weighing the dressed carcass of a 
pig or other animal. 

BEAMILY, beni'i-II, udv. In a beamy or 
beamin mann ■ r r radiantly. "Abright 
h lo, shimng btu,mily.^^ — Keats. 
BE- MLE8S, bSm'ies, hdj. without beaxns : 
emitting no rays of light. 

BEAMY, bena -, adj. shining. 
:BEAN, ben, w. the name of several kinds 
of pulse and their -seeds. [A.S. bean 
^ir. bohne,W. ffaen, L. fdba.] 

BEAR, b§x, v.t. to carry or support :' to^ia- 
uretto behave or conduct one's sdf: 
to bring forth or produce. — To beau a 
HAND, to assist : to be active and uot 
delay. (Amer.) — v.i. to suffer : ' to be pa- 
tient : to press (with on or upon) : to be 
situated :—pr.p. bear'ing ; pa.t. ■ b6re ; 
pa.p. bSme (but the ipa.p. when used 
to mean "brought forth" is bom). 
[A;S. beran ;■ GotAi. ' bairan, L. fero, .Gr. 
phero. Sans, bhri.] 

BEAR, bar, *». a^rough wild quadruped, 
"With long shaggy hair and hooked 
claws : any brutal or ill-behaved per- 
son : (astron.y the "name of two constel- 
lations, the Great adid the Little Bear. 
[A.S. bera ; ■ Ger. botr ; L. fera, a wild 
beast, akbi to Or. ihSr, iEol. phir.] 

BEARABLE, bar^a-bl, adj. that K»ayM)e 
borne or endured. — adv. Bear'am^y. 

BEARD, herd, n. the hair that grows on 
the chin and adjacent parts : prickles on 
the ears of com : the barb of an arrow ; 
thegills of oysters, etc. — v.t. to take by 
the beard : to oppose to the face. [A:B.j 
W. batf, Qer. hart, 'Rubs. borodd,iL. 

BEARDED, berd'ed, adj. having a beards 
•prickiy : barbed.— -ad;VBEARD't.ESS. 

BEAREfe, bar'er, gi. one who or that which 
bears, esp. one who assists in carrying a 
■body to the grave : isa oarrier "or wea* 

BEAR-GARDEN, bSr'-garJdn, n. an inckwsa 
ure where bears are Sept : la rude turbu^ 
lent assembly. 

BEARING, bai-'ing, «. behavior: situation! 
Of one object with regard to another? 

BEARISH, bar'ish, mij. like a bear. 

BEAR'S^KIN, barz'-skin, w. the sldn of a 
bear : a shaggy woollen eloth for over^ 

BEAR WARD, bar'-wawrd/w. a warden or 
keeper of bears. 

'^2Arf'J', bSBt,'W. an irrational animal as op- 

Eosed to man : a four-footed animal : a 
nital persoB. ' {0.«-Frw beste) Fr. b4te-^L. 



BEASTINGS. bgst'ingz. Same as Biestinos. 

BEASTLY, best'li, aq/. like a beast in ac- 
tions or behavior ; coarse : obscene. — n. 
Beast' LiNESS. 

PEAT, bet, v.t., to atnke repeatedly: to 
break or bruiae : tO strike, as bushes, in 
order to rouse game : to thrash : to over- 
come. — v.Lto give strokes repeatedly: 
to throb : to dash, as a flood or storm :— 
pr.p. beat'ing ; pa.t. beat : pa.p. beat'en. 
— n. a stroke : a stroke recurring at in- 
tervals, or its sound, as of a watch or 
the pulse : a round or course : a place of 
resort. — adj. weary : flBtigued. [A-S. 
beatan, from root oat, imitative of the 
sound of a sharp blow; hence Bat, 
, Butt.] 

BEATEN, bet'n, adj. made smooth or hard 
by beating or treading : worn by U6B. 

BEATER, bet'er, n. one that beats or 
strikes : a crushing instrument. 

BEATIFIC, -AL, be-a-tif ik, -al, adj. mak- 
ing supremely happy. 

BEATIFICATION, be-at-i-flk-a'shun, n. act 
of beatifying : {R. C. Church) a declara- tne pope that a person is blessed 
in heaven. 

8EATIFY, be-at'i-fl, v.t., to make blessed or 
happy : to bless with eternal happiness 
in heaven. [L. beattis, blessed, and fado, 
to make.] 

BEATING, bet'ing, n. the act of striking : 
chastisement by blows: regular pulsa- 
tion or throbbing. 

BEATITUDE, be-at'i-tud, n heavenly hap- 
piness, or happiness of the highest kind : 
— pi. sayings of Christ in Matt, v., de- 
claring the possessors of certain virtues 
to be blessed. [L. beatitudo — beatus, 

BEAU, bo, n., a Jine, gay man, fond of 
dress: a \over :— pi. Beaux, boz.—feni. 
Belle. [Fr. beau, bet — L. beUus, fine, 
eay, a contr. of benulits, dim. of benus, 
bonus, good.] 

BEAU-IDEA-Lj bo-Td-e'al, n., ideal excel- 
lence, or an imaginary standard of per- 

BEAUJOLAIS, b5-zh6-la, n. a variety of 
light red Burgundy wipe. 

BEAU-MONDE, bo-mongd', n. the gay or 
fashionable world. [Fr. beau, gay, and 
mon^s, world.] 

BEAUTEOUS, bQ'te-us, adj. full of beauty: 
fair: handsome. — adv. Beau'teously. — 
n. Beau'teousness. 

BEAUTIFIER, bu'ti-fi-er, n. one who or 
that which beautifies or makes beautiful. 

BEAUTIFUL, ba'ti-fool, adj. fair : beaute- 
ous i applied by uneduc. ted people both 
in England and the United States to 
anything pleasing r good, indiscrimi- 
nately^— oar. Beau'tifully. 

BEAUTIFY, bQ'ti-fl, v.t. to make beautiful: 
to grace : to adorn. — v.i. to become beau- 
tiful, or more beautiful. [Beauty, and 
L. facio, to make.] 

BEAUTY, bu'ti, n. a pleasing assemblage 
of qualities in a person or object : a par- 

ticular grace or excellence : a beautiful 

J>erson. [Fr. beauts, from beau.] 
AUTY-SLEEP, bu'ti-sllp, n. the sleep 
taken before midnight, and popularly re- 
garded as the most refreshing portion of 
the night's repose. "A medical man, 
who may be called up at any moment, 
must make sure of ms beauty-sleep " 

BEAUTY-SPOT, bQ'ti-spot, n. a spot or 
patch put on the face to heighten beauty. 

'3EAVER, bev'er, n. an amphibious quad- 
ruped valuable for its fur : the fur of the 
beaver : a hat made ot the beaver's fur : 
a hat. [A.S. befer ; Dan. baever, Qer. 
biber, Gael, beabhar, L. Jiber.] 

BEAVER, bev'er, n. that part of a helmet 
which covers the face. [So called from 
a fancied likeness to a child's bib, Fr. 
bainere,,froTa bare, slaver.] 

BEBLOTCH, be-bloch', v.t. to cover with 
blots or blotches, as of ink. Southeu. 

BEBOOTED, be-bot'ed, p. and adj an em- 

Ehatic form of Booted. " Couriers . . . 
estrapped and bebooted." — Carlyle. 

BECALM, be-kam', v.t. to make calm, still, 
or quiet. 

BECAME, be-kam', pa.t. of Become. 

BECAUSE, be-kawz*, conj. for the reason 
that : on account of : for. [A.S. be, by, 
and Cause.] 

BECK, bek, n. a brook. [Ice. behkr ; Ger. 

BECK, bek, n. a sign with the finger or 
head : a nod. — v.i. to make such a sig^. 
[A contr. of Beckon.] 

BECKON, bek'n, v.t. to nod or make a 
sign to. [A.S. beacnian — beacen, a sign. 
See Beacon.] 

BECLOUD, be-klowd', v.t. to obscure by 

BECOME, be-kum', v.i. to pass from one 
state to another : to come to be : (fol. by 
of) to be the fate or end of. — v.t. to suit 
or beSt : — pa.t. became' ; pa.p. become'. 
rA.S. becuman — pfx. be, and Come.1 

BECOMING, be-kum'ing, adj. suitable to : 
graceful.— adu. Becom'ingly. 

BECORONET, be-ko'ro-net, v.t. to adorn, 
as with a coronet : to coronet. Carlyle. 

BECURSE, be-kers'. v.t. to shower curses 
on. C. Reade. 

BED, bed, n. a couch or place to sleep on : 
a plot in a garden : a place in which any- 
thing rests : the channel of a river : Kgeot.) 
a layer or stratum. — v.t. to place in bed : 
to sow or plant : to lay in layers '.—pr.p. 
bedd'ing ; pa.p. bedd'e^. — tis.Bed'chamb'- 
EE, Bedd'ing. [A.S. bed ; Ice. btdr. Ger. 

BEDAUB, be-dawb', v.t. to daub over or 
smear with any thick and dirty matter. 

BEDCHAIR, bed'char, n. a cnair with a 
movable back to support a sick person as 
in bed. 

BEDECK, be-dek', v.t. to deck or orna- 

BEDKVIL, be-dev'il, v.t. to throw into 
disorder and confusion, as if by tL-i 



BEDEW, be-da', v.t. to moisten gently, as 

with dew, 
BEDFELLOW, bed'fel'5, w. a sharer of the 

same bed. 
BEDIADEM, bS-df a-dem, v.t. to crown or 

adorn with a diadem. Carlyle. 
BEDIGHT, be-dit', adj. adorned. 

BEDIM, be-dim', v.t. to make dim or dark. 

BEDIZEN, be-diz'n, v.t. to dress gaudily. 

BEDIZENMENT, be-diz/n-ment, n. the act 
of bedizening : the state of being be- 
dizened : that which bedizens. " The 
bedizenment of the great spirit's sanctu- 
ary with skuUs." — Kingsley. "Strong 
Dames of the Market . . . with oak- 
branches, tricolor bedizenment.'" ^ Car- 

BEDLAM, bed'lam, n. an asylum for luna- 
tics : a madhouse : a place of uproar. — 
adj. fit for a madhouse. [Corrupted from 
Bethlehem, the name of a monastery in 
London, afterwards converted into a 

BEDLAMITE, bed'lam-It, n. a madman. 

BEDOUIN, bed'oo-in, n. the name given 
to those Arabs who live in tents and 
lead a nomadic life. [Pr. — ^Ar. badavnyt 
dwellers in the desert. J 

BEDRENCH, be-drensh', v.t. to drench or 
wet thoroughly. 

BEDRID, -DEN, bed'rid, -dn, adj. confine* 
to bed by age or sickness. 

BEDROOM, bed'room, n. a room in which 
there is a bed : a sleeping apartment. 

BEDSTEAD, bed'sted, w. a frame for sup* 
porting a bed. 

BEDTICK, bed'tik, n. the tick or cover in 
which feathers, etc., are put for bedding. 

BEE, be, n. a fotur-winged insect that 
makes honey. — n. Bee-line, the mosfe 
direct road from one point to another, 
like the honey-laden bee's way home 
to the hive. [A.S. beo ; Ger. biene.] 

BEE, be, n. an assemblage of people, 
generally neighbors, to unite their labors 
for the benefit of one individual or 
family. At such meetings dancing and 
much merriment are usually introduced 
at the breaking up. (Amer.) 

BEECH, bech, n. a common forest tree 
with smooth, silvery-looking bark, and 
producing nuts, once eaten by man, now 
only by pigs, — adj. Beech'en. [A.S. bece, 
boc ; Ger. huche, Lat. fagus, Gr. phegos 
— from root of phago, to eat.] 

BEE-EATER, br-et'er, n. a bu-d allied to 
the king-flsher, which feeds on bees. 

BEEF, bef , n. the flesh of an ox or cow : — 
pi. Beeves, used in orig. sense, oxen. — 
ac^. consisting of beef. [Fr. bceuf. It. 
bove — L. bos, borns; cf. Gr. bous, GaeL 
bo. Sans, go, A.S. cu.] 

REEF-EATER, bef -et'er, n. a popular name 
for a yeoman of the sovereign's guard, 
also of the warders of the Tower oC 
London. [The obvious ety. is the right 
one, there being no such form as buffetier, 
as often stated. Cf. A.S. hldf-aeta, lit. 
" loaf -eater," a menial servant.] 

BEEFSTEAK, bef stak, n. a steak or slice 
of beef for broiling. 

BELu-WITTED, bef-wit'ed, adj. duU or 
heavy in wits : stupid. 

BEEHINTE, be'hiv, n. a case for bees to 
live in. 

BEE-LINE, be'-lin, n. a direct or straight 
line — ^as the bee flies home to the hive. 

BEELZEBUB, bel'-ze-bub, n. the prince of 
evil spirits. [Heb. la'al sfbub, fly-lord.] 

BEEN, hin, pa.p. of Be. 

BEE-NETTLE, be'-net-l, n. a species ot 
hemp-nettle; Galeopsvi versicolor. 

BEER, ber, n. a liquor made bv fermenta- 
tion from malted barley and hops. [A.S. 
beor; Fr. biire, Ger. bier; prob. from 
root of Ferment.] 

BEERY, ber'i, adj. of or affected by beer. 

BEESTINGS, best'ingz. See Biestings. 

BEESWAX, bez'waks, n. the wax collected 
by bees, and used by them in construct- 
ing their cells. 

BEET, bet, n. a plant with a carrot-shaped 
root, eaten as food, from which sugar ia 
extracted. [A.S. bete, Ger. beete, Fr. bette 
— L. beta.] 

BEET, bet, v.t. to mend, as a Are, by add- 
ing fuel : to bete : hence, to rouse : to 
encourage. [Old English and Scotch. 
See Bete.] 

It heats me, it beets me, 

And sets me a' on flame.— 5ttm«. 

BEETLE, be'tl, n. an insect with hard 
cases for its wings. [A.S. hitel — iitan, 
to bite.] 

BEETLE, be'tl, n. a heavy wooden mallet 
used to beat with. — v.i. to jut or hang 
out like the head of a beetle or mallet. 
[A.S. bilt, bytel, a mallet — beatan, to 

BEETLE-BROWED, be'tl-browd, adj. with 
overhanging or prominent brow. 

BEETROOT, bet'root, n. the root of the beet 

BEEVES, bevz, cattle, oxen. [See 

BEFALL, be-fawl', v.t. to fall upon or hap- 
pen to : to betide. — v.i. to happen or come 
to pass: — pr.p. befall'ing: pa.t. befell'; 
pa.p. befall'en. [A.S. befeallan. See 

BEFETTER, be-fet'er, v.t. to confine with 
fetters: hence, to deprive of freedom. 
"Tongue-tied, befettered, heavy-laden na- 
tions." — Carlyle. 

BEFIT, be-fit', v.t. to fit, or be suitable to: 
— pr.p. befitt'ing; pa.p. befitt'ed. [Pfx. 
be, and fit.'] 

BEFOOL, be-fool', v.t. to make a fool of, 
or deceive. 

BEFORE, be-for', prep, at the fore part, or 
in front of: in presence or sight of: pre- 
vious to: in preference to: superior to. 
— adv. in front: sooner than: hitherto. 
[A.S. he-foran. See Fobe.] 

BEFOREHAND, be-for'hand, adv. before the 
time: by way of preparation. 

BEFOUL, be-foul', v.t. to dirty: to soil: to 



tarnish. "Lawyers can live without be- 
fouling each other's names." — Trollope. 

BEFRIEND, be-frend', v.t. to act as a 
friend to: to favor. 

BEFRILL, be-fril', v.t. to furnish or deck 
with <a frill or frills. "The vicar's white- 
haired mother, befrilled . . . with dainty 
cleanliness." — -George Eliot. 

BEFRIZZ, be-friz', v.t. to curl the hair of: 
to frizz. "Befrizzed and bepowdered 
courtiers." — Contemp. Rev. 

BEFUDDLE, be-fud'l, v.t. to stupefy or 
muddle with liquor: to make stupidly 

BEG, beg, v.i. to ask alms or charity: to 
live by asking alms. — v.t. to ask earnest- 
ly: to beseech: to take for granted: — 
pr.p. begg'ing; pa.p. begged'. [A.S. bed- 
ecian, contr. bed'cian, beggen, a frequen- 
tative, to ask often, from biddan, to ask. 
See Bead, Bid.] 

BEGET, be-gef, v.t. to be the father of: 
to produce or cause: to generate: to pro- 
duce as an effect, to cause: — pr.p. begetf- 
ing: pa.t. begat', begof ; pa.p. begot', be- 
gott'en. [A.S. begitan, to acquire. See 

BEGETTER, be-get'er, n. one who begets: 
a father. 

BEG<jAR, beg'ar, n. one who begs: one 
who lives by begging. — v.t. to reduce to 
beggary: to exhaust. 

BEGGARLY, beg'ar- li, adj. poor: meaa: 
contemptible. — adv. meanly. — n. Bbso'ab- 


BEGGARY, beg'ar-i, n. extreme poverty. 

BEGIFT, be-gift', v.t. to confer gifts on: 
to load with presents. — Carlyle. 

BEGIN, be-gin', v.i. to take rise: to enter 
on something new: to commence. — v.t. 
to enter on: to commeaee: — pr.p. be- 
ginn'ing; pa.t. began'; pa.p. begun'. 
[A.S. beginnan (also ongirman), from be, 
and ginnan, to begin.] 

BEGINNER, be-gin'er, n. one who b^ins: 
one who is beginning to learn or practice 

BEGINNING, be-gin'ing n. origin or com- 
mencement: rudiments. 

BEGIRD, be-gerd', v.t. to gird or bind with 
a girdle: to surround or encompass: — 
pa.t. begirt', begird'ed; pa.p. begirt'. 

BEGIRDLE, be-ger'dl, v.t. to surround or 
encircle, as with a girdle. "Like a ring 
of iron they . . . begirdle her from shore 
to shore."-— CarZyle. 

BEGIRT, be-gert', v.t. Same as Begibd: 
also pa.t. and pa.p. of Begibd. 

BEGLARE, be-glar', v.t. to glare at or on. 
(A humorous coinage.) "So that a by- 
stander without beholding Mrs. Wilfer 
at all must have known at whom she 
was glaring by seeing her refracted from 
the countenance of the beglared one." — 

BEGONE, be-gon', int. (K*.) be gone. In 
Woebegone, we have the pa.p. of A.S. 
began, to go round, to beset — itjeset with 

BEGOT, be-got', BEGOTTEN, be-gofn, 
pa.p. of Beget. [deeply. 

BEGRIME, be-grim', v.t. to grime or soil 

BEGROAN, be-gron', v.t. to receive with 
groans: to assail with groans, as a mark 
of disapprobation. "Patriot Brissot, be- 
shouted this day by the patriot galleries, 
shall find himself begroaned by them, on 
accoimt of his limited patriotism." — 

BEGUILE, be-gil', v.t. to cheat or deceive: 
to cause to pass unnoticed what may be 
attended with tedium, or paia. — adv. 
BEGTJii.'rNGLy. — ns. Bequhjg'ment, Be- 
guil'kb. [See Guile.] 

BEGUM, be'gum, n. a Hindu princess or 
lady of rank. 

BEGUN, be-gun', pa.p. of Begiit. 

BEHALF, be-haf', n. favor or benefit: sake, 
account: part. [A.S. healf, half, part; 
on healf €, on the side of.] 

BEHAVE, be-hav', v.t. (with self) to bear 
or carry, to conduct. — v.i. to conduct 
one's self: to act. This word, when 
used intransitively and reflexively, has 
sometimes, in colloquial language, a 
good sense, having the force of to be- 
have well, to conduct one's self well, the 
naodifying adverb being implied; as, the 
boy will get his holidays if he behaves; 
h^iave yourselves and you wiU be duly 
rewarded. [A.S. behabban, to restrain, 
from hdbban, to have, to use.] 

BEHAVIOR, be-hav'yur, n. conduct: man- 
ners or deportment. 

B EHE AD, be-hed', v.t. to cut off the head. 

BEHEADING, be-hed'ing, n. the act of 
cutting off the head. [hoij). 

BEHELD, be-held', pa.t. and pa.p. of Be- 

BEHEMOTH, be'he-moth, n. an animal de- 
scribed in the book of Job, prob. the hip- 
popotamus. In Milton, the elephant. 
[Heb. "beasts," hence "great beast."] 

BEHEST, be-hesf, n. command: charge. 
[A.S. behces, vow, from be, and hops, com- 
mand — hatan; Goth, haitan, to call, to 

BEHIND, be-hind', prep, at the back of: 
after or coming after: inferior to. — adv. 
at the back, in the rear: backward: past. 
[A.S. behindan; Ger. hinten. See Hjnd.] 

BEHINDHAND, be-hind'hand, adj. or adv. 
being behind: tardy, or in arrears. 

BEHITHER, he-hith'er, prep, on this side of. 
"Two miles hehither Clifden." — Evelyn. 

BEHOLD, behold', v.t. to look upon: to 
contemplate. — v.i. to look: to fix the at- 
tention: — pa.t. and pa.p. beheld'. — imp. 
OT int. see! lo! observe! [A.S. behealden, 
to hold, observe — pfx. be, and healdan, 
to hold.] 

BEHOLDEN, be-hold'n, adj. bound in grati- 
tude: obliged. [Old pa.p. of Behoi®, in 
its oriffinal sense.] 

BEHOLDER, be-hold'er, n. one who be- 
holds: an onlooker. 

BEHOOF, be-hoof, n. benefit: convenience. 
[See Behoove.] 

BEHOOVE, be-hoov', v.t. to be fit, right. 



or necessary for — ^now only used imper- 
sonally with t*. [A.S. hehofian, to be fit, 
to stand in need of; connected with 
Have, Ger. hahen, L. habeo, to have, 
habilis, fit, suitable.] 

BEIGE, bazh, n. a light woollen fabric, 
made of wool of the natural color, that 
is, neither dyed nor bleached. [Fr.] 

BEING, be'ing, n. existence : any person or 
thing existing. [From the pr.p. of Be.] 

BEJUCO, ba-ho'ko, n. a slender, reed-like, 
twining plant of Central America. [Amer- 
ican Spanish.] 

The serpent-like bejuco winds his spiral fold on fold 
Round the tail and stately ceiba tul it withers in his 
hold. —Whittier 

BELABOR, be-la'bur, v.i. to beat soundly. 

BELATED, be-lat'ed, adj. made too late: 

BELAY, be-la', v.t. to fasten a rope by 
winding it round a pin. [Dut. be-leggen, 
cog. with Lay, v.] 

BELCH, belsh, v.t. to throw out wind from 
the stomach: to eject violently. — n. eruc- 
tation. [A.S. healcan, an imitation of 
the sound.] 

BELDAM, BELDAME, bel'dam, n. an old 
woman, esp. an ugly one. [Fr. bel, fair 
(see Belle), and Dame, orig. fair dame, 
used ironically.] 

BELEAGUER, be-leg'er, v.t. to lay siege 
to. [Dut. belegeren, to besiege; conn, 
with Belay.] 

BELFRY, bel'fri, n. the part of a steeple 
or tower in which bells are htmg. [Orig. 
and properly, a watch-tower, from O. Fr. 
berfroi, O. Ger. bercfrit. — O. G«r. frid, a 
tower, bergan, to protect.] 

BELIE, be-ir, v.t. to give the lie to: to 
speak falsely of: to counterfeit: — pr.p. 
bely'ing; pa.p. belied'. [A.S. be, and 

BELIEF, be-lef, n. persuasion of the truth 
of anything: faith: the opinion or doc- 
trine believed. 

BELIEVABLE, be-l6v'a-bl, adj. that may 
be believed. 

BELIEVE, be-lev', v.t. to regard as true: 
to trust in. — v.i. to be firmly persuaded of 
anything: to exercise faith: to think or 
suppose. — adv. Believ'ingly. [With pre- 
fix be- for fire-, from A.S. gelyfan. For 
root of lyfan, see Leave, n.] 

BELIEVER, be-lev'er, n. one who believes: 
a professor of Christianity. 

BELIKE, be-lik', adv. probably: perhaps. 
[A.S. pfx. be, and Like.] 

BELL, bel, «, a hollow vessel of metal 
with a tongue or clapper inside, which 
rings when moved: anything bell-shaped. 
— Bear the bell, to be first or supe- 
rior, in allusion to the well-wether of 
a flock, or to the leading horse of a team 
wearing bells on his collar. [A.S. bella, 
a bell — bellan, to sound loudly.] 

BELLADONNA, bel-a-don'a, n. the plant 
Deadly Nightshade, used in small doses 
as a medicine. [It. bella-donna, fair 
lady, from its use as a cosmetic] 

BELLE, bel, n., a fine or handsome young 
lady: a beauty. [Fr. fem. of Beau.] 

BELLEEK-WARE, bel-leek'-war, n. a deco- 
rative pottery of high polish made at Bel- 

BELLES-LETTRES, bel-let'r, n. the de- 
partment of literature, such as poetry 
and romance, of which the chief aim is 
to please by its beauty. [Fr. belle, fine, let- 
tres, learning — lettre, L. litera, a letter.] 

BELLETRISTIC, bel-let-ris'tik, adj. per- 
taining or relating to belles-lettres. 

BELL-HANGER, bel'-hang'er, n. one who 
hangs or puts up bells. 

BELLICOSE, bel'ik-os, adj. contentious. 
[L. bellicosus — bellum, war.] 

BELLIED, bel'id, adj. swelled out, or promi- 
nent, liko the belly — used generally in 

BELLIGERENT, bel-i'jer-ent, adj., carry- 
ing on war. — n. a nation engaged in 
war. [L. helligero, to carry on war — 
bellum, war, gero, to carry. See Duel 

BELLMAN, bel'man, n. a town-crier, who 
rings a bell when giving notice of any- 

BELL-MARE, bel'-mar, n. a mare chosen 
to lead a drove of mules in the South- 
west. (Amer.) 

BELLOW, bel'o, v.i. to low: to make a 
loud resounding noise. — n. a roaring. 
[From root of Bell.] 

BELLOWS, bel'oz or bel'us, n. an instru- 
ment to blow with. [A.S. bcelig, a bag; 
Gael, balg; conn, with Belly, Bag.] 

BELL-PUNCH, bel'-punsh, n. a small 
punch fitted to the jaws of a pincers- 
shaped instrument, combined with a lit- 
tle bell which sounds when the punch 
makes a perforation. Such punches are 
generally used to cancel tickets, as in 
tramway cars, etc., as a check on the 
conductors, the ringing of the bell indi- 
cating to the passenger that his ticket 
has been properly punched, and that the 
blank cut has passed into a receptacle in 
the instrument from which the blanks 
are taken and counted by an official of 
the company. Other forms of bell- 
punches are in use, as a combined tell- 
tale and bell, the ringing of which indi- 
cates to an official at some distance that 
the instrument has been duly pressed. 

BELL-SHAPED, bel'-shapt, adj. shaped 
like a bell. 

BELL-WETHER, bel'-wef^'er, n. a wether 
or sheep which leads the flocks with a 
bell on his neck. 

BELLY, bel'i, n. the part of the body be- 
tween the breast and the thighs. — v.t. to 
swell out: to fill. — v.i. to swell: — pr.p. 
bell'ving; pa.p. bell'ied. [From root of 

BELLY-BAND, bel'i-band, n. a band that 
goes round the belly of a horse to secure 
the saddle. 

BELLYFUL, bel'i-fool, n. as much as fills 
the belly, a sufficiency. 



BELONG, be-long', v.i. to be one's prop- 
erty : to be a raii; : to pertain : to nave 
residence. jA.8. langian, to long after; 
cf. Dat. belangen.] 

BEIONGING, be-long'ing, n. that which 
belongs to one — ^used generally in the 

BELOVED, be-luvd', ac^'. much loved: 
very dear. 

BELOW, be-l6', prep, beneath in place or 
rank : not worthy of. — adv. in a lower 
place : (fig.) on earth or in hell, as op- 
posed to heaven. [Be, and Low.] 

BELT, belt, n. a girdle or band : (geog.) a 
strait. — v.t. to surround with a belt : to 
encircle.— cM^y. Belt'ed. [A.S. belt ; Ice. 
belti, Gael, bait, L. halteus, a bfe'.t.] 

BELVEDERE, bel've-der, n. {in Italy) a 
pavilion or look-out on the top of a build- 
ing. [It. — bello, beautiful, vedere, to see 
— ^L. bellus and videre.'] 

BEMEET, be-met', v.t, to meet. 

Our very loving- sister, well bemet. — Shot. 

BEMITRE, be-mfter, v.t to adorn with a 
mitTe. Carlyle. 

BEMOAN, be-ra5n', v.t. to moan at : to 

BEMOUTH, be-mouf/i', v.t. to utter with 
an affected, big-, swelBng voice : to 
mouth. " In Miltonic Wank bemouthed.^ 
— Sout/iey. 

BEMTJEMUR; be-mur'mnr, v.t. 1, to mur- 
mur round. " Bemurmured now by the 
hoarse-flowing Danube." — Carlyle. 2, to 
greet with murmurs, as of discontent or 
the like. *' So fare the eloquent of France, 
bemurmured, beshouted." — Carlyle. 

BEMUZZLE, be-muz'l, v.t. to put a muzzle 
on : to muzzle. Carlyle. 

BENCH, bensh, n. a long seat or form : a 
mechanic's work-table : a judge's seat : 
the body or assembly of judges. — v.t. to 
place on or furnish with benches. [A.S. 
bene ; cog. with Ger. bank, and conn. 
with E. Bank, a ridge of earth.] 

BENCHER, bensh'er, n. a senior member 
of an inn of court. 

BEND, bend, v.t. to curve or bow : make 
crooked : to turn or incline : to subdue. 
— v.i. to be crooked or cru-ved : to lean : 
to bow in submission :— pa.j). bend'ed or 
bent. — n. a curve or crook. [A.S. ben- 
dan, to bend, from Band, a string ; a 
bow was *' bent " by tightening the band 
or string.] 

BENE, bSn, n. a prayer : a request : an 
entreaty. Wordmoorth. (Provmcial En- 
glish.) 'TA.S. ben, a prayer.] 

BENEATH, be-neth', prep, under, or lower 
in place : unbecoming. — adv. in a lower 
place : below. [-A-S. pfx. be, and neo- 
thdn, beneath. See Nether.] 

BENEDICK, ben'e-dik, BENEDICT, ben'e- 
dikt, n. a newly-married man : also, a 
bachelor. [From Benedick, a character in 
Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, 
who begins as a confirmed bachelor and 
ends by marndng Beatrice.] 

BENEDICTINE, ben-e-dikt'in, n. one of an 

order of monks named after St. Benedict, 
called also Black Friars from the color of 
their dress. 

BENEDICTION, ben-e-dik'shun, n. a bless- 
ing : the solemn act of imploring the 
blessing of God. [L. beneaictio—bene, 
well, dtco, dictum, to say.] 

BENEDICTORY, ben-e-dikt'or-i, ac^'. de- 
claring a benediction : expressing wishes 
for good. 

BENEFACTION, ben-e-fak'shun, n. the 
act of doing good : a good deed done or 
benefit conferred. [L. bene/actio. See 
Benefice 1 

BENEFACTOR, ben-e-fak'tor, n. one who 
confers a benefit.— /ew. Benefac'teess. 

BENEFICE, ben'e-fls, n. an ecclesiastical 
living. [Fr. — L. oene^cium, a kindness — 
benefacere, to benefit — bene, well, facio, 
to do. In Low L. beneftcium meant a 
gift of an estate.] 

BENEFICED, ben'e-flst, adj. having a 

BENEFICENCE, be-nefi-sens, n, active 

goodness : kindness : charity. 
BENEFICENT, be-nef'i-sent, adj., doing 

good : kind : charitable.— adv. BiaiEF^ 


BENEFICIAL, ben-e-flsh'al, adj., doing 
good: useful : advantageous. — adv. Beoie- 


BENEFICIARY, ben-e-flsh'i-ar-i, n. one 
who holds a benefice or receives a benefit. 
— (^dJ-J}p\ding in gift. 

BENEFIT, ben'e-fit, n. a favor : advantage : 
a performance at a theatre, the proceeds 
of which go to one of the company.— 
v.t. to do good to, — v.i. to gain advan- 
tage :—pr.p. ben'eflting ; pa.p. ben'e- 
flted. ^V. bienfait — L. bene/actum.} 

BENEVOLENCE, be-neVol-ens, n., good- 
will : disposition to do good : an act of 
kindness : {E. Hist.) a species of tax 
.arbitrarily levied by the sovereign, and 
represented by him as a gratuity. [L. 
benevolentia—bene, well, volo, to wish.] 

BENEVOLENT, be-neVol-ent, adj., toeU- 
wishing: disposed to do good. — adv, 

BENGAL-LIGHT, ben-gawl'-llt, n. a species 
of firework producing a very vivid blue 
light, much used for signals by ships. 

BENIGHTED, be-nlt'ed, adj overtaken by 
night : involved in darkness : ignorant. 

BENIGN, ben-In', adj. favorable : gracious : 
kindly. [O. Fr. benigne — ^L. benignus=^ 
benigenus, well-born, of gentle nature — 
benus, bonus, good, and gen, root of 

gtgno, to produce.] 

BENIGNANT, ben-ig'nant, adj. kind : gra- 
cious. — adv. Benig'nantly. [L. benig- 

BENIGNITY, ben-ig'nit-i, n. goodness of 
disposition : kindness : graciousness. 

BENIGNLY, ben-In'li, adv. kindly: gra- 

BENISON, ben'i-zn, n., benedictdon, Weaa- 
ing. [O. Fr. beneigon — ^L. oeTiedictio, 
See Benediction.] 



BENJAMIN, ben'ja-min, n. a kind of top- 
coat or overcoat worn by men. 

BENT, bent, pa.*, and pa.p. of Beio). 

BENT, bent, n. leaning or biaa : fixed ten. 
dency or set of the mind. [From Bend.] 

BENT, bent, n. a coarse grass. [A.S. 

BENTHAMISM, ben'tham-izm, n. that 
doctrine of ethics or of social and politi- 
cal economy taughtby Jeremy jBewf/iam, 
the sum of which may be thus stated ; — 
The greatest happiness of the greatest 
number is the end of aU true moreil 
action. Nature having placed mankind 
under the government of two sovereign 
masters. Pleasure and Pain, it is for 
them alone to point out what we ought 
to do. This doctrine is the foundation 
of Utilitarianism (which see). 

BENTHAMITE, ben'tham-It, n. one who 
holds or favors the doctrine of Bentham- 

BENUMB, be-num', v.t. to make numb or 

BENZINE, ben'zin, n. a substance pre- 
pared from coal-tar naphtha, used in re- 
moving grease stains from cloth. [From 

BENZOIN, ben-zo'in, n. a fragrant, me- 
dicinal resin, obtained from the Styrax 
benzoin, a tree of Sumatra. [Of Arab, 

BEPOMMEL, be-pum'mel, v.t. to pomme! 
or beat soundly : to g^ve a good drub- 
bing to. *^ BepommeUed and stoned by 
irreproachable ladies of the straitest sect 
of the Pharisees." — Thackeray. 

BEQUEATH, be-kwe*^', v.t. to give or 
leave by will : to hand down, as to pos- 
terity. [A.S. be, and cwethan, to say, to 
tell. See Quoth.] 

BEQUEST, be-kwest', n. something be- 
queathed or left by will : a legacy. 

BERASCAL, be-ras'kal, v.t. to call or ad- 
dress by the opprobrious term rascal 

BERCEUSE, bar-sez', n. (mus.) a soft, 
soothing vocal or instrumental composi- 
tion; as, a cradle song, [Fr.] 

BEREAVE, be-reV, v.t., to rob or make 
destitute :—pa.p. bereaved' or bereft^ 
[Pfx. bp, and Reave. A.S. reafian.'] 

BEREAVEMENT, be-rev'ment, n. heavy 
loss, esp. of friends by death. 

BEREFT, be-reft', pa.p. of Bereave. 

BERGAMOT, ber'ga-mot, n. a fragrant oil 
obtained from the Bergamot pear. 

tFrom Bergamo, a town of Lombardy in 

BERIBAND, be-rib'and, BERIBBON, be- 
rib'on, v.t. to adorn or deck with a rib- 
bon or ribbons. " Nut - brown maids 
bedizened and beribanded." — Carlyle. 
" Rouged and beribboned." — Miss Bumey. 

BERKELEYTTE. berk'-li-Tt, n. a disciple of 
the idealistic philosopher George BerJceley 
(1684-1753),^ an Irish bishop, who held 
that the mind can not know external 
things, being conscious only of subjective 

BERRIED, ber'id, adj. having berries. 

BERRY, ber'i, n. any small juicy fruit. 
[A.S. berige ; Ger. beere ; Dut. bezie ; 
Goth, basi ; Sans, blias, to eat.] 

BERTH, berth, n. a ship's station at an- 
chor : a room or sleeping-place in a ship : 
a situation or place of employment. [A 
form of Birth.] 

BERTHAGE, berth'aj, n. a charge made 
on vessels occupying a berth in a dock or 

IBERTILLON-SYSTEM, bar'-te'-yOn', n. a 
system of identification of persons, esp. 
criminals, originated by the Fr. anthro- 
pologist, Alphonse Bertillon; a physical 
.description based upon measurements, 
notes of color, deformities, birth-marks, 
scars, impressions of thumb lines, etc.: 
in use in prisons. 

BERYL, ber'il, n. a precious stone of a 
greenish color. [L. and Gr. beryllits.] 

BESCOUR, be-skour', v.t. to scour over : tc 
overrun. " France too is bescoured by a 
devil's pack, the baying of which . . 
still sounds in the mind's ear." — Carlyle. 

BESEECH, be-sech', v.t. to seek or ask 
from urgently : to implore or entreat :— 
pr.p. beseech'ing; pa.t. and pa.p. be- 
sought (be-sawf). — adv. Beseech'ingly 
[A.S. be, and secan, to seek.] 

BESEECHINGNESS, be-sech'ing-nes, n. 
the state or quality of being beseeching 
or earnestly solicitous : entreaty. George 

BESEEM, be-sem', v.t. to be seemly or fit 
for. [Pfx. be, and Seem.] 

BESET, be-set', v.t. to surround or ixiolose ' 
to waylay : to j^erplex :—pr.p. besetf- 
ing ; pa.t. and pa.p. beset'. [A.S. W- 
aettan, to surround.] 

BESETTING, be-set'ing, ac^'. confirmed: 

BESHOUT, be-shout', v.t. to greet or re- 
ceive with shouts. Carlyle. 

BESIDE, be-sid', prep., by the side of: over 
and above : distinct from. — Beside one's 
self, out of one's wits or reason. [A.S. 
be, by, and Side.] 

BESIDE, be-sid', BESIDES, be-sidz', adv. 
moreover : in addition to. 

BESIEGE, be-sej', v.t. to lay siege to : to 
beset with armed forces : to throng 
round. — n. Besieger, be-sej'er. 

BESING, be-sing', v.t. to praise or cele- 
brate in song. " The Charter which has 
been so much besung." — Dickens. 

BESMEAR, be-smer', v.t. to smear over or 

BESOM, be'zum, n. an implement for 
sweeping. [A.S. besem, besma.] 

BESOT, be-sor, v.t. to make sottish, dull, 
or stupid '.—-pr.p. besott'ing ; pa.p. be- 

BESOUGHT, be-sawt', pa.t. and pa.p. of 

BESPAKE, be-spak', pa.p. of Bespeak. 
BESPATTER, be-spat'er, v.t. to spatter or 

sprinkle with dirt or anything moist : to 




BESPEAK, benspSk', v.t, to speak for or 
engage beforehand: to betoken. [Be, 
and Speak.] 

BESPEAK, be-spgk', v.t to speak, or speak 
to. [Prefix he, and Speak.] 

BESPEECH, be-spech', v.t. to annoy or tor^ 
ment by much speech-making. Carl^. 

BESPOUT, oe-spout', v.t. to annoy or ha- 
rass with much loud, empty speaking. 

BESPY, be-spf , v.t. to subject to esfMon- 
age : to set spies upon. *' His own 
finends of the people . . . bespied, be- 
hpqrlfKj." — CnTlyle. 

BESSEMER-STEEL, bes'-se-mer stel, n. a 
process of steel manufacture invented by 
Sir Henry Bessemer, an E. engineer : st^l 
made directly from cast-iron from which 
the carbon and other impurities have been 
burned out by means of a blast of air 
forced through the molten metal. Hence 
Bessemebize, v.t. bes'-se-mer-iz, to treat 
by the Bessemer process. 

BEST, best, adj. (serves as superL of QodD) 
good in the highest d^ree : first : high- 
est : most excellent. — n. one's utmost 
endeavor : the highest perfection. — adv. 
(superl. of WeIoL) in the highest d^ree : 
in the best manner. [A.S. hetst, betett, 
best. See Better.] 

BESTEAD, be-sted*, p.adj. situated: 
treated. [Pfx. be, and Stead.] 

BESTEAD, BESTED, be-sted', v.t. topkux 
or dispose : to assist, to serve. [Ihreflx 
be. Stead, place.] 

BESTIAL, best'i-al, adi. like a beast : vile : 
seusuaL [L. begtiaiw. See Bbast.I 

BESTIAUZE, best'i-al-iz, v.t. to make like 

BESTIALITY, best-i-all-ti, n. beastliness. 

BESTIARIAN, bes-ti-a'ri-an, n. one who 
takes an interest in the kind treatment 
of beasts : the term has b^n applied to 
those persons who oppose vivisectiwi, 
and was invented by Darwin. [L. bestia, 
a beast : the word was suggested by kur 

BESTm, be-ster', v.t. to put into lively ac- 

BESTOW, be-st5', v.L to stow, place, or 
put by: to give or confer: to appfy. 

BESTOWAL, be-stO'al, n. act of bestow- 
ing' : disposal. 

BESTRAP, be-strap'. v.t. to confine with a 
strap or straps. "'nie young lion's 
whelp has to grow up aJl bestrapped, be- 
muzzled." — Cariyle. 

BESTRIEE, be-strid', v.t. to stride over: 
to ait or stand across '.—pa.t. bestricT, 
bestrode' ; pa.p. bestrid', bestridd'en. 

BESTUD, be-stud'.«.«.to adorn with stud*. 

BET, bet, n. a wager : something staked 
to be lost or won on certain conditions. 
— v.t. and i. to lay or stake, as a bet :— 
pr.p. b ett'ing ; pa.t. and pa.p. bet or 
Dett'ed. [Ety. dub. ; either A.S. bad, a 
pledge, akm to WsD, Waoes, or a contr. 
of Abet.] 

BETAKE, be-tSk', v.t. (with selH to take 
one's self to : to apply or have recourse ; 
—pa.t. betook' ; pa.p. betak'en. [A.S. 
be, and Ice. taka, to deliver.] 

BETEL, be'tl, n. the betel-nut, or nut of 
the areca paim, with lime and the leaves 
of the Betel-Pepper, is chewed by the 
Malays as a stimulant. [East. wOTd.l 

BETHINK, be-thingk', v.t. to think on or 
call to mind : to recollect (generally fol- 
lowed by a reflective pronoun;. — v.i. to 
consider :—pa.t. and pa.p. bethought 
(be-thawt'). [A.S. bethencan, Ger. be- 
denken. See Think.] 

BETIDE, be-tid', v.t, to happen to : to be- 
f alL [A.S. pfx- be, and ttdan, to happen. 
See Tide.] 

BETIMES, be-timz', adv. in good time: 
seasonably. [Pfx. be, and Timf.] 

BETIS, ba'-tes or bS'tis, n. a hardwood tree 
of the Philippine Islands. [Sp. from a 
native name.l 

BETOKEN, be-to'kn, v.t. to show by a 
sign: to foreshow. [A.S. f^acnum. 
See Token.] 

BETOOK, be-to<^, pa.t. of Betake. 

BETRAY, be-tra', v.t. to give op treacher- 
ously : to disclose in breach of trust : to 
discover or show. [Pfx. be, and Fr. traJiir, 
It. t radire—'Lu tradere, to deliver up.J 

BETRAYAL, be-tra'al, n. act of betraymg. 

BETRAYER, be-tra'er, n. a traitor. 

BETROTH, be-troth', v.t. to contract or 
promise in order to marriage : to afi&ance. 
[Be, and Troth or Trtith. j 

BETROTHAL, be-troth'al, BETROTH- 
MENT, be-troth'ment, n. an agreement 
or contract with a view to marriage. 

BETTTEB, bet'er, adj. (serves as comp. 
of Good) good in a greater degree : 
preferable : improved. — ajdv. (comp. <rf 
Well) well in a greater degree : more 
fully or completely : with greater ad- 
vantage :—pl. superiors. — v.f. to make 
better, to improve : to beneffi;. [A.S. 
bet (adv.), betera, better, Gkrth. batiza. 
Qer. 6ewer ; root bat, good ; it is in all 
t he T eutonic lang. See Boor.] 

BETTER, bet'er, n. one who bets. 

BETWEEN, be-twSn', BETWIXT, be- 
twikst', prep, in the middle of tuxnn 
or tux): in the middle or intermediate 
space : from one to another. [A-S. be- 
tweonan, bettreox, betvmxt — be, and 
t wegen, twa, two, twain.] 

BETWEENITY, be-twen'i-ti, n. the state 
or quality of being between : intermedi- 
ate condition : that which occrrpies an 
intermediate space, place, or position. 
** To rejoin heads, tails and betweenities.^ 
—^outhey. ' The house is not Gothic, 
but of that beitoeenity that intervened 
when Gkithic declined and PaUadian was 
cree ping in." — H. Walpole. 

BEVEL, beVel, n. a slant or inclination of 
a surface : an instrument openmg like a 
pair of compasses for measiuing anglec 
— adj. having the form of a bevel : slant- 
ing. — v.t. to form with a bevel or slant : 



—pr.p. heVelUng; pa.p. bev'elled. — 
Bevel-gear (mecn.), wheels worMng on 
each other in diflFerent planes, the cogs 
of the wheels being bevelled or at oblique 
angles to the shafts. [Fr. bivemt, an in- 
strument for measuring angles.] 

BEVERAGE, beVer-aj, w., dririk: any- 
agreeable liquor for drinking. [O. Fr. ; 
It. beveraggio — bevere — ^L. bibere, to 

BEVY, bev'i, n. a brood or flock of birds, 
especiallv of quails : a company, esp. of 
ladies. [It. beva, a drink, a company for 

BEWAIL, be-wal', v.t to lament. [Sqq 

BEWARE, be-war', v.i. to be on one'9 
guard : to be suspicious of danger : to 
take care. [The two words be ware run 
together. See Wary.] 

BE WHISKER, be-whis'ker, vJ. to furnishi 
with whiskers : to put whiskers on, 
"She who bewhiskered St. Bridget."— 
Sterne. " Striphngs bewhiskered yvith 
burnt cork." — Irving. 

JtEWlLDER, be-wil'der, v.t. to perplex or 
lead astray. — n. Bewil'derment. [B«, 
and prov. E. unldem, a wilderness.] 

BEWING, be- wing', v.t. to give or add 
wings to. " An angel-throng bewingedj* 

BEWITCH, be-wicb', v.t. to affect by witch- 
craft : to fascina;te or charm. [See 

BEWITCHERY, be-wich'er-i, BEWITCH- 
MENT, be-wich'ment, n. fascination. 

BEWITCHING, be-wich'ing, adj. charm- 
ing: fascinating. — adv. Bewitch'ingly. 

BEWRAY, be-ra', v.t. (B.), to accuse ; to 
point out : to betray. [A.S. pfx. be, and 
wregan, to accuse.] 

BEY, ba, n. a Turkish governor of a town 
or province. [Turk, beg, pronounced 6a, 
a governor.] 

BEYOND, be-yond', prep, on the farther 
side of : farther onward than : out of 
reach of. [A.S. be-geond — pfx. be, and 
geond, across, beyond. See YON, Yoi»- 


BEZEL, hezfl, n. the part of aringinwhick 
the stone is set. [O. Fr. bisel, Fr. biseau ; 
of uncertain origin.] 

BEZIQUE, be-zek', n. a game at cards, 
esp. a combination of the jack of dia- 
monds and queen of spades. [Fr.] 

BHANG, bang, n. Same as Bang, Bangub. 

BI-, an old form of the Anglo-Saxon prefix 
now usually written be ; as, bifore, bi 
/om=before ; bigan=hegain. ; hiheste^. 
behest ; biside, bisyde^heside ; bitween/e 
.=between ; etc. Chaucer. 

BIAS, bfas, n. a weight on one side of a 
bowl (in the game of bowling), making 
it slope or turn to one side : a slant or 
leaning to one side : an inclination of 
the mind, prejudice. — v.t. to cause to 
turn to one side : to prejudice or pre- 
possess ; pp. bi'ased or bi'assed. [Fr. 
hiais ; prob. L. bifnx, two-faced— ow, 
twice, fades, the face] 

BIB, bib, n. a cloth put under an infant's 
chin. [M.E. bibben, to imbibe, to tipple, 
because the cloth imbibes moisture — L. 
bibere, to drink.] 

BIB, bib, n. a flsh of the same genus as 
the cod and haddock, also called the 

BIBBER, bib'er, n. a tippler : chiefly used 
in composition, as (B.) wine-bibber. [L. 
bibo. to drink.] 

BIBELOT, be-b'lo', n. a small ornamental 
article, of no practical use. [Fr.] 

BIBLE, bfbl, n. the sacred writings of the 
Christian Church, consisting of the Old 
and New Testaments. [Ft. — ^L. and Gr. 
biblia, pi. of Gr. biblion, a little book, 
btblos, a book, from byblos, the papyrus, 
of which paper was made.] 

BIBLICAL, biblik-al, adj. of or relating to 
the Bible : scriptural.-— adv. Beb'lically. 

BIBLICALITY, bib-li-kal'i-ti, w. something 
relating to, connected with, or contain^ 
in the Bible. Carlyle. 

BIBLICIST, biblis-ist, n. one versed in bib* 
lical learning. 

BIBLIOCLAST, bib'-lio-klast, n. a muti- 
lator of boo ks. [Gr.] 

BIBLIOGRAPHER, bib-li-og'raf-er, n. one 
versed in bibliography or the history o2 
books. — adj. Biblioqraph'ic. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, bib-U-og'raf-i, w., theds. 
scription or knowledge of books, in regard 
to their authors, subjects, editions, and 
history. [Gr. biblion, a book, grapko, to 
write, describe.] 

BIBLIOLATRY, bib-li-ol'at-ri, n. sudot" 
stitious reverence for the Bible. [Qtc 
biblion, a book, latrda, worship.] 

i&IBHOLOGY, bib-ii-ol'oj-i, n. an account 
of books : biblical hterature, or theology. 

BIBLIOMANIA, bib-li-o-manT-a, n. 9^ 
mania for possessing rare and curious 
books. [Gr. biblion, a book, and Mania.] 

BIBLIOMANIAC, bib-li-o-man'i-ak, n. one 
who has a mania for possessing rare and 
curious books. 

1ST, bib-li-op'ol-ist, n. a bookseller. [Gh*. 
biblion, a book, pcdeb, to sell.] 

BIBULOUS, bib'u-lus, adj., drinking or 
sucking in : spongy. [L. bibulus — bibOf 
to drink.] 

BICARBONATE, bl-kar'bon-at, n. a car- 
bonate or salt having two equivalents of 
carbonic acid to one equivalent of base, 
[li. M- (for dvi-, from duo, two), twice, 
and Carbonate.] 

BICAVITARY, bl-kav'i-ta-ri, adj. consist- 
ing of or possessing two cavities. [L. 
prefix bi-, two. twice, and E. camty.] 

18ICE, bis, n, a pale blue or green paint. 
[Fr. his, bise ; orig. unknown.] 

BICENTENARY, bl-sen'te-na-ri, n. 1, that 
which consists of or comprehends two 
hundred ; the space of two hundred 
years ; 2, the commemoration of any 
event that happened two hundred years 
before, as the birth of a great man. [L. 
prefix hi-, two, twice, and E. centenary.] 



BICENTENAEY, bl-sen'te-narri, aulj. re- 
lating to or consisting of two hundred : 
relating to two hundred years? as, a 
lyicentenary celebration. 

BICENTENNIAL, bl-sen-ten'ni-al, adj. 1, 
consisting of or lasting two hundred 
years : as, a bicentennial period : 2, oc- 
curring every two hundred years. 

BICEPS, bi-seps, n. the muscle in front of 
the arm between the shoulder and elbow. 
[L. biceps, two-headed — Ws, twice, and 
caput, head.] 

BICIPITAL, bl-sip'it-al, adj. [anat.), having 
two heads or origins. [See Biceps.] 

BICKER, bik'er, v.i. to contend in a petty 
way : to quiver : to move quickly and 
tremulously, as running water. [Ace. 
to Skeat, oicker^=pick-er, or peck-er, to 
peck repe atedly with the beak?] 

BICONYEX, bi-kon'veks, ac^'. convex on 
both sides: double convex, as a lens. 
See Lens. [Prefix bin, two, twice, and 

BICORNE, bi-korn', n. one of two mon- 
strous beasts (the other being Chichev- 
ache — which see) mentioned in an old 
satirical poem alluded to by Chaucer in 
the " Clerk's Tale." Bicome is repre- 
sented as feeding on patient husbands, 
while Chichevache feeds on patient wives, 
and x.he point of the satire consists in 
representing the former as being fat and 
pampered with a superfluity of food, 
while the latter is very lean, owing to 
the scarcity of her diet. 

BICYCLE, bi'siki, n. a velocipede with two 
wheels, arranged one before the other. 

BrCYCLINO, brsik-Ung, n. the art or 
practice of managing or travelling on a 

BID, bid, v.t, to offer : to propose : to pro- 
claim : to invite : to command •.—pr.p. 
bidd'ing ; pa.t. bid or bade ; pa.p. bid, 
bidd'en. — n, an oflfer of a price. [A.S. 
beodan, Goth, bjudan, Qer. bieten, to 

BID, bid, v.t., to ask for : to pr^ (nearly 
obs.). j^A.S, biddan, Ck>th. biajan ; the 
ooanection with Bm, to command, is 
dub. See Bead.] 

BIDACTYL, bi-dak'-til, adj. Having only 
two toes or fingers, or two movable 
parts connected with one base. [Pfx. 
bi and dactyl — Gr. daktulos, a finger.] 

BIDDABLE, bid'arbl, adj, obedient to a bid- 
ding or command : willing to do what is 
bidden: complying. "She is exoeed- 
va^lj attentive and us^ui ; . . . indeed I 
never saw a more biddable woman. "-? 

BIDDER, bid'er, n. one who bids or offers 
a price. [command. 

BIDDING, bid'ing, n. offer: invitation: 

BIDE, bid, v.t. and v.i. Same as Abide, to 
wait for. [A.S. bidan, Goth, beidaru] 

BIDING, bld'ing, n., abiding: stay. 

BIENNIAL, bl-en'yal, adj. lasting two 
years: happening once in two years.— 
n. a plant that lasts two years. — acfe>. 

BiENifiALLY. [L. bim,ndlis — bis, twice, 
and anntLS, a year.] 

BIER, ber, n. a carriage or frame of woo(} 
for bearing the dead to the grave. [A.S. 
boer ; Ger. bahre, L. fer-etrum. Fronj 
root of Beab, v.] 

BIESTINGS, best'ingz, n. the first milk 
from a cow after calving. [A.S. by sting ; 
Ger. biegt-milch.] 

BIFACIAL, bl-fa'shyal, adj. having tioo 
like faces or opposite surfaces. [£ bis, 
twice, and Facial.] 

BIFURCATED, bl-furk'at-ed, adj., two- 
forked : having two prongs or branches. 
[L. bifurcus — bis, twice, furca, a fork.] 

BIFURCATION, bl-furk-a'shun, n. a fork- 
ing or division into two branches. 

BIG, big, adj. large or great : pregnant : 
great in air, mien, or spirit. [M.E. bigg, 
Scot, bigly, prob. from Ice. byggi-ligr, 
habitoble—byggja, to settle, conn, with 
bua, to dwelL From " habitable " it 
came to mean " spacious," " large."] 

BIGAMIST, big'am-ist, ». one who has 
committed bigamy. 

BIGAMY, big'am-i, n. the crime of having 
two wives or two husbands at once. [Fr. 
— L. bis, tA^rice, and Gr. gamos, marriage.] 

BIGGIN, big'in, n. a child's cap or hood. 
[Ft. beguin, from the cap worn by the 
JBeguines, a religious society of women in 

BIGHT, bit, n., a bend of the shore, or 
small bey: a bend or coil of a rope. 
[Cf . Dan. and Swed. bugt, Dut. bogt, from 
root of Goth, bivgan, A.S. beogan, Qer. 
biegen, to bend, E. bow.] 

BIGNESS, big'nes, n. bulk, size. 

BIGrOT, big'ot, n. one blindly and obsti- 
nately devoted to a particular creed or 
party. [Fr. ; variously derived from the 
oath By Ood, used, ace, to the tale, by 
the Norman RoUo, and then a nickname 
of the Normans ; Beguine, a religious 
society of women ; Visigoth, a Westerm 
Goth ; and Sp. bigote, a moustache.] 

BIGMDTED, big'ot-ed, adj. having the quali- 
ties of a bigot. 

BIGOTRY, big'ot-ri, n. blind or excessive 
zeal, especi^y in religious matters. 

BIJOU, be-zho6 , n. a trinket : a jewel : a 
Uttle box :— pL Buoux, oe-zhoo'. [Fr.l 

BIJOUTRY, be-zhoo'tri, n. jewelry : small 
articles of virtu. 

BILATERAL, bl-lat'er-al, adj., having tux) 
sides. [L. bis, twice, and LateralJ 

BILBERRY, bil'ber-i, n. called also Whob- 
TLKBKRRY, a shrub and its berries, which 
are dark-blue. [Dan. boUebaer, ball- 
berry (cf. BiLUABOS); Soot. bUieberry; 
Ger. blavbeere.] 

BILBO, bil'bo, n. a rapier or sword :—pL 
Bilboes, bil'boz, fetters. [From BUboa 
in Spain.] 

BILE, bil, n. a thick yellow bitter fl'iid 
secreted by the liver : (Jig.) ill-huiuor. 
[Fr.— L. bilig, allied to fel, fellis, the 

BSjEVK v.i. to stay behind ; to remain. 



Chauoer. rA.S. behfan — he, and Ufan, to 
stay behind ; comp- D. blijven, G. hleiben. 

BILCrE, bilj, n. the bulging part of a cask : 
the broadest part of a smp's bottom. — 
v.i. to spring a leali by a fracture in the 
bilge, as a ship. [See Bulge, Bbxi.y.1 

BILGE-WATER, bilj'-waw'ter, ». tli« fou) 
water which gathers in the bilge or bot« 
torn of a ship. 

BILIARY, bil'var-i, adj. belonging to or 
conveying bile. 

BILINGUAL, bi-ling'wal, adj. of or con- 
taining two tongues or languages. [L. 
bilinguis — bis, twice, lingtux, tongue.] 

BILIOUS, bil'yus, adj. pertaining to or 
affected by bile. 

BILITERAL, bi-lit'er-al, n. a word, root, or 
syllable formed of two letters. A. H. 

BILK, bilk, v.t. to elude : to cheat. [Per- 
haps a dim. of Balk.] 

BILL, bil, n. a kind of battle-axe : a hatchet 
with a hooked point for pruning. [A.S. 
bil ; Qer. beil.] 

BILL, bil, n. the beak of a bird, or any- 
thing like it. — v.i. to join bills as doves : 
to caress fondly. [A.S. bile, the same 
word as the precedinp;^, the primary mean- 
ing being, a cutting mnplement.] 

BILL, bil, n. an account of money : a draft 
of a proposed law : a written engage- 
ment to pay a sum of money at a fixed 
date : a placard or advertisement : any 
written statement of particulars. — ^BlLL 
OF EXCHANGE, a written order from one 
person to another, desiring the latter to 
pay to some specified person a sum of 
money at a fixed date.— -Bill op lading, 
a paper signed by the master of a ship, 
by which he makes himself responsible 
for the safe delivery of the goods speci- 
fied therein. — Bill of fare, in a hotel, 
the list of dishes or articles of food. — 
Bill op health, an oflficial certificate of 
the state of health on board ship before 
sailing.— Bill of mortality, an official 
a^ccount of the births and deaths occur- 
ring within a given time. [(Lit.) a sealed 
paper, from Low L. biUa — buUa, a seat 
See Bull, an edict.] 

BILLET, bil'et, n., a little note or paper : 
a ticket assigning quarters to solmers.— 
v.t. to quarter or lodge, as soldiers. [Fr. 
— dim. of Bill,] 

BILLET, bil'et, n. a small log of wood used 
as fuel. FFr. billot — bille, the young 
stock of a tree, prob. of Celt, orig., perh. 
alhed to Bole, the trunk of a tree.]^ 

BILLET-DOUX, bil-e-doo'. n.,a sweet note: 
a love-letter. [Fr. billet, a letter, doux, 

BILLIARDS, bil'yardz, n. a game played 
on a rectangular table, with ivory balls, 
which the players, by means of cues or 
maces, cause to strike against each other. 
JTr. billard— bille, a baU.] 

BILLINGSGATE, bil'ingz-gat, n. foul lan- 
guage like that spoken at Billingsgate 
fthe great fish-market of London). 

BILLION bil'yun, n. a million of millions 
(1,000,000,000,000) ; or, according to the 
French method of numeration, one thou- 
sand millions (1,000,000,000). [L. bis, 
twice, and Million.] 

BIT jT /MAN, bil'man, n. a soldier armed 
with a bill. 

BILLOW, bil'6, n. a great wave of the sea 
swelled by the wind. — v.i. to roll in large 
waves. [Ice. bylgja ; Sw. bolja, Dsun. 
bolge, a wave— root belg, to swell. See 
Bilge, Bulge.] 

BILLOWY, bil'5-i, adj. swelling into bil- 

BILLY, billi, n. 1, same as Slxtbbino- 
billy: 2, stolen metal of any kind 
(Slang) : 3, a small metal bludgeon that 
may be carried in the pocket (Slang). 

BIMANA, bl'man-a, n. animals having 
two hands : a term applied to the highest 
order of mammalia, of which man is the 
type and only species. [L. bis, twice, 
and manus, the hand.] 

BIMANOUS, bi-man-us, adj., having two 

BIMENSAL, bl-mens'ai, adj. iiappening 
once in two months : bimonthly. [L. bis, 
and mensis, a month.] 

BIMETALLISM, bi-mer al-izm, n. that sys- 
tem of coinage which recognizes coins of 
two metals, as silver and gold, as legal 
tender to any amount, or in other words, 
the concurrent use of coins of two metals 
as a circulating mediima at a fixed rela- 
tive value. "This coinage was super- 
seded by the bimetallic ^Id and silver) 
coinage of Crcesus, and bimetallism was 
the rule in Asia down to Alexander's 
time in the fixed ratio of one to thirteen 
and a half between the two metals." — 

BIMETALLIST, bi-met'al-ist, n. one who 
favors bimetallism or a currency of two 
metals. " Among the advocates of a 
double currency on the Continent have 
been many eminent economists. Yet an 
Englishman might almost as well avow 
himself a protectionist as a bimetaUist." 
— Academy. 

BIN, bin, n. a place for storing corn, wine. 
— v.t. to put into or store in a bin ; as, to 
bin liquor. [A.S.] 

BINARY, brnar-i, adj. composed of tux> : 
twofold. [L. binaniis — bini, two by two 
— bis, twice.] 

BINAURAL, bi-nawr'al, adj. 1, having two 
ears : 2, pertaining to both ears : fitted 
for being simultaneously used by two 
ears ; as, a binaural stethoscope, which 
has two connected tubes capped by small 
ear-pieces. [L. binus, double, and auris, 
the ear.] 

BIND, bind, v.t. to tie or fasten together 
with a band : to sew a border on : to 
fasten together (the leaves of a book) 
and put a cover on : to oblige bjr oath 
or agreement or duty : to restrain : to 
render hard :—pa.t. and pa.p. bound. 
[A.S. bindan; cog. with Ger. binden. 



Sans, bandh. Cf. Band, Bend, and Bun- 

BENDER, bind'er, n. one who binds, aa 
books or sheaves. — Self-bindek, a har- 
vesting machine which cuts, binds and 
throws aside the ripe grain in sheaves. 

BINDERY, blnd'er-i, n. an estabUshment 
in which books are bound. (Amer.) 

BINDING, bind'ing, a4]'. restraining : obli- 
gatory. — n. the act of binding : anything 
that binds : the covering of a book. 

BINDWEB, bind'web, n. in anat. the con- 
nective tissue uniting the gray cellular 
with the white fibrous matter of the 
brain and spinal cord : neuroglia. 

BINDWEED, bind' wed, n, the convolvulus, 
a genus of plants so called from their 
twining or binding. 

BINNACLE, bin'a-kl, n. (naut.) the box in 
which on shipboard the compass is kept. 
[Formerly bittacle — Port, bitacola — L. 
ndbitaculum, a dwelling-place — habito, 
to dwell.] 

BINOCUIiAR, bin-ok'ul-ar, adj. having 
two eyes : suitable for two eyes. [L. bis, 
and ocultis, eye.] 

BINOMIAL, bl-nom'i-al, adj. and n. in 
algebra, a quantity consisting of two 
terms or parts. [L. bis, twice, and 
nomen, a name, a term.] 

BIO, bi'-6, a combining form of the Gr. 
bios, life, indicating relation to, or con- 
nection with, life. 

BIOBLAST, bl'o-blast, n. in biol. a minute 
mass of transparent, amorphous pro- 
toplasm having formative power. [Gr. 
bios, Ufe, and blastos, a germ.] 

BIODYNAMIC, bi'o-di-nam'ik, adj. per- 
taining or relating to vital force, power, 
or energy. [Gr. bios, Ufe, and dynamis, 

BIOGENESIS, bI-6-jen'e-sis, n. in biol. 1, 
that department of science which specut 
lates on the mode by which new specie^ 
have been introduced : specifically, that 
view of this doctrine which holds that 
living organisms can spring only from 
living parents. Biogenesis is opposed to 
abiogenesis, and was first vigorously sup- 
ported by Redi, an Itahan philosopher of 
the seventeenth century : 2, the history 
of life development generally, as distin- 
guished from ontogenesis, or the history 
of individual development, and from 
phylogenesis, or the history of genealogi- 
cal development. [Gr. bios, life, and 
genesis, generation, from root of gigno- 
mai or ginomai, to be born.] 

BIOGENESIST, bi-o-jen'e-sist, BIOGE- 
NIST, bl-oj'e-nist, n. one who favors the 
theory of biogenesis. 

BIOGENY, bi-oj'e-ni, n. Same as Biogene- 
sis. Hiixley. 

BTOGRAPH, bi-6-^af, n. a moving-picture 
device; a machine that throws a moving 
scene upon a screen; distinguished from 
similar machines by the Tise of films 
without perforations. [Bio and graph — 
Gr. to write.] 

BIOGRAPHEE, bl-og'ra-fe', n. one whose 
life has been written : the subject of a 
biography. ''There is too much of the 
biographer in it (Foster's ' ' Life of Dick- 
ens"), and not enough of the biograpl^e." 
— Athenceum. 

BIOGRAPHY, bi-og'raf-i, n., a icritten ac- 
count or history of the life of an indi- 
vidual : the art of writing such accounts. 
— n. Biog'rapher, one who writes biog- 
raphy. — adjs. Biograph'ic, Biograph'- 
ICAL. — adv. Biogbaph'icatj.y. [Gr. bios, 
life, grapho, to write.] 

BIOLOGY, bi-ol'oj-i, n. the science that 
treats of life or of organized beings. — 
adj. Biolog'ical. [Gr. bios, life, logos, a 

BIOMAGNETIC, bi'o-mag-net'ik, adj. per- 
taining or relating to biomagnetism. 

BIOMAGNETISM, bi-o-mag'net-izm, n. 
Same as Animal Magnetism. See under 
Magnetism. [Gr. bios, life, and Mag- 

BIOMETRY, bl-om'et-ri, n. the measure- 
ment of life : specifically, the calculation 
of the probable duration of human life. 
[Gr. bios, Ufe, and metron, a measure.] 

BIOPLASM, bl'o-plazm, n. a name sug- 
gested by Dr. Beale for the albuminoid 
substance constituting the living matter 
of the elementary part or cell in plants 
and animals. CaUed by him also Ger- 
minal Matter. It appers to differ from 
protoplasm chiefly in being informed 
with life. [Gr. bios, life, and plasma, 
anything formed, from plasso, to form.] 

BIOPLASMIC, bl-o-plaz'mik, adj. consist- 
ing of or pertaining to bioplasm. "The 
physical basis of life seems to be struc- 
tureless and apparently homogeneous 
bioplasmic matter." — Nicholson. 

BIOPLASTIC, bi-o-plas'tik, adj. Same as 

BIOSCOPE, bi'-6-skop, n. a view of life: 
that which gives such a view: as, a book 
giving views of men and manners. New 
E. Diet. Also a device for the exhibition 
of pictures in which the movement of 
animated life is reproduced. [Bio and 
scope — Gr. skopos, watcher.] 

BIPARTITE, bi'part-it or bi-partit, adj., 
divided into two like parts. [L. bis, 
twice, partitus, divided— ^arrio, to 

BIPED, bi'ped, n. an animal with two feet. 
— adj. having two feet. [L. bipes — bis, 
twice, ped-, foot.] 

bi-pen'at-ed, adj., having two wings. [L. 
— bis,penna, a wing.] 

BIQUADRATIC, bi-kwod-rat'ik, n. a quan- 
tity tivice squared, or raised to the fourth 
power. [L. bis, twice, and guadratus, 

BIRAMOUS, bi-ra'mus, adj. possessing' or 
consisting of two branches : dividing into 
two branches, as the limbs of cirripedes. 
H. A. Nicholson. FL. prefix bi, two, 
t'^'^o. and ramus, a branch.] 



BZBCH, befCGliit v.t. to hesA or piznish with 
a birch rod. 

There I was birched, there I was bred, 
There like a little Adam fed 
From Learning's woeful tree. — Hood. 

BIRCH, bercti, n. a hardy forest-tree, with 
smooth, white bark, and very durablQ 
wood : a rod for punishment, oonsisting 
of a birch twig or twigs. [A.S. berce. 
Ice. biorJc, Sans, bhurja^ 

BIRCH, -EN, berch, -'en, adj. made d 

BIED, herd, n. a general name for feath- 
ered animals. — v.i. to catch or snare 
birds. rA.S. brid, the young of a bird, a 
bird : either from root of Breed (bredcrai, 
to breed) or of Berth (beran, to bear).] 

BTRD-BAITING, berd'-bat-ing, n. the 
catching of birds with clap-nets. 

BTR.D-FANdER, berd'-fan'si-er, n. one 
who has a fancy for rearing birds : one 
who keeps birds for sale. 

BIRDLIME, berd'Um, n. a sticky sub- 
stance used for catchii^ birds. 

BIRD-OF-PARADISE, berd-ov-par'a-diis, 
n. a kind of Eastern bird with splendid 

BIRD'S-EYE, berdz'-T, adj. seen from 
above as if by the eye of a flying bird. — 
n. a kind of tobacco. 

BIREME, bl'rem, n. an ancient vessel with 
tivo rows of oars. [Fr. — ^L. biremds — bis, 
twice, and remus, an oar.J 

BIRETTA, bir-et'-a, n. a square cap worn 
by the Catholic clergy. [It.] 

BIRK, berk, n. Scotch and proT. E. for 

BIRTH, berth, n. a ship's station at anchor, 
[Same as Berth.] 

BIRTH, berth, u. the act of bearing or 
bringing forth : the offspring bom : dig- 
nity of family : origin. [A.S. beorth, a 
birth — beran, to bear.] 

BIRTHRIGHT, berth'nt, n. the right or 
privilege to which one is entitled by birth. 

BKCUIT, bis'kit, n. hard dry bread in 
small cakes : in the United States, a 
peciiliar kind of hot tea-roll, usually fer- 
mented, and eaten warm : a kind of un- 
glazed earthenware. [(Ldt.) bread ttvioe 
cooked or baked (so prepared by the Ro« 
man soldiers) ; Fr. — L, bis, twice ; Fr. 
cuit, baked — L. coguo, coctum, to cook 
or bake.] 

BISECT, bl-sekt', v.t^ to cut into two equal 
parts. [L. big^ twice, and aeco, sectum, 
to cut.] 

BISECTION, bl-sek'shun, n. division into 
two equal parts. 

BISEXIJAL, bl-sek'shoo-al, adj., of both 
sexes : (pot.) applied to flowers which 
contain both stamens and pistils within 
the same envelope. [L. bis, twice, and 

BISHOP, bish'op, n. one of the higher 
clergy who has charge of a diocese ; 
also, one of the pieces in the game of 
chess, having its upper section carved 

into the shape of a mitre. [A.S. biseeop 
— L. episcopus — Gr. episkopos, an over* 
seer — epi, upon, skopeo, to view.] 

BISHOPRIC, bish'op-rik, n. the office and 
jurisdiction of a bishop : a diocese. [A.S. 
ric, dominion.] 

BISHOPSHIP, bish'up-ship, n. Same as 
BisHOPDOM or Bishopric. Milton. 

BISMUTH, biz'muth, n. a brittle metal of 
a reddish-white color used in the arts 
and in medicine. [Ger. bismuth, uriss- 
muth; orig. luik.] 

BISON, bi'son, n. a large wild animal like 
the bull, with shaggy hair and a fatty 
hump on its shoulders. [From L. and 
Gr. ; but prob. of Teutonic origin.] 

BISQUE, bisk, n. a species of unglazed 
porcelain, tzvice passed through the fur- 
nace. [Fr., from root of Biscuit. ] 

BISSEXTILE, bis-sext'il, n. leai)-year.— 
adj. pertaining to leap-year. [L. bis, 
twice, and sextus, sixth, so called be- 
cause in every fourth or leap year the 
sixth day before the calends of March, or 
the 24th February, was reckoned tivice.} 

BISTER, BISTRE, bis'ter, n. a broim color 
naade from the soot of wood. [Fr. ; orig. 

BISUIiPHATE, bl-std'fat, n., a doiible sul- 
phate. [L. bis, twice, and Sulphate.] 

BTT, bit, 71. a bite, a morsel : a small piece : 
the smallest degree : a small tool for bor- 
ing: the part of , the bridle which tiie 
horse holds in his mouth. — v.t. to put the 
bit in the mouth :—pr.p. bitt'ing ; pa.p. 
bitt'ed. [From Bite.] 

BITCH, bich, w. the female of the dog, 
wolf, and fox. [A.S. bicce. Ice. MkkiaT] 

BITE, bit, v.t. to seize or tear with the 
teeth : to sting or pain : to wound by 
reproach :—pa.i. bit ; pa.p. bit or bitt'en. 
— n. a grasp by the teeth : something 
bitten off: a mouthful. — n. Bit'ing. — 
«<^*. Bit'ing. [A.S. bitan ; Goth, beitan. 
Ice. bita, Gter. beissen ; akin to L. Jid-, 
Sans, bhid, to cleave.] 

BITHEISM, brthe-izm, n. a belief in the 
existence of two Gfods. [L. prefix bi, 
two, twice, and Theism.] 

BITTER, bit'er, v.t. to make bitter: to 
give a bitter taste to. " Would not 
horse-aloes bitter it (beer) as well?" — 
Dr. Wolcot. 

BITTER, bit'er, adj., biting or acrid to 
the taste : sharp : painful. — n. any sub- 
stance having a bitter taste. — adj. BlTT^- 
erish. — adv. Bitt'erly. — n. Bitterness. 

BITTERN, bit'ern, n. a bird of the heron 
family, said to have been named from 
the resemblance of its voice to the Zoav 
ing of a bull. [M.E. bittour—Yr. — ^Low 
L. butorius (pos, taunts).] 

BITTERS, bit'erz, n. a liquid prepared 
from bitter herbs or roots, and used as a 

BITUMEN, bi-tu'men, n. a name applied 
to various inflammable mineral sub- 
stances, as naphtha, petroleum, asphal- 
iiam.—adj. Brru'MiKOTO. [L.] 



BITUMENOID, bi-tu'-mi-noid, adj. {chem.) 
resembling bitumen. 

BIVALVE, bl'valv, n. an animal having a 
shell in two valves or parts, like the oy- 
ster : a seed-vessel of like kind. — adj. 
having two valves. — ac^'. BrvALViiLAR. 
[L. bis, tvdce, valva, a valve.] 

BiVOUAC, biv'oo-ak, n. the lying out all 
night of soldiers in the open air. — v.i. to 
pass the night in the open air :—pr.p. 
biv'ouacking ; pa.p. bivouacked. [Fr. 
— Ger. beiwachen, to watch beside— bet, 
by, wachen, to watch.] 

BI-WEEKLY, bl'wek'li, adj. properly, oc- 
curring once in two weeks, but in Eng. 
turice m every week. [L. bis, twice, and 

BIZARRE, bi-zar', adj. odd : fantastic : 
extravagant. [Fr. — Sp. bizarro, high- 

BLAB, blab, v.i. to talk much : to tell 
tales. — v.t. to tell what ought to be kept 
secret :—pr.p. blabb'ing ; pa.p. blabbed. 
[An imitative word, found in Dan. 
blabbre, Ger. plappem.] 

BLACK, blak, adj. of the darkest color ; 
without color : obscure : dismal : sullen : 
horrible. — n. black color : absence of 
color : a negro : mourning. — v.t. to 
make black : to soil or stain. — ax^'. 
Black'ish. — n. Black'ness. [A.S. bloc, 
blcee, black.] 

BLACKAMOOR, blak'a-moor, n., a black 
Moor : a negro. 

BLACK-ART, blak'-art, n. necromancy : 
magic. [Ace. to Trench, a translation 
of Low L. nigromantia, substituted 
erroneously for the Gr. necromanteia 
(see Necromancy), as if the first syl- 
lable had been L. niger, black.] 

BLACK-BACK, blak'-bak, n. the great 
black -backed gull (Larus marinus). 

BLACKBALL, blak'bawl, v.t. to reject in 
voting by putting a black ball into a 
ballet-box. [the bramble. 

BLACKBERRY, blaklier-i, n. the berry of 

BLACKBIRD, blak^erd, n. a species of 
thrush of a black color. 

BLACKBOARD, blak'bord, n. a board 
painted black, used in schools for writ- 
ing, forming figures, etc. 

BLACK-CATTLE, blak'-kat'l, n. oxen, 
bulls, and cows. 

BLACKCOCK, blak'kok, n. a species of 
grouse, common in the north of England 
and in Scotland. 

BLACK-CURRANT, blak'-kur'ant, n. a 
garden shrub with black fruit used in 
making preserves. 

BLACK-DEATH, blak'-deth, n. a name 
g^ven to the plague of the fourteenth 
century from the black spots which 
appeared on the skin. 

BLACKEN, blak'n, v.t. to make black : to 

BLACK-FLAG, blak'-flag, n. the flag of a 

£ irate, from its color. 
^CKFRIAR, blak'frl-ar, n. a friar of the. 

Dominican order, so called from his 
black garments. 

BLACK-FRIDAY, blak'-fri'-da, n. any day 
on which public disaster has occurred, 
esp. Friday: so-called in England from 
Friday, Dec. 6, 1745, when the news 
reached London that the Pretender had 
landed. In the United States from two 
Fridays on which financial panics began, 
Sept. 24, 1869, and Sept. 18, 1873. 

BLACKGUARD, blag'ard, n. (orig. appUed 
to the lowest menials about a court, who 
took charge of the pots, kettles, etc.) a 
low, ill-conducted fellow. — adj. low : 
scurrilous. — n. Black'guardism. 

BLACK-HEART, blak'-hart, n. a species of 
cherry of many varieties, so called from 
the fruit being heart-shaped and having 
a skin nearly black. 

The unnetted black-hearts ripen dark, 

All thine, against the garden wsM.— Tennyson. 

BLACKING, blaVing, n. a substance used 

for blacking leather, etc. 
BLACKLEAD, blak-led', n. a black mineral 

used in making pencils, blacking grates, 

BLACKLEG, blak'leg, n. a low gambling 

BLACK-LETTER, blak'-let'er, n. the old 

EngUsh (also called Gothic) letter 


BLACKMAIL, blak'mal, n. rent or tribute 
formerly paid to robbers for protection. 

BLACK-ROD, blak'-rod, n. the usher of 
the order of the Garter and of parlia- 
ment, so called from the black rod which 
he carries. 

BLACKSMITH, blak'smith, n. a smith 
who works in iron, as opposed to one who 
works in tin. 

BLACKTHORN, blak'thorn, n. a species of 
dark-colored thorn : the sloe. 

BLADDER, blad'er, n. a thin bag distended 
with liquid or air : the receptacle for the 
urine. [A.S. blcedr — blawan ; O. Qer. 
blahan, blajan, to blow ; Ger. blase, 
bladder — blasen, to blow ; cf. L. flat-^us, 

BLADE, blad, n. the leaf or flat part of 
grass or corn : the cutting part of a 
knife, sword, etc. : the flat part of an 
oar : a dashing fellow. [A.S. bleed ; Ice. 
blad, Ger. blatt.'\ 

BLADED, blad'edf, adj. furnished with a 
blade or blades. 

BLAIN, blan, n. a boil or blister. [A.S. 
blegen, a blister, prob. irom blawan, to 

BLAMABLE, blam'a-bl, aob'. deserving of 
blame: faulty. — adv. Blam'ably. — n. 

BLAME, blam, v.t. to find fault with : to 
censure. — n. imputation of a faiilt : 
crime : censure. [Fr. bldmer, blasmer — 
Gr. bla^hemeo, to speak ill. See 

BLAMEFUL, blam'fool, adj. meriting 
blame : criminal. — adv. Blame'fully. — 
n. Blame'fulness. 



BLAMELESS, blamles, adj. without 
blame : guiltless : innocent. — adv. 
Blame'lessLiY. — n. &^ajie'lesswe8S. 

BLAMEWORTHY, blam'wur-<M, a^'. 
worthy of blame : culpable. 

BLANC, blank, adj., vmite. [A fom of 

BLANCH, blansh, v.t. to whiten. — v.i. to 
grow white, [Fr. blanchir — blanc, white. 
See Blank.] 

BLANC-MANGE, bla-mawngzh', n. a 
white jelly prepared with milk. [Fr. 
blanc, whi£e, manger, food.] 

BLAND, bland, adj., smooth : gentle : 
mild. — adv. Bland'ly. — n. Blani/ness. 
[L. blandus, perh.=mZa(n)dus=.E. mtZd.] 

BLANDISHMENT, bland'ish-ment, n. act 
of expressing fondness : flatten'^ : win- 
ning expressions or actions. [Fr. blan- 
dissement, O. Fr. blandir, to natter — L. 
blandus, mild.] 

BLANK, blank, v.t. to make pale, and so 

BLANK, blangk, adj. without writing or 
marks, as in tohite paper : empty : vacant, 
confused : in poetry, not having rhyme. 
— n. a paper without writing: a ticket 
having no mark, and therefore valueless : 
an empty space. — adv. Blank'ly. — n. 
Blank'ness. [Fr. blanc, from root of 
Ger. blinken, to glitter — O. H. Ger. 
Nichen, Gr. phlegein, to shine.] 

BLANK-CARTRIDGE, blangk'-kar'trij, n. 
a cartridge without a bullet. 

BLANKET, blangk'et, n. a white woollen 
covering for beds : a covering for horses, 
etc. [Ft. blanchet, dim. of oZawc, from 
its usual white color.] 

BLANKETING, blangk'et-ing, n. cloth for 
blankets : the punishment of being tossed 
in a blanket. 

BLANK-VERSE, blangk^-vers, n. verse 
without rhyme, especially the heroic 
verse of five feet. 

BLARE, blar, v.t. to roar, to sound loudly, 
as a trumpet. — n. roar, noise. [M.E. 
blaren, orig. blasen, from A.S. blcesan, to 
blow See Blast 1 

BLASPHEME, bias-fem', v.t. and v.i. to 
speak impiously of, as of Qod : to curse 
and swear. — n. Blasphem'er. [Gr. blaa- 
phemeo — blapto, to hurt, pfiemi, to speak. 
See Blame.] 

BLASPHEMOUS, blas'fem-us, adj. con- 
taining blasphemy: impious. — adv. Blas'- 

BLASPHEMY, blas'fem-i, n. profane speak- 
ing : contempt or indignity offered to 

BLAST, blast, n., a blowing or gust of 
wind : a forcible stream of air : sound of 
a wind instrument : an explosion of gun- 
powder : anything pernicious. — v.t. to 
strike with some pernicious influence, to 
' blight : to affect with sudden violence or 
calamity : to rend asunder with gun- 
powder. [A.S. blcest — blcesan, to blow ; 
Grer. blasen. I 

BLAST-FUKsACE. blast'-fur'nas, n. a 

smelting furnace into which hot air is 

BLASTIDE, blas'tid, n. in biol. a minute 
clear space on the segments of the fecun- 
dated ovum of an organism, which is 
the primary indication of the cytoblast 
or nucleus. [Gr. blastos, a germ, and 
eidos, resemblance.] 

BLASTING, blast'ing, n. the separating of 
masses of stone by means of an explosive , 

BLASTOGENESIS, blas-to-jen'e-sis, n. in 
biol. reproduction by gemmation or 
budding. [Gr. blastos, a germ, and 

£enesis, generation.] 
ASTOMERE, blas'to-mer, n. in biol. a 
portion of fecundated protoplasm which 
divides from other pguiis of the ovum 
after impregnation, and may remain 
united as a single cell-aggregate, or some 
or all of which may oecoBoe s^jarat^ 
organisms. [Gr. blastos, a gean, and 
merog, a portion.] 

BLASTOSPHERE, blas'to-sfer, n. in bioL 
the aoUow globe or sphere ori^natiDg 
from the formation of blastomerea on the 
periphery of an impregnated ovum. 

BLASTOSTYLE, blas'to-stll, n. a term ap- 
plied by Prof. Alltnan to certain column- 
shaped zooids in the Hydrozoa which are 
destined to produce generative buds. [Gr, 
blastos, a germ, and stylos, a column.J 

BLATANT, blat'ant, a4j., bleating or bel- 
lowing : noisy. [A.S. blcetan, to bleat.] 

BLAZE, blaz, n. a rush of light or of 
flame ; a bursting out or active display. 
— v.i. to burn with a flame : to throw 
out light. [A.S. blcesej a torch, from 
root of Blow.] 

BLAZE, blaz, BLAZON, bla'zn, v.t. to 
proclaim, to spread abroad. — ^To Blaze A 
TREE, to make a white mark by cutting 
off a pi-^ce of the bark. [Same as Blare : 
Blazon is the M. E. blasen^ with the n 

BLAZER, bla'-zer, n. something glowing 
with flame or heat: a jacket of gaudy 
colors worn in cricket or tennis: the dish 
directly over the flame of a chafing-dish 
or the coals of a brazier. 

BLAZON, bla'zn, v.t. to make public : to 
display : to draw or to explain in proper 
terms, the figures, etc., in armoriau bear- 
ings. — n. the science or rules of coats of 
arms. £Fr. blason, a coat of arms, from 
root of Blaze.] 

BLAZONRY, bla'zn-ri, «. the art of draw- 
ing or of deciphering coats of arms: 

BLEACH, blech, v.t. to make pale or 
white : to whiten, as textile fabrics. — v.i, 
to grow white, f A.S. bladant to grow 
pale, from root or Bleak.] 

BLEACHER, blech'er, n. one who bleaches, 
or that which bleaches. 

BLEACHERY, blech'er-i, n. a pla^e for 
• bleaching. 

BLEACHING, blech'ing, n. the process of 
whitening or decolorizing clotho 



BLEAK, blek, adj. colorless: dull and 
cheerless : cold, unsheltered. — adv. 
Bleak'ly.— n. Bleak'ness. [A.S. 6feec, 
hl&c, pale, shining' ; a different word from 
hlac (without accent), black. The root is 
blican, to shine.] 

BLEAK, blek, n. a small white river-fish. 

BLEAJR, bier, adj. (as in Bt.kar-eyed, bler'- 
Id) sore or inflamed : dim or blurred with 
inflammation. [Low Grer. bleer-oged, 

■ " blear-eyed."] 

BLEAT, blet, v.i. to cry as a sheep. — n. the 
cry of a sheep. [A-S. blcetan ; L. halare, 
Gr. bleche, a bleating' ; root bla-; formed 
from the sound.] 

BLEATING, blet'ing, n. the cry of a sheep. 

BLEED, bled, v.i. to lose blood : to die by 
slaughter : to issue forth or drop as 
blood. — v.t. to draw blood from : — pa.t. 
and pa.p. bled. [A.S. bledan. See Blood.] 

BLEEDING, bledring, n. a discharge of 
blood : the operation of letting blood. 

BLEMISH, blem'ish, n. a stain or defect : 
reproach. — v.t. to mark with any deform- 
ity : to tarnish : to defame. [Fr. blSme, 
pale, O. Ft. blesmir, to stain— Ice. bid- 
man, livid color — bldr. Blue.] 

BLENCH, blensh, v.i. to shrink or start 
back : to flinch. [From root of Blink.] 

BLEND, blend, v.t., to mix together: to 
confound. — v.i. to be mingled or mixed : 
— ^.2>. blend'ed and blent. — n. Blend, a 
mixture. [A.S. blandan.l 

BLEPHARIS, blef ar-is, n. a genus of fishes 
allied to the mackerel and the dory, and 
including the hair-finned dory (B. crini- 
tus), a fish found on the Atlantic shores 
of North America. [Gr. blepharis, an 
eyelash, referring to the long filaments 
proceeding from the fins.] 

BLESS, bles, v.t. to invoke a blessing 
upon : to make joyous, happy, or pros- 
peroue . to msh happiness to ; to praise 
or glorify :—pa.p. blessed' at blest. rA.S. 
blesgian, bleisian, to bless; from olith- 
sian or blissian, to be blithe— &2t^^, 
happy ; or from blotan, to kill for sacri- 
fice, to consecrate.] 

BLESSED, bles'ed, adj. happy : prosper- 
ous : happy in heaven. — adv. Bless'- 
EDLY. — re. Bless'edness. 

BLESSING, bles'ing, n. a wish or prayer 
for happiness or success : any means or 
cause of happiness. 

BLEST, blest, pa.p. of Bless. 

BLEW, bloo, pa.t. of Blow. 

BLIGHT, bllt, n. a disease in plants, which 
blasts or withers them ; anything that 
injures or destroys. — v.t. to affect with 
blight : to blast : to frustrate. [Perh. 
from A.S. blcEC, pale, livid.] 

BLIND, blind, adj. without sight : dark : 
ignorant or undiscerning : ■without an 
opening. — n. something' to mislead : a 
window-screen : a shade. — v.t. to make 
blind : to darken, obscure, or deceive : to 
dazzle. — adv. Blend'ly. — re. Blind'ness. 

[A,S. blind ; Ice. blindr."] 
BLINDFOLD. bllnd'fOld, adj. 

having the 

eyes bandaged, so as not to see : thought- 
less : reckless. — v.t. to cover the eyes : to 
mislead. VUL E. blindfellen, from A.S. 
I fyllan, fellan, to fell or strike down — 
•' struck blind ; " not conn. with/oW.] 

BLINDWORM, blind' wurm, n. a small rep- 
tile, like a snake, having eyes so sm^ 
as to be supposed blind. 

BLINK, blingk, v.i. to glance, twinkle, or 
•wink ; to see obscurely, or with the eyes 
half closed. — v.t. to shut out of sigh'u : to 
avoid or evade. — re. a gUmpse, glance, or 
wnk. [A.S. blican, to ghtter ; Dut. 

BLINKARD, blingk'ard, n. one who blinks 
or has bad eyes. 

BLINKERS, blingk'erz, n. pieces of leathw 
on a horse's bridle which prevent birn 
seeing on the side. 

BLISS, blis, n. the highest happiness. [A,/ 
S. blis — blithsian, blissian, to rejoice — ' 
blithe, joyful.] 

BLISSFUL, blis'fool, adj. happy in the 
highest degree. — adv. Bliss'fully. — n. 

BLISTER, blis'ter, n. a thin bubble or blad- 
der on the skin, containing watery mat- 
ter : a pustule : a plaster applied to raise 
a blister. — v.t. to raise a blister. [Dim. 
of Blast.] 

BLISTERY, bhs'ter-i, adj. full of blisters. 

BLITHE, hlith, adj. happy : gay : Hprightly. 
—adv. Blithe'ly.— re. Blithe'ness. [A. 
S. blithe, joyful. See Bliss.] 

BLITHESOME, bliffe'sum, o^'. joyous.— 
adv. Buthe'somely. — «. Blithe'somb- 


BLOAT, blot, v.t. to swell or puff out : to 
dry by smoke (applied to fish). — v.i. to 
swell or dilate : to grow turgid.— p.adj. 
Bloat'ed. [Scan., as in Sw. biota, to 
soak, to steep — blot, soft.] 

BLOATER, blot'er, n, a herring partially 
dried in smoke. 

BLOCK, blok, n. an unshaped mass of 
wood or stone, etc. : the wood on which 
criminals are beheaded : (mech.) a pulley 
together with its framework : a piece of 
wood on which something is formed : a 
connected group of houses : an obstruc- 
tion : a blockhead. — v.t. to inclose or 
shut up : to obstruct : to shape. [Widely 
cpread, but ace. to Skeat, of Celt, orig., 
Gael, ploc, O. Ir. blog, a fragment. See 

BLOCKADE, blok-ad', n. the blocking up 
of a place by surrounding it with troops 
or by ships. — v.t. to block up by troops 
or sliips. 

BLOCKHEAD, blokTied, n. one with a 
head like a block, a stupid fellow. 

BLOCKHOUSE. blokTiows, n. a smaU tem^ 
porary fort generally made of logs. 

BLOCKISH, blok'ish, a(Hf. hke a block: 
stupid : dull. 

BLOCK-TIN, blok'-tin, n. tin in the form 
of blocks or ingots. 

BLONDE, blond, n. a person of fair com* 
plexion with l^ht hair and blue eyes ^— 



•cpp. to Bkdkette. — CK^. at a fair ccnt> 
plexioD : fair. rFr-l 

BLOND-LACE, blond'-las, n. lace Boade of 
silk, so called from its color. 

BLONDNESS, hlond'nes, «. the state of 
being blond : fairness. " With this in- 
fantine hlondtiesa showing' so much rea^y 
self-possessed grace." — Oeorge Eliot. 

BLOOD, blud, n. the red fluid in the arter- 
ies and veins of men and animals : kin- 
dred, descent : temperament : bloodshed 
or murder : the juice of anything, eap. if 
j*ed^ — Isi HOT OB cou) BLOOD, Under, or 
free from, excitement or sudden passion. 
— ^Hajlf-bIjOOD, relationship through one 
parent only. [A.S. hlod — ^root hlowan, to 
bloom ; cog, with O. Fris. Hod, Ger. 

BLOODHEA!n, blud'het, n. heat of the 
same degree as that of the human blood 
(about 98° Fahr.) 

BLOODHOESE, blud'hors, n. a horse of 
the purest and most highly prized blood, 
origin, or stock ; called also blooded 
horse. (Amer.) 

BLOODGUILTLESS, blud'gilt-les, a^ 
free from the guilt or crime of shedding 
blood, or murder. Walpole. 

BLOODHOUND, blud'hownd, n. a large 
hound formerly employed in tracking 
human beings : a blood-thirsty person. 

BLOODSHED, blud'shed, n. the shedding 
of blood : slaughter. 

BLOODSHOT, blud'shot, cudj. (of the eyej 
red or inflamed with blood. 

BLOODY, blud'i, adj. stained with blood: 
murderous, cruel. 

BLOODY-FLUX, blud'i-fluks, w. dys^-. 
tery, in which thst discharges from the 
bowels are mixed with blood. 

BLOODY-SWEAT, blud'i-swet, n. a sweat 
accompanied with the discharge of blood. 

BLOOM, bloom, v.i. to put forth blossoms : 
to flower : to be in a state of beauty or 
vigor : to flourish. — «. a blossom or 
flower: the opening of flowers: rosy 
color: the prime or highest perfection of 
anything.— ^p.acy. Bijoom'ing. [Ice. bZdm, 
Goth, bloma, from root of A.S. blSwan, 
to bloom, akin to lujlo-reo^ to flower.] 

BLOOM, bloom, v.L to produce in full 
bloom, or beauty. 

BLOOMY, bloom-i. adj. flowery : flounah" 

BLOSSOM, blos'om, n. a flower-bud, the 
flower that prec^les fruit. — v.i. to put 
forth blossoms or flowers : to flourish 
and prosper. [A.S. blostmOt from root 
of Bloom.] 

BLOT, blot, n. a spotor stain : an oblitera- 
tion, as of eomething written : a stain in 
reputation. — v.L to spot or stain : to ob- 
literate or destroy to dis^ace :—pr.p. 
hlott'ing ; pa.p. blott'ed. [Scand., as m 
Dan. plet. Ice. blettr^ a spot. Cf. Ger. 
platsch, a splash, and Ice. blautr, moist ; 
L. fluid^us.} 

BLOTCH, bloch, n. a dark spot on the sldn ; 
% pustule. — OK^ Blotched'. [Acc. to 

Skeat, blotch=blatch, from black, aa 
bleach from btectk.'] 

BLOTTING-PAPER, blot'ing-pa'per, n= 
unsized paper, used for absorbing ink. 

BLOUSE, blowz, n. a loose outer garment 

BLOTJSED, blowzed, jj. and ac^'. wearing & 
blouse. " A bloused and bearded French 
man or two." — Kingsley. 

BLOW, bl5, tu a stroke or kBock :; a stm 
laen misfortune or calamity. [A.S. bleo~ 
van is doubtful ; found in Dut. blouwen, 
to dress (beat) flax, Ger. blduen, to beat 
hard, an^. L. Jlig- in Inflict, Flagella.- 
TION. Derivative Blxte.] 

BLOW, bio, v.i. to bloom or blossom : — 
pr.p. Wow'ing ; pa.p. blown. [A.!^ 
otowan, Ger. bluhen. See Bloom, Blos 

SSJJW, bl6, v.i. to produce a current of 
air : to move, as air or the wind. — v.t. to 
drive air upon or into : to drive by a cur- 
rent of air : to sound as a wind instru- 
ment :—pa.t. blew (bloo) ; pa.p. blown. — 
Blow upon, to taint, to make stale. 
rA.S. blawan ; Ger. bldhen, blasen ; L. 

BLOWPIPE, blO'pIp, n. a pipe through 
which a current of air is blown on a 
flame, to increase its heat. 

BLOWN, blon, p.adj. out of breath, tired : 
swelled : stale, worthless. 

BLOWZEi blowz, n. a ruddy, fat-faced 
woman. — adjs. Rlowzed', Blowz'y, rud- 
dy, or flushed with exercise. [From root 
of Plubh.] 

BLUBBEE. blub'er, n. the fat of whales 
anti other sea animals. — v.i. to weep in a 
nou3y manner. [Blttbbeb, Bla3EE3^ etc^ 
Kre extensions of bleh, blob ; they con- 
tarn the root idea of "puffed-up," and 
a<*e formed in unitation of the sound of 
tio e bub bling or foanyng of a liquid. 1 

BLUCHER, biooch-er, n. a strong leather 
shoe, named after Marshal Blueher, the 
Prussian general. 

KLODGEON, blud'jim, n, a short stick 
with a heavy end to strike with- [From 
root of Block.] 

BLUE, bl5o, n. the color of the sky when 
unclouded : one of the seven primary 
colors. — adj. of the color blue.— n. Blue - 
NBSS. [Found in Ice. Vlar, cog.^ with 
Ger. blau ; originally meaning livid, the 
c olor ca used by a Blow.] 

BLUEBELL, bloolbel, n. a plant that 
bear s blue bell-shaped flowers. 

BLTJEBOOK, bloo'book, n. a book contain- 
ing some official statement, so called 
from its blue cover. 

KLUTE-BOTTLE, bloo'-botl, w. a plant 
with blue bottle-shaped flowers that 
grow s among com : a large blue fly. 

BLUE-JACKET, bloo'-jak'et, n. a seaman, 
as distinguished from a marine. 

BLU«i-STOCKING, bloo'-stok'ing, n. a lit- 
erary lady : applied in Dr. Johnson's time 
to meetings held by ladies for conversa- 
tion with certain Kterary men, one of 
whom always wore blue stockings. 



SLUFF, bluf, adj. blustering : outspoken : 
ste ep. — n. Bluff'ness. rProb. Dut.] 

BLUFF, bluf, n. a high steep bank over- 
looking the sea or a river. 

BLUISH, bloo'ish, adj. slightly blue.— n. 


BLUNDER, blun'der, v.i. to make a gross 
mistake, to flounder about. — n. a gross 
mistake. [From root of Blunt.] 

BLUNDERBUSS, blun'der-bus, n. a short 
hand-gun, with a wide bore. [C!orr. of 
Dut. donderbus — donder, thunder, btis, a 
box, barrel of a gun, a gun ; Ger. donner- 

BLUNT, blunt, adj. having a dull edge or 

Joint : rough, outspoken, dull. — v.t. to 
ull the edge or point : to weaken. — adj. 
Blunt'ish. — adv. Blunt'ly. — n. Blunt'- 
NESS. rOrig. sleepy, dull ; Dan. blundCf 
to slumoer, akin to Blind.] 
BLUR, blur, n. a blot, stain, or spot. — v.t. 
to blot, stain, obscure, or blemish :— 
pr.p. blurr'ing ; pa.p. blurred'. [A vari- 
ety of Bleak.] 

(BLURT, blurt, v.t. to utter suddenly or 
unadvisedly. [From Blare.] 

BLUSH, blush, n. a red glow on the face 
caused by shame, modesty, etc. : any 
reddish color : sudden appearance. — v.t. 
to show shame or confusion by growing 
red in the face : to grow red. rA.S. 
blyae, a blaze. See Bl;^, Blowze.] 

BLUSTER, blus'ter, v.i. to make a noise 
like a blast of wind : to bully or swagger. 
— n. a blast or roaring as of the wind : 
bullying or boasting language. [An 
aiigmentative of Blast.] 

BLUBTERY, blus'ter-i, adj. blustering: 
blusterous : raging : noisy. " A hollow, 
blustery, pusillanimous, and unsound one 
(character). " — Carlyle. 

BO, bo, int. a word used to frighten 

BOA, bo'a, n. a genus of serpents, which 
includes the largest species of serpents, 
the Boa-constrictor: a long serpent- 
like piece of fur worn round the neck by 
ladies. [Perh. conn, with L. bos, an ox.] 

BOAR, b5r, n. the male of swine. [A.S. 

BOARD, bSrd, n. a broad and thin strip of 
timber : a table to put food on : fooa : a 
table round which persons meet for some 
kind of business : any council or author- 
ized body of men, as a school board : 
the deck of a ship. — On Board, in U. S., 
same as Aboard. — v.t, to cover with 
boards : to supply with food at fixed 
terms : to enter a ship : to attack. — v.t. 
to receive food or take meals. [A.S. 
bord, a board, the side of a ship ; Ice. 
bord, the side of a ship ; found also in 
Celt. ; conn, either with Bear or with 

BOARDER, bord'er, n. one who receives 
board (food) : one who boards a ship. 

BOARDING, bord'ing, n. the act of cover- 
ing with boards : the covering itself : act 
of boarding a ship. 

BOARDING-SCHOOL, bord'ing-skool, n. 
a school in which board is given as well 
as instruction. 

BOARD-WAGES, bdrd'-waj'ez, n. wages 
allowed to servants to keep themselves 
in food. 

BOAST, b5st, v.i. to talk vaingloriously : to 
brag. — v.t. to brag of : speak proudly or 
confidently of : to magnify or exalt one's 
self. — n. an expression of pride : a brag : 
the cause of boasting. [M.E. 6os<— W. 
bost, Gael , bosd, a bragging.] 

BOASTFUL, bost'fool, a(^\ given to biag. 
— adv. Boast'fully. — n. Boast'fulniss. 

BOASTING, bost'ing, n. ostentatious dis- 
play : vaunting. 

BOAT, hot, n. small oi>en vessel usually 
moved by oars : a small ship. — v.i. to go 
in a boat. [A.S. bat; Dut. boot; Fr. 
bat-eau ; Grael. bata.] 

BOATABLE, bot'a-bl, adj. capable of being 
navigated with boats. (Amer.) 

BOATHOOK, bot'hook, n. an iron hook 
fixed to a pole used for pulling or push- 
ing off a boat. 

BOATING, bot'ing, n, the art or practice 
of sailing in boats. 

BOATMAN, bot'man, n. a man who has 
charge of a boat : a rower. 

n. a petty officer on board ship who loola 
after the boats, rigging, etc., and calls 
the seamen to duty. [{Lit.) a boat's swain 
or servant. From A.S. b&tswdn — bat, a 
boat, swan, a lad.] 

BOB, bob, v.i. to move quickly up and 
down, to dangle : to fish with a bob. — 
v.t. to move in a short jerking manner : 
—pr.p. bobb'ing; pa.p. bobbed'.— w. a 
short jerking motion : a sHght blow : 
anything that moves with a bob or 
swing : a pndant. [Perhaps imitative, 
like Gael, bog, to agitate, babag, baban, 


on which thread is wound. 

BOBBINET, bob-in-et' or bob'in-et, n. a 
kind of fine netted lace made by ma. 

BOBOLINK, bob'o-lingk, n. a North Ameri- 
can singing bird, found in the northern 
states in spring and summer. [At first 
Bob Lincoln, from the note of the bird.} 

BOB-SLED, bob'-sled, n. a sled for the 
- transportation of large timber from the 
forest to a river or public road : also a 
farmer's road sled. (Amer.) 

BOBWIG, bob'wig, n. a short wig. 

BOCK-BEER, BOCK-BIER, bok'ber, n. 
a double strong variety of lager-beer, 
darker in color than the ordinary kinds, 
less bitter in taste, and considerably 
more intoxicating. [Gr. bock-bier, bucK 
or goat beer, so called, it is said, from 
making its consumers prance and tum- 
ble about hke a buck or a goat.] 

BOCKING, bok'ing, n. a kind of baize or 
woollen cloth, used to cover a floor or to 
protect carpets. (Amer.) 

a tassel. 
BOBBIN, bob'in, n. a small piece of wood 



BODE, b5d, v.t. to portend or prophesy. — 
vA. to be an omen : to foreshow. [A.S. 
bodian, to announce — bod, a message ; 
alhed to Bid.] 

BODEGrA, bo-da'-ga, n. a wine shop in 
Spain or countries colonized by Spain. 

BODETTE, bo-det', n. a cot bedstead. 

BODICE, bod'is, n. a woman's stays, for- 
merly called bodies, from fitting close to 
the body. 

BODIED, bod'id, adj. having a body. 

BODILESS, bod'i-les, adj. without a body : 

BODILY, bod'i-ly, adj. relating to the body, 
esp. as opposed to the mind. 

BODKIN, bod'kin, n., a small dagger: a 
small instrument for pricking holes or 
for dressing the hair : a large blunt 
needle. [Prob. W. bidog.] 

BODY, bod i, n. the whole frame of a man 
or lower animal : the main part of an 
animal, as distinguished from the limbs : 
the main part of anything : matter, as 
opposed to spirit : a mass : a person : a 
number of persons united by some com- 
mon tie. — v.t. to give form to : to em- 
body :—pr.p. bod'ying ; pa.p. bod'ied. 
|A.S. bodig.] 

BODYGUARD, bod'i-gard, n. a guard to 
protect the person, esp. of the sovereign. 

BODY-POLITIC, bod'i-pol'it-ik, n. the col- 
lective body of the people in its political 

BCEOTIAN, be-o'shyan, ac^'. pertaining to 
Boeotia in Greece, noted for the dullness 
of its inhabitants : hence, stupid, dull. 

BOG, bog, n. soft ground : a marsh or cmag- 
mire.— adj. Booa'Y. [Ir. bogach; Gael. 

BOGGLE, bogl, v.i. to stop or hesitate, as 
if at a bogle : to make difficulties about a 
thing- ; also to embarrass. (Amer.) 

BOGIE-ENGINE, bo'-gy, n. a railroad 
switching engine having the running or 
driving gear on a truck called the bogie. 

BOGLE, bogl, n. a spectre or goblin, 
[Scot, bogle, a ghost ; w. bwg, a goblin. 
See Bug.] 

BOGMOSS, bog'mos, n. a genus of moss 

BOGUS, bo'gus, adj. counterfeit, spurious. 
[An Amer, cant word, of very doubtful 

BOGY, BOGEY, BOGIE, b6'-gy, n. a spectre; 
a frightful phantom: a bugbear: a hob- 
goblin: anything intended to frighten. 
In golf, the score or number of strokes 
for each hole: — pi. Bogies, bo'-giz. 

BOHEA, bo-he', n. the lowest quality o3 
black tea. [Chinese.] 

BOHEMIAN, bo-he'mi-an, n. and adj. ap= 

Elied to persons of loose and irregulair 
abits. — n. Bohe'miaijism. [Fr. bohe-^ 
mien, a g:ipsy, from the belief that thes® 
wanderers came from Bohemia.] 
BOHIO, bo-e'-o, n. the thatched huts is 
which negroes live in the West Indief. 


BOIL, boil, v.i., to btibble up from the action 
of heat : to be hot : to be excited or agi- 
tated. — v.t. to heat to a boiling state : 
to cook or dress by boiling. — BonJNGh 
POINT, the temperature at which liquid* 
begin to boil under heat. [O. Fr. boUir 
— ^L. bullire — bulla, a bubbler] 

BOIL, boil, n. an inflamed swelling off 
tumor. [A.S. byl; Ger. beule; Ice. bolOf-^ 
from the root of Bulge.] 

BOILER, boil'er, n. one who boils : that ia 
which anything is boiled. 

BOISTEROUS, bois'ter-us, adj., wild: 
noisy : turbulent : stormy. — adv. Bois'- 
TEROUSLY. — n. Bois'terousness. 

BOISTEROUS, bois'ter-us, adj. strong. 

BOLD, bold, adj. daring or courageous : 
forward or impudent : executed with 
spirit : striking to the sight : steep or 
abrupt. — adv. BoiiD'LY. — n. Bold'ness.— 
To make bold, to take the liberty, to 
make free. [A.S. bald; O. Grer. paid; 
O. Fr. bawd, Goth, balths. Ice. ballr.] 

BOLE, bol, n., the round stem or body of a 
tree. [Ice. bolr, from its round form. 
Conn, with BowL, a cup. Bulge, Boil, a 
swelling, and Bag.] 

BOLERO, bo-la'-ro, n. a lively Spanish 
dance, or its musical accompaniment: a 
small jacket, or outer coat, worn by 
women. [Sp.] 

BOLL, b51, n. one of the round heads or 
seed-vessels of flax, poppy, etc. : a pod 
or capsule : a Scotch dry measure = six 
imperial bushels, not now legally in use. 
[A form of Bowl, a cup, and sig. "thing 

BOLLED, bold, swollen : podded. [Pa.p. 
of M.E. bollen, to swell.] 

BOLO, bo'-lo, n. a large knife or short 
sword used by the natives of the Philip- 
pine Islands. It resembles the machete 
used in Cuba. 

BOLSTER, bol-ster, n. a long round pillow, 
or cushion : a pad. — v.t. to support with 
a bolster: to hold up. [A.S. bolster; 
from root of Bowl.] 

BOLT, bolt, n. a bar or pin used to fasten 
a door, etc. ; an arrow ; a thunderbolt. 
— v.t. to fasten with a bolt : to throw or 
utter precipitately : to swallow hastily. 
— v.i. to rush away (like a bolt from a 
bow) : to start off suddenly, said origi- 
nally of a horse starting from his course, 
afterwards applied to politicians who sud- 
denly desert their party : as to bolt the 
nomination of a.n objectionable candi- 
date. [A.S. and Dan. bolt, G«r. bolzen; 
from root of Bole, of a tree.] 

BOLT, bolt, v.i. to sift, to separate the 
bran from, as flour : to examine by sift- 
ing : to sift through coarse cloth. fO. Fr. 
butter, or buleter^bureter — from bure— 
IjOw L. burra, a coarse reddish-brown 
cloth — Gr. pyrros, reddish— j>^r=FiRE.] 

rOLTING-HUTCH, bolt'ing-huch, n. a 
\u( h or large box into which flour 
''w*^J when it is bolted. 



BOLT-UPRIGHT, b61t'-up-rif , adv. up- 
right and straight as a bolt or arrow. 

BOLUS, bo'lus, n. a rounded maBs of any- 
thing : a large pilL [L bolus, Qr. bolos, 
a lump.] 

BOMAREA, bo-ma're-a, n. a genus of tuna- 
ryllidaceous twining plants, natives of 
South America. 

BOMB, bum, n. a hollow shell of iron filled 
with gunpowder, and discharged from a 
mortar, so as to explode when it falls. 
[Fr. bombe — L. bombiis, Gr. bombos, a 
humming sound ; an imitative word.] 

BOMBARD, bum-bard', v.t. to attack with 
bombs. — n. Bokbard'mknt. — n. Bou- 


n. a twilled fabric of silk and worsted. 
[Fr. bombasin — ^Low L. bombcunnium — 
Gr. bombyx, silk. See Bombast.] 

BOMBAST, bum'bast, n. {prig.), cotton or 
any soft material used for stuffing gar- 
ments : inflated or high-sounding lan- 
guage. [Low L born^ax, cotton^Jr. 
uOfth(^ii2C silk 1 

BOMBASTIC, ' bum-bast'ik, a4}\ high- 
sounding : inflated. 

BOMB-PROOF, bum'-pr66f, ac{j. proof or 
secure against the force of bombs. 

BOMB-YiraSEL, bum'-ves-el, n. a vessel 
for carrying the mortars used in bom* 
bardinp- from the sea. 

BON A- FIDE, b6'-na-fi'-de, adj. actual: real: 
without deceit: in or with good faith: 
gcnuiile. Bona-fides, bo'-na-fi'dez, n. hon- 
esty: good faith: without fraud. [L.] 

BONBON, bongT)ong, n. a sweetmeat. 
fFr.. " v ery g ood "—ban, good.l 

BONBONNIERE, bong-bong-yfir, n. a small, 
ornamental receptacle for bonbons. [Fr.] 
jOND, bona, a. that which binds, a band : 
link of connection or union : a writing 
of obligation to pay a sum or to perform 
a contract. — In bond, the state of being 
deposited or placed in a bonded ware- 
house or store :—pL imprisonment, cap- 
tivity. — adj. bound : in a state of servi- 
tude. — v.t. to put imported goods in the 
customs' warehouses till the duties on 
them are paid. rA.S. ; a variation of 
band — bindan, to bind.] 

BONDAGE, bond'aj, n. state of being 
bound : captivity : slavery. [O. Fr. — 
XiOw L bondagtum, a kind of tenure. 
Ace. to Skeat, this is from A.S. bonda, a 
boor, a householder, from Ice. bondU=' 
buandi, a tiller, a husbandman.] 

BONDED, bond'ed, p. oc^'. secured by bond, 
as duties. 

BONDING, bond'ing, n. that arrangement 
by which goods remain in the customs' 
warehouses till the duties are paid. 

BONDMAN, bond'mau, n. a man slave. — 
ns. Bond'maid, Bond'woman. 

BONDSMAN, bondz'man, n. a bondman or 
slave: a surety. 

BONE, bon, n. a hard substance forming 
the skeleton of an animal : a piece of the 
skeleton of an animal. — v. t. to take the 

bones out of, as meat. [A-S. ban ; (Jer. 
bein, Goth, bain, bone, 1^ ; W. bow, a 
stem or stock.] 

BONE- ASH, bon'-ash, n. the remains when 
bones are burned in an open furnace. 

BONE-BLACK, bon'-blak, n. the remains 
when bones are heated in a close vessel. 

BONE-CAVE, bon'-kav, n. a cave in which 
are found bones of extinct animals, some- 
times together with the bones of man or 
other traces of his contemporaneous ex- 

BONE-DUST, bon'-dust, n. ground or pul- 
verized bones, used in agriculture, for 
fertilizing the soil. 

BONE-GLUE, bon'-glu, n. an inferior kind 
of glue obtained from bones.] 

BONE-SETTER, bon'-set'er, n. one whose 
occupation is to set broken and dislocated 

BONFIRE, bon'fir, n. a lai^e fire in the 
open air on occasions of public rejoicings, 
etc. [Orig. a fire in which bones were 

BONITO, bo-ne'-to, adj. lovely: fine: ex- 
quisite: pretty: used in Southwestern 
United States and Spanish - American 
countries. [Sp. dim. of hueno, good.] 

BON-MOT, bong'-mo, n., a good or witty 
saying. [Fr. bon, good, mot, word.] 

BOKNE-BOUCHE, bon-boosh', n. a delic- 
ious mouthful. [Fr. bonne, good, bouche, 

BONNET, bon'et, n. a covering for the head 
wor n by women : a cap.— BoNN*- 
ETED. [Fr. — Low L. bonneta, orig. the 
name of a stuff.] 

BONNY, bon'i, adj. beautiful : handsome : 
gay. — adv. Bonn'ilt. [Fr. bon, bonne — 
L. bonus, good ; Celt, bain, baine, white, 

BONNY-CLABBER, bon'ni-klab'ber, n. 
thick milk from which the whey is 
drained to get the curds out. (Amer.) 

BONUS, bon'us, n. a premium beyond the 
usual interest for a loan : an extra divi- 
dend to shareholders. [L bonus, good.] 

BONY, bon'i, adj. full of, or consisting of, 

BONZE, bon'ze, n. a Buddhist priest. [Jap. 
bozu, a priest.] 

BOOBY, boob'i, n. a silly or stupid fellow: 
a water-bird, of the pelican tribe, remark- 
able for its apparent stupidity. JSp. bobo^ 
a dolt ; O. Fr. bobu, stupid. — L. balbus, 

BOOBYISM, bo'bi-izm, n. the state or qual- 
ity of being a booby : stupidity : foolish- 
ness. "Lamentable ignorance and booby- 
ism on the stage of a private theatre."— 

BOOK, book, n. a collection of sheets of 
paper bound together, either printed, 
written on, or blank : a literary composi- 
tion : a division of a volume or subject.— = 
v.t. to write in a book. [A.S. boc, a book, 
the beech ; Gter. buche, the beech, buck, 
a book, because the Teutons first wrote on 
beechen boards.] 



BOOK-CLUB, book'-klub, n. an association 
of persons who buy new books for circuc 
lation among themselves. 

BOOKING-CLERK, book'ing-klerk, n. the 
clerk or official who supplies passengers 
with tickets at a booking-office. 

BOOKISH, book'ish, adj. fond of books, ac- 
quainted only with books. — n. Book'ish- 

BOOK-KEEPING, book'-kep'ing, n. the 
art of keeping accounts in a regular and 
systematic manner. 

BOOK-LEARNING,book'-lern'ing,n. learn- 
ing got from books, as opposed to practi- 
cal knowledge. 

BOOKPLATE, book'plat, n. a label usually 
pasted inside the cover of a book, bearing 
the owner's name,crest,or peculiar device. 

BOOK-POST, book'-post, n. the depart- 
ment in the Post-office for the transmis- 
sion of books. 

BOOKWORM, book'wurm, n. a worm or 
mite that eats holes in books : a hard 
reader : one who reads without discrimi- 
nation or profit. 

BOOKWRIGHT, book'rit, n. a writer of 
books : an author : a term of slight con- 
tempt. Kingsley. 

BOOM, boom, n. a pole by which a sail is 
stretched : a chain or bar stretched across 
a harbor. [Dut. hoom, a beam, a tree.] 

BOOM, boom, v.i. to make a hollow sound 
or roar. — n. a hollow roar, as of the sea, 
the cry of the bittern, etc. [From a Low 
Ger. root found in A.S. hyme, a trumpet, 
Dut. bommen, to drum ; like Bomb, of 
imitative origin.] 

BOOMERANG,b6om'e-rang,n. a hard-wood 
missile used by the natives of Australia, 
shaped like the segment of a circle, and 
so made that when thrown to a distance 
it returns towards the thrower. (Aus- 
tralian.) Applied also to any scheme 
or plan which turns against its author. 

BOON, boon, n. a petition : a gift or favor, 

ilce. bdn, a prayer; A.S, ben.] 
ON, boon, adj. (as in boon companion) 
gay, merry or kind. [Fr. bon — L, bonus, 

BOOR, boor, n. a coarse or awkward per- 
son. [Dut. boer (Ger. bauer), a tiller of 
the soil — Dut. bouwen ; cog, with Ger. 
bauen, A.S. buan, to till.] 

BOORISH, boor'ish, adj. like a boor : awk- 
ward or rude. — adv. Boor'ishly. — n. 


BOOST, boost, v.t. to lift or push one up a 
tree or over a fence. (Amer.) 

BOOSTER, boost'-er, n. a device for raising 
the pressure or electromotive force, in 
an alternating-current circuit. 

BOOT, b5ot, n. a covering for the foot and 
lower part of the leg generally made of 
leather : an old instrument of torture for 
the legs : a box or receptacle in a coach i the servant in a hotel that cleans 
the boots. — v.t. to put on boots. [Fr, 
botte, a butt, or a boot, from O.Ger, buten, 
a cask. See Bottle, Butt.] 

BOOT, bo6t, v.t, to profit or advantage.— 
n. advantage : profit. — To Boot, in addi* 
tion. [A.S. bat, compensation, amends, 
whence betan, to amend, to make Bet- 

BOOTEE, boo-te', n. a boot without a top, 
or a shoe made like a boot without a leg. 

BOOTH, booth, n. a hut or temporary erec- 
tion formed of slight materials. [Ice. 
buth ; Ger. bwde ; also Slav, and Celt., 
as Gael, both, hut.] 

BOOTJACK, boot'jak, n. an instrument for 
taking off boots. [Boot and Jack.] 

BOOTLESS, boot'les, adj. without boot or 
profit; useless. — adv. BbOT'LESSLY, — n. 


BOOT-STOCKING, bot'stok-ing, n, a large 
stocking which covers the leg like a jack- 
boot, " His boot-stockings coming high 
above the knees." — Southey. 

BOOTY, boot'i, n. spoil taken in war or by 
force : plunder. [Ice. byti, share — byta, 
to divide,] 

BO-PEEP, bo-pep', n. a game among chil- 
dren in which one peeps from behind 
something and cries "Bo," 

BORACIC, bo-ras'ik, adj. of or relating to 
borax. — Boracic acid, an acid obtained 
by dissolving borax, and also found native 
in mineral springs in Italy. 

BORAX, bo'raks, n. a mineral salt used for 
soldering and also in medicine, [Fr, — Ar. 

BORDER, bord'er, n. the edge or margin of 
anything : the march or boundary of a 
country : a flower-bed in a garden, — v.i. 
to approach : to be adjacent. — v.t. to make 
or adorn with a border : to bound, [Fr, 
bord. bordure; from root of Board.] 

BORDEREAU, b6r-de-ro', n. a memoran- 
dum or list of documents: — pi. Bobde- 
BEATTX, b6r-de-r6'. [Fr.] 

BORDERER, bord'er-er, n. one who dwells 
on the border of a country, 

BORE, bor, v.t. to pierce so as to form a 
hole : to weary or annov, — n. a hole made 
by boring : the size of the cavity of a gun: 
a person or thing that wearies. [A.S, 
borian, to bore, from bor, a borer ; Ger. 
bohren; allied to L. foro, to bore, Gr. 
pharynx, the gullet.] 

BORE, bor, did bear, pa.t. of Bear. 

BORE, bor, n. a tidal flood which rushes 
with great force into the mouths of cer- 
tain rivers. [Ice. bdra, a wave or swell, 
from root of to Bear or lift.] 

BOREAL, b5're-al, adj. pertaining to the 
north or the north wind, 

BOREAS, bo're-as, n. the north wind, PL. 
and Gr.] ■• 

BORN, ha,wrn,pa.p. of Bear, to bring forth. 
— Not born in the woods to be scared 
BY AN OWL, too much used to danger to 
be easily frightened. (Amer.) 

BORNE, born, pa.p. of Bear, to carry. 

BOROGLYCERIDE, bo-ro-gli'se-rld, n. an 
antiseptic compound introduced by Prof. 
Barff, consisting of 92 parts of glycerine 



to 62 parts of boracic acid, to which is 
added, when used to preserve meat, 
oysters, millc, eggs,etc., about fifty times 
its weight in water. 

BOROUGH, bur'o,n. a town with a corpora- 
tion : a town that sends representatives 
- to parliament. Applied also to certain 
towns in Pennsylvania. [A.S. burg, burh, 
a city, from beorgan, Qer. bergen, to pro- 

BOROUGHMONGER, bar'6-mung'er,n. one 
who buys or sells the patronage of bor- 
oughs in Great Britain. 

BORROW, bor*©, v.t. to obtain on loan or 
trust : to adopt from a foreign source. — 
n.BoRE'owER. [A.8.borgian~borg, borh, 
a pledge, security; akin to BOROUGH, from 
the notion of security.] 

BOSCAGE, bosk'aj, n. thick foliage : Wood- 
land. [Fr. boscage, bocage — Low L. boscus 
(hence Fr. bois), conn, with Ger. busch, 
E. bush.] 

BOSH, bosh, n. used also as int., nonsense, 
foolish talk or opinions. j^Turk. bo^, 
worthless, frequent in Moner's popular 
novel Ayesha{18M).] 

BOSKY, bosk'ijOd/. woody or bushy: shady. 

BOSOM, booz'um, n. the breast of a human 
being,or the part of the dress which covers 
it : (^.)the seat of the passions and feel- 
ings : the heart : embrace, inclosure, as 
within the arms : any close or secret re- 
ceptacle. — adj. (in composition) confiden- 
tial : intimate. — v.t. to inclose in the 
bosom. [A.S. bosm, Qer. bu^n.] 

BOSS, bos, n. a knob or stud : a raised or- 
nament. — v.t. to ornament with bosses, 
[Fr. basse. It, bozza, a swelling, from O. 
Ger. bdzen, to beat.] 

BOSS, bos, n. a master, an employer of 
labor, a politician who holds control of 
large patronage and uses his influence for 
selfish and partisan purp>oses. Also a 
name for the buffalo among Western 
huntsmen. (Amer.) 

BOSSY, bos'i, adj. having bosses. 

BOTANIZE, bot'an-iz, v.i. to seek for and 
collect plants for study. 

BOTANIST, bot'an-ist, n. one skilled in 

BOTANY, bot'a-ni, n. the science of plants. 
— ad/.BOTAN'iC. — adu. Box AN'lCALLY. [Gr. 
botane, herb, plant — bosko, to feed, L. 
veseor, 1 feed myself; perh. cog. with 
A.S. woed.] 

BOTCH, boon, n., a swelling on the skin : a 
clumsy patch: ill-finished work. — v.t. to 
patch or mend clumsily : to put together 
unsuitably or unskillfully. [From root of 

BOTCHER, boch'er, n. one who botches. 

BOTCHY, boch'i, adj. marked with or full 
of botches. 

BOTH, both, adj. and pron., the tivo: the 
one and the other. — conj. as well : on the 
one side» [Ice. bathi, Qer. beide ; A.S. 
bd ; cf. L. am-bo, Gr. anv-pho, Sans, ubha, 
orig, avibha.\ 

BOTHER, boi/Per, v,t. Jo perplex or tease. 

BOTTLE, bot'l, n. a bundle of hay. [Dim. 
of Fr. botte, a bundle, from root of Boss ] 

BOTTLE,bot'l,7i.a hollow vessel for holding 
liquids : the contents of such a vessel. — 
v.t. to inclose in bottles. jTr. bouteUle, 
dim. of botte, a vessel for liquids'. From 
root of Boot, Butt.] 

BOTTLE-BELLIED, bot'1-bel-lid, adj. hav- 
ing a belly shaped like a bottle : having 
a swelling out prominent belly. " Some 
choleric, bottle-bellied, old spider." — W. 
Irvin g. 

BOTTLED, bot'ld,;. inclosed in bottles: 
shaped or protuberant like a bottle. 

BOTTLER, bot'ler, n. one who bottles : spe- 
cifically, one whose occupation it is to put 
liquors, as wine, spirits, ale, etc., into 
bottles, and sell the bottled liquor. 

BOTTOM, bot'um, n. the lowest part of any- 
thing : that on which anything rests or 
is founded : low land, as in a valley : the 
keel of a ship, hence the vessel itself. — 
v.t. to found or rest upon. — adj. BOTT'OM- 
usss. [A.S. botm ; Ger. boaen ; conn, 
with L. fundus, bottom, Gael.6ond, botOHf 
the sole.] 

BOTTOMRY, bot'um-ri, n. a contract by 
which money is borrowed on the security 
of a ship 'or bottom. [From Bottom, a 
shi p.l 

BOUCFTERIZE, boo'-sher-iz, v.t. to cover or 
impregnate railroad ties, timber, etc., 
«dth a preservative solution of copper 
sulphate. [Fro'.i the name of the inven- 
tor of the process. Dr. Auguste Bou- 
cTierie, a Fr. chemist.] 

BOUDOIR, bood'war, n. a lady's private 
room. [Fr. — bonder, to pout, to be 

BOUGH, bow, n. a branch of a tree. [A.S. 
bog, boh, an arm, the shoulder (Ger. bttg, 
the shoulder, the bow of a ship) — ^A.S. 
bugan, to bend.] 

BOUGH, bow, v.t. to cover over or shade 
with boughs. 

A mossy track, all over boughed 
For half a mile or more. — Coleridge. 

BOUGHT, bawt, pa.t. and pa.p. of Buy. 

BOULDER, bold'er.n.a large stone rounded 
by the action of water : (geol.) a mass 
of rock transported by natural agencies 
from its native bed. — adj. containing 
boulders. [Ace. to Wedgwood, from 
Swed. bullra, Dan. buldre, to roar like 
thunder, a.s large pebbles do.] 

BOULEVARD, bool'e-var, n. a promenade 
formed by leveling the old fortifications 
of a town. [Fr. — Ger. boUwerk. See Bul- 

BOULEVARDIER, b6ol-var-dya', n. a fre- 
quenter of a city boulevard, esp. in Paris. 
— F. Harrison. [Fr.] 

BOULEVEKSESIENT, bol-vers-man, n. the 
act of overthrowing or overturning : the 
state of being overthrown or overturned: 
overthrow: overturn: subversion: hence, 
generally, convulsion or confusion. [Fr.J 

BOUNCE, bowns, v.i. to jump or spring 
suddenly : to boast, to exaggerate. — n. 



a heavy, sudden blow: a leap or spring : 
a boast : a bold lie. [Dut. bonzen, to strike, 
from bons, a blow, from the sound.] 

BOUNCER, bowns'er, n. one who bounces; 
something big : a bully : a liar. 

BOUND, hownd, pa.t. and pa.p. of Bind. 

BOUND, bownd, n. a limit or boundary. — 
v.t. to set bounds to : to limit, restrain, 
or surround. [O.Fr.bonne — LowL. bodina 
— Bret, bonn, a boundary.] 

BOUND, bownd, v.i. to spring or leap. — n. 
a spring or leap. [Fr. bondir, to spring, 
in O. Fr. to rebound — L. bombitare. See 
Boom, the sound.] 

BOUND, bownd, adj. ready to go. [Ice. 
buinn, pa.p. of bua, to prepare.] 

BOUNDARY, bownd'a-ri, n. a visible bound 
or limit : border : termination. 

BOUNDEN, bownd'n, adj., binding : re- 
quired : obligatory. [From Bind.] 

BOUNDLESS, bownd'les, adj. having no 
bound or limit : vast. — n. Bound'less- 


BOUNTEOUS, bown'te-us or bown'tyus, 
BOUNTIFUL, bown'ti-fool, adj. liberal in 
giving : generous. — advs. Boun'teously, 


Boun'tifulness. [From Bounty.] 

BOUNTY, bown'ti, n. liberality in bestow- 
ing gifts : the gift bestowed : money of- 
fered as an inducement to enter the army, 
or as a premium to encourage any branch 
of industry. [Fr. bont6, goodness — L. 
bonitas — bonus, good.] 

BOUQUET, boo'ka, n. a bunch of flowers : 
a nosegay. [Fr. — bosquet, dim. of bois, a 
wood — It. bosco. See Boscage, Bush.] 

BOURBON, bur'bun, n. any old fashioned 
party which acts unmindful of past ex- 
perience. (Amer.) 

BOURG, burg, n. same as Burgs, Borough. 

BOURGEOIS, bur-jois', n. a kind of print- 
ing type, larger than brevier and smaller 
than longprimer. [Fr. — perh. from the 
name of the typefounder.] 

BOURGEOISIE, b66rzh-waw'ze,n.the mid- 
dle class of citizens, esp. traders. [From 
Fr. bourgeois, a citizen, from root of 

BOURGEON, bur'jun, v. i. to put forth 
sprouts or buds : to grow. [Fr. bourgeon. 
a bud, shoot.] 

BOURN, BOURNE, born or boom, n. a 
boundary, or a limit. [Fr. oorne, a limit. 
See Bound.] 

BOURN, BOURNE, born or boom, n. a 
little stream. [A.S. buma, a stream ; 
Scot, bum, a brook ; Goth, brunna, a 

BOURSE, b56rs, n. an exchange where 
merchants meet for business. [Fr. bourse. 
See Purse.] 

BOUSE, booz, v.i. to drink deeply. [Dut. 
buysen, to drink deeply — buis, a tube or 
flask ; allied to Box.] 

BOUT, bowt, n. a turn, trial, or round : an 
attempt. [Doublet of Bight ; from root 
of Bow, to bend.] 

BOVINE, bo'vin, adj. pertaining to cattle. 

BOW, bow, v.t., to bend or incline towards: 
to subdue. — v.i. to bend the body in salut- 
ing a person : the curving forepart of a 
ship. [A.S. bugan, to bend ; akin to L. 
fugio, to flee, to yield.] 

BOW, bo, n. a bent piece of wood for shoot- 
ing arrows : anything of a bent or curved 
shape, as the rainbow : the instrument 
by which the strings of a violin are 
sounded. [A.S. boga.] 

BOWELS, bow'elz, the interior parts 
of the body, .the entrails : the interior 
part of anything : (Jig.) the heart, pity, 
tenderness. [Fr. boyau, O. Fr. boet — L. 
botellus, a sausage, also, an intestine.] 

BOWER, bow'er, n. an anchor at the bow 
or forepart of a ship. [From Bow.] 

BOWER, bow'er, n. a shady inclosure or 
recess in a garden, an arbor. [A.S. bur, 
a chamber ; Scot, byre — root A.S. buan, 
to dwell.] 

BOWERY, bow'er-i.ody.containing bowers: 
shady. — n. the name of a busy, crowded 
streiet in New York City. 

BOWIE-KNIFE, bo'i-nif, n. a dagger-knife 
worn in the Southern States of America, 
so named from its inventor,ColonelBowie. 

BOWL, bol, n. a wooden ball used for roll- 
ing along the ground. — v.t. and i. to play 
at bowls : to roll along like a bowl : to 
throw a ball, as in cricket. [Fr. boule — 
L. bulla. See Boil, v.] 

BOWL, bol, n. a round drinking-cup : the 
round hollow part of anything. [A.S. 
bolla. See Bole.] 

BOWLDER, bold'er, n. same as Boulder. 

BOWLINE, bo'lin, n. {lit.) the line of the 
bow or bend : a rope to keep a sail close 
to the wind. 

or grassy plat kept smooth for bowling. 

BOWMAN, bo'man, n. an archer. 

BOWSHOT, bo'shot,n. the distance to which 
an arrow can be shot from a bow. 

BOWSPRIT, bo'sprit, n. a boom or spar 
projecting from the bow of a ship. [Bow 
and Sprit.] 

BOWSTRING, bo'string, n. a string with 
which the Turks strangled offenders. 

BOW-WINDOW, bo'-wind'o, n. a bent or 
semi-circular window. 

BOX, boks, n. a tree remarkable for the 
hardness and smoothness of its wood : a 
case or receptable for holding anything : 
the contents of a box : a small house or 
lodge : a private seat in a theatre : the 
driver's seat on a carriage. — ^To be IN A 
BOX, to be in difficulty, or in a compro- 
mising position. (Amer.) The phrase TO 
BE IN the WRONG BOX has, it Seems, a re- 
spectable antiquity. "If you will hear 
how St. Augustine expoundeth that place, 
you shall perceive that you are in a wrong 
box." — Ridley (1554). " I perceive that 
you and I are in a wrong box." — J. Udall 
(158S). — v.t. to put into or furnish with 
boxes. [A.S. box — L. buxus, Gr. pyxos, 
the tree, pyxis, a box.] 

BOX. boks.w. a blow on the head or ear with 



the hand. — v.t. to strike with the hand or 
fist. — v.i. to fight with the fists. [Dan. 
bask, a sounding blow ; cf . Ger. pochen, 
to strike.] 

BOXEN, boKs'n, adj. made of or like box- 

BOXER, boks'-er, n. a member of the League 
of United Patriots, or Great Sword So- 
ciety, a powerful organization in China, 
which committed outrages on foreigners 
and Christian converts in Pekin and else- 
where in the Chinese Empire in 1900. 

BOXING-DAY, boks'ing-da, n. in England, 
the day after Christmas when boxes or 
presents are given. 

BOXWOOD, boks'wood,n.wood of the box- 

BOY, boy, n. a male child : a lad. — n. BOY*- 
HOOD. — adj. BoY'iSH. — adv. Boy'ishly. — 
n. BoY'iSHNESS. [Fris. boi, Dut. boef, Ger. 
bube, L. pupus.] 

BOYCOTT, boy'kot, v. f. to combine in refus- 
ing to work to, to buy or sell with, or in 
general to give assistance to, or have 
dealings with, on account of difference of 
opinion or the like in social and political 
matters : a word introduced under the 
auspices of the Land League of Ireland 
in 1880. [From Captain Boycott, who 
was so treated by his neighbors in Ireland 
in 1881.1 

BRACE, bras, n. anything that draws to- 
gether and holds tightly : a bandage : a 
pair or couple : in printing, a mark con- 
necting two or more words or lines (^ ): 
—pi. straps for supporting the trousers : 
ropes for turning the yards of a ship.— 
v.t. to tighten or strengthen. [O. Fr. 
brace, Fr. bras, the arm, power — L. bra- 
chium, Gr. brachi&n, the arm, as holding 

BRACELET, bras'let, n. an ornament for 
the wrist. [Fr., dim. of O. Fr. brae. See 

BRACH, brak, brach,n.a dog for the chase. 
[O. Fr. brache, from O. Ger. bracco.] 

BRACHIAL, brak'i-al, adj. belonging to 
the arm. [See Brace.] 

BRACING, bras'ing, ac^'. giving strength 
or tone. [From Brace.] 

BRACKEN, brak'en, n. fern. [See Brake.] 

BRACKET, brak'et, n. a support for some- 
thing fastened to a wall :—pl. in printing, 
the marks [ 1 used to inclose one or more 
words. — v.t. to support by brackets : to 
inclose by brackets. [Dim. formed from 

BRACKISH, brak'ish, adj. saltish : applied 
to water mixed with salt or with sea- 
water. — n. Brack'ishness. [Dut. brak, 
refuse ; conn, with Wreck.] 

BRACT, brakt, n. an irregularly developed 
leaf at the base of the flower-stalk. — adj. 
Brac'teal. [L. bractea, a thin plate of 
metal, gold-leaf.] 

BRADAWL, brad'awl, n. an awl to pierce 
holes. [For inserting brads, long, thin 

BRAG> oragjV.i. to boast or bluster i—^.p. 

bragg'ing ; pa.p. bragged.—^, a boast or 
boasting : the thing boasted of : a game 
at cards. [Prob. from a root brag, found 
in all the Celtic languages. See Brave.] 

BRAGGADOCIO, brag-a-do'shi-o, n. a 
braggart or boaster : empty boasting. 
[From Braggadochio,a. boastful character 
m Spenser's Faery Queen.] 

BRAGOART, brag'art, adj. boastful. — n. a 
vain boaster. [O.Fr. bragard, vain, brag- 
ging, from root of Brag.] 

BRAHMAN, bra'man, BRAHMIN, bra'min, 
n. a person of the highest or priestly caste 
among the Hindus. — adjs. Brahman'ic, 
-AL, Brahmin'ic, -al. [From Brahma, the 
Hindu Deity.] 

BRAHMANISM, bra'man-izm, BRAHMIN- 
ISM, bra'min-izm, n. one or the religions 
of India, the worship of Brahma. 

BRAID, brad, v.t., to plait or entwine. — n. 
cord, or other texture made by plaiting. 
[A.S. bredan, bregdan; Ice. bregda, to 

BRAIDISM, brad-izm, n. a method of pro- 
ducing hypnotic conditions, after the 
manner suggested by Dr. James Braid of 
Manchester, England. 

BRAIN, bran, n. the mass of nervous mat- 
ter contained in the skull : the seat of 
the intellect and of sensation : the in- 
tellect. — v.t. to dash out the brains of. 
jrA.S. brcegen ; Dut. brein.] 

Brainless, bran'les, adj. without brains 
or understanding : silly. 

BRAIN-SICKNESS, bran'-sik'nes, n. disor- 
der of the brain : giddiness : indiscr'^tion. 

BRAKE, brak, obs. pa.t. of Break. 

BRAKE, brak, n. a fern : a place over- 
grown with ferns or briers : a thicket. 
[Low Ger. brake, brushwood ; G«r. brack, 

BRAKE, brak, n. an instrument to break 
flax or hemp : a carriage for breaking- 
in horses : a bit for horses : a contrivance 
for retarding the motion of a wheel. 
[From root of Break.] 

BRAKY, brak'i, adj. full of brakes : thorny: 

BRAMBLE, bram'bl, n. a wild prickly plant 
bearing black berries : any rough prickly 
shrub. — adj. Bram'bly. [A.S. bremet; 
Dut. braavi, Gcer. brom.'] 

BRAN, bran, n., the refuse of grain : the 
inner husks of corn sifted from the flour. 
[Fr. bran, bran — Celt, bran, bran, re- 

BRANCH, bransh, n. a shoot or arm-like 
limb of a tree : anythiujg like a branch : 
any offshoot or subdivision.— u.i. to di- 
vidfe into branches. — v.i. to spread out as 
a branch. — adjs. Branch'less, Branch' y. 
[Fr. branche — Bret, branc, an arm ; Low 
L. branca, L. brachium. See Brace.] 

BRANCHI^, brangk'i-e, w.pZ., gills.— adj. 
Brancuial, brangk'i-al. [L.] 

BRANCHLET, bransh'let, n. a little branch, 

BRAND, brand, n. a piece of wood burning 
or partly burned : a mark burned into 
anything with a hot iron: a swordt so 



called from its glitter: a mark of in- 
famy. — v.t. to burn or mark with a hot 
iron : to fix a mark of infamy upon. 

iA.S., from root of Burn.] 
ANDISH, brand'ish, v.t. to wave or 
flourish as a brand or weapon. — n. a wav- 
ing' or flourish. [Fr. brandir, from root 
of Brand.] 

BRAND-NEW, brand'-nu, adj. quite new 
(as if newly from the fire). 

BRANDY, brand'i, n. an ardent spirit dis- 
tilled from wine. [Formerly brsfiidtaine 
— Dut. brandewijn — branden, to burn, to 
distil, and wijn, wine ; cf. Ger. brant- 
7vein.] [new. 

BRAN-NEW, bran'nu, adj. Corr. of Brand- 

BRASIER, bra'zher, n. a pan for holding 
burning coals. [Fr., from the root of 

BRASS, oras, n. an alloy of copper and 
zinc : (^gr.) impudence :—pl. monumental 
plates of brass inlaid on slabs of stone 
in the pavements of ancient churches : 
also the brass musical instruments in a 
band or orchestra. In its colloquial and 
slang senses the use of the word is by no 
means modern ; namely : 1, money. " We 
should scorn each bribing varlet's brass." 
— Bv. Hall. 2, impudence : shamelesa- 
ness. " She in her defence made him 
appear such a rogue that the chief jus- 
tice wondered he had the brass to appear 
in a court of justice." — Roger North. 
[A.S. braes ; Ice. bras, solder ; from 
brasa to harden by fire, Swed. brasa, 

BRASS-BAND, bras'-band, n. a band or 
company of musicians who perform on 
brass instruments. 

BRASSY, bras'i, adj. of or like brass : im- 

BRASSY, n. one of the clubs used in golf. 

BRAT, brat, n. a contemptuous name for a 
child. [A.S. bratt, W., Gael, brat, a rag ; 
prov. E. brat, a child's pinafore.] 

BRAVADO, brav-a'do, n. a display of 
bravery : a boastful threat :—pl. Brava'- 
DOES. [Sp. bravada, from root of Brave.] 

BRAVE, brav, adj. daring, courageous : 
noble. — v.t. to meet boldly : to defy. — n. 
a bully: an Indian warrior. — adv. Brave'- 
LY. [Fr. brave ; It. and Sp. bravo ; from 
Celt., as in Bret, braga, to strut about, 
Gael, breagh, fine. See Brag.] 

BRAVERY, brav'er-i, n. courage : heroism : 

BRAVO, brav'o, n. a daring villain : a hired 
assassin :—pl. Bravoes, brav'oz. [It. and 

~ WO, 

brav'o, int. well done : excellent. 


BRAVURA, brav-oor'a, n. (mus.) a terra 

applied to songs that require great spirit 

in execution. [It.] 
BRAWL, brawl, n. a noisy quarrel. — v.i. to 

quarrel noisily: to murmur or gurgle. 

[W. bragal, to vociferate, which, ace. to 

Skeat, is a freq. of Brag.] 
BRAWN, brawn, n. muscle : thick flesh. 

esp. boar's fle«h : muscular strength. [O. 
Fr. braon, from O. Ger. brato, flesh (for 
roasting) — O. Ger. pratan (Ger. braten), 
to roast.] 

BRAWNY, brawn'i, adj. fleshy : muscular ' 

BRAY, bra, v.t., to break, pound, or grind 
small. [O. Fr. breier (Fr. broyer) ; from 
root of Break.] 

BRAY, bra, n. the cry of the ass : any harsh 
grating sound. — v.i. to cry like an ass. 
[Fr. braire. Low L. bragire, from root ol 
Brag, Brawl.] 

BRAZE, braz, v.t. to cover or solder with 

BRAZEN, bra'zn, adj. of or belonging to 
brass : impudent. — v.t. to confront with 

BRAZIER, bra'zher, n. see Brasier. 

BREACH, brech, n. a break or opening, 
as in the walls of a fortress : a breaking 
of law, etc. : a quarrel. — v.t. to make a 
breach or opening. [A.S. brice, Fr. brdche, 
from root of Break.] 

BREAD, bred, n. food made of flour or 
meal baked : food : livelihood. Bread- 
stuff, in the United States, denotes aU 
the cereals which can be converted into 
bread. [A.S. bread, from breotan, to 
break ; or from breowan, to brew.] 

BREAD - BASKET, bred'-bas-ket, n. 1, a 
papier mache or metal tray used for 
holding bread at table: 2, the stomach. 
(Slang.) "Another came up to second 
him, but I let drive at the mark, made 
the soup-maigre rumble in his bread-bas- 
ket, and laid him sprawling." — Foote. 

BREAD-FRUIT-TREE, bred'-froot-tre', n. 
a tree of the South Sea Islands, produc- 
ing a fruit, which when roasted forms a 
good substitute for bread. 

BREIADTH, bredth, n. extent from side to 
side: width. [M.E. brede, A.S. brcedu. 
See Broad.] 

BREADWINNER, bred'win'er, n. one who 
works for the support of himself or of 
himself and a family : a member of that 
section of the community whose earnings 
support both themselves and the women 
and children. 

BREAK., hrak, part by force : to shat- 
ter : to crush : to tame : to violate : to 
check by intercepting, as a fall : to inter- 
rupt, as silence : to make bankrupt : to 
divulge. — v.i. to part in two : to burst 
forth : to open or appear, as the morning : 
to become bankrupt : to fall out, as with 
a friend : — pa.t. broke ; pa.p. brok'en. — 
n. the state of being broken : an opening : 
a pause or interruption : the aawn. — 
Break cover, to burst forth from con- 
cealment, as game. — Break down, to 
crash, or to come down by breaking : (fig.) 
to give way. — Break ground, to com- 
mence excavation : (fig.) to begin.^ 
Break the ice (fig.), to get through 
first difficulties. — Break a jest, to utter 
a jest unexpectedly. — Break a lance 
(fig.), enfer into a contest with a rival. — 
BRE.AK UPON THE WHEEL, to punish by 



stretching a criminal on a wheel, and 
breaking his bones. — Break with, to fall 
out, as friends. J[A.S. brecan ; Goth. 
brikan, Grer. brechen ; conn, with L. 
frango, Gr. rhegnumi ; Gael, bragh, a 

BREAKAGE, brak'aj, n. a breaking : an al- 
lowance for things broken. 

BREAKER, brak'er, n. a wave broken OB 
rocks or the shore. ' 

BREAKFAST, brek'fast,n.a break or break- 
ing of a fast : the first meal of the day. 
— v.i. to take breakfast. — v,t. to furnish 
with breakfast. 

KREAKING-IN, brak'ing-in', n. the act <rf 
training to labor, as of a horse. 

BREAKNECK, brak'nek,ad;".likely to cause 

BREAKWATER, brak'waVter,n. a harrkr 
at the entrance of a harbor to break the 
force of the waves. 

BREAM, brem, n. a fresh-water fish of the 
c^rp familr : a salt-water fish somewhat 
like it. [Fr. brSme, for bresjne — O. Ger. 
brahsema, Ger. brassen.] 

BREAST, brest, n, the forepart of the 
human body between the neck and the 
belly : (Jig.) conscience, disposition, affec- 
tions. — v.t. to bear the breaust against : to 
oppose manfully. FA.S. breost ; Grer. 
bnrust, Dut. borst, pern, from the notion 
of bursting forth, protruding.] 

BREASTPLATE, brest'plat, n. a plate or 
piece of armor for the breast : in £., a 
part of the dress of the Jewish high- 

BREASTWORK, brest'wurk, n. a defensive 
work of earth or other materials breast- 

BREATH, breth, n, the air drawn into and 
then expelled from the lungs : power of 
breathing, life : the time occupied by 
once breathing : a very slight breeze. 
[A.S. brceth ; Gter. brodem, steam, breath; 
perh. akin to L. frag-rare, to smell.] 

BREATHE, hreth, v.i. to draw in and expel 
breath or air from the lun^ : to take 
breath, to rest or pause : to hve. — v.t. to 
draw in and expel from the lungs, as air : 
to infuse: to give out as breath: to utter 
by the breath or softly ; to keep in breath, 
to exercise. 

BREATHING, bret/i'ing, n. the act of 
breathing : aspiration, secret prayer : 

BREATHLESS, brethnes.ady. out of breath : 
dead. — n. Breath' lessness. 

BREECH, brech, n. the lower part of the 
body behind : the hinder part of any- 
thing, especially of a gun. — v.t. to put 
into breeches. [See Breeches, the gar- 
ment, in which sense it was first used.] 

BREECH-BLOCK, brech'-blok, n. a mov- 
able piece at the breech of a breech- 
loading g^un which is withdrawn for the 
insertion of the charge and closed before 
firing to receive the impact of the recoil. 
E. H. Knight. 

BREECHES, brich'ez, agsu^nent worn 

T>y men on the lower part of the body, 
trousers. [AS. br6c, pi. brSc ; found m 
all Teut. lang. ; also Fr.braies — L. braccoe, 
which is said to be from the Celt., as in 
Gael, briogais, breeches.] 
BREECH-LOADER, brech'-lod'er, n. a fire- 
arm loaded by introducing the charge at 

BREECH-Pm, brech' -pin, BREECH- 
SCREW, brech'-skro, n. a plug screwed 
into the rear end of the barrel of a breech- 
loading firearm forming the bottom of the 
charge chamber. E. H. Knight. 

BREECH-SIGHT, brech'-sit, n. the gradu- 
ated sight at the breech of a gun, which, 
in conjunction with the front sight, 
serves to aim the gun at an object. E. JEL 

BREED, bred, v.t. to generate or bring 
forth : to train or bring up : to cause or 
occasion. — v.i. to be with young : to pro- 
duce offspring : to be produced or brought 
forth :—pa.t. and pa.p. bred. — n. that 
which is bred, progeny or offspring : kind 
or race. rA.S. bredan, to cheriSi, keep 
warm ; Ger. brUten, to hatch ; conn, 
with Brew.] 

BREEDER, bred'er, n. one who breeds or 
brings iip. 

BREEDING, bred'ing, n. act of producing : 
education or manners. 

BREEZE, brez, n. a gentle gale ; a wind. 
[Ft. brise, a cool wind ; It. brezza.l 

BREEZY, brez'i, cu^'. fanned with or subject 
to breezes. 

BRETHREN, hreth'ren, plur. of Brother. 

BRETON, brit'un, adj. belonging to Brit- 
tanyor Bretagne, in France. 

BREVE, brev, n. (lit.) a brief or short note : 
the longest note now used in music, JO I. 
[It. breve — L. brevis, short. In old church 
music there were but two notes, the long 
and the breve or short. Afterwards the 
long was disused, and the breve became 
the longest note. It is now little used, 
the semibreve being the longest note.] 

BREVET, brev'et, n. a military commission 
entitling an officer to take rank above 
that for which he receives pay. [Fr., « 
short document — ^L. brevis, short.] 

BREVIARY, brev'i-ar-i, n. book containing 
the daily service of the Roman Catholic 
Church. [Fr. breviaire — L. brevis, short. 

BREVIER, brev-er', n. a small type be- 
tween bourgeois and minion, orig. used 
in printing breviaries. 

BREVITY, brev'it-i, n., shortness : concise- 
ness. [L. brevitas — brevis, short.] 

BREW, broo, v.t. to prepare a liquor, as 
from malt and other materials : to con- 
trive or plot. — v.i. to perform the opera- 
tion of brewing : to be gathering or form- 
ing. [A.S. breovan ; cf. Grer. brauen, 
which, like Fr. brasser, is said to be from 
Low L. braxare, which is perh. from 
Celt, brag, malt.] 

BREWER, br56'er, n. one who brews. 

BREWERY, broo'er-i, n. a place for brew- 



BREWING, broo'ing, n. the act of making 
liquor from malt : the quantity brewed 
at once. 

BREWIS, broo'is, n. crusts of rye and In- 
dian meal bread, softened with milk and 
eaten with molasses. (Amer.) 

BRIAR-ROOT, bri'er-rot, n. the root of the 
white heath, a shrub often growing to a 
large size. The roots are gathered ex- 
tensively in the south of France and in 
Corsica for the purpose of being made into 
the tobacco-pipes now so much used under 
the name of briar-root pipes. [The first 
part of this word is a corruption of Fr. 
oruyere, heath.] 

BRIC-A-BRAC, brik-a-brak, n. a collection 
of objects -having a certain interest or 
value from their rarity, antiquity, or the 
like, as old furniture, plate, china, curi- 
osities ; articles of vertu. "Two things 
only jarred on his eye in his hurried 
glance round the room, there was too 
much bric-d-brae; and too many flowers." 
— H. Kingsley. [Fr. according to Littr6 
based on the phrase de brie et de broc, by 
hook or by crook, brie being an old word 
meaning a kind of trap for catching birds, 
etc., and broc, a pitcher or jug. Bric-d' 
brae would therefore be literally objects 
collected by hook or crook.J 

BRIBE, brib, n. something given to influ- 
ence unduly the judgment or corrupt the 
conduct : allurement. — v.t. to influence 
by a bribe. [Fr. bribe, a lump of bread- 
Celt, as in W. briwo, to break, briw, & 

BRIBER, brlb'er, n. one who bribes. 

BRIBERY, brib'er-i, n. the act of giving or 
taking bribes. 

BRICK, brik, n. an oblong or square piece 
of burned claj' : a loaf of bread in the 
shape of a brick. — v.t. to lay or pave with 
brick. [Fr. brique, from root of BreaKc| 

BRICKBAT, brik'bat, n. a piece of brick. 
[Brick and Bat, an implement for strik- 
mg with.] 

BRICK-KILN, brik'-kil, n. a kiln in which 
bricks are burned. 

BRICKLAYER, brik'la-er, n. one who layi. 
or builds vdth bricks. — n. Bmck'laying. 

BRIDAL, brid'al, n. a marriage feast : a 
wedding. — adj. belonging to a bride, or 
a wedding : nuptial. [Beide, and A t.p! , a 

BRIDE, brid, n. a woman about to be mar' 
ried : a woman newly married. [A.S, 
bryd ; Ice. brudr, Ger. braut, a bride ; W 
priod, one married.! 

BRIDECAKE, brid'kak, n, the bride's cake, 
or cake distributed at a wedding. 

BRIDE-CHAMBER, brid'-cham'ber, n. the 
niiptial apartment. 

BRIDEGROOM, brid'gTo6m,n.a man about 
to be married : a man newly married. — 
Bride'maid, Bride's'maid, Bride'man, 
Bride's'man, attendants at a wedding. 
[A.S. brydguma — guma, a man.] 

BRIDEWELL, brid'wel, n. a house of cor- 
rection. [From a palace near St. Bride's 

Well in London, afterwards used as a 
house of correction.] 

BRIDGE, brij, n. a structure raised across 
a river, etc. : anything like a bridge. — 
v.t. to build a bridge over. [A.S. bricg ; 
Ger. brucke, Ice. bryggja.] 

BRIDGELESS, brij'les, adj. without a 
bridge : not capable of being spanned as 
by a bridge. " Bridgeless tide." — Southey. 

BRIDLE, bri'dl, n. the instrument on a 
horse's head, by which it is controlled : 
any curb or restraint. — v.t. to put on or 
manage by a bridle : to check or restrain. 
— v.i. to hold up the head proudly or af- 

BRIDLE-PATH, bri'dl-path, n. a path or 
way for horsemen. 

BRIE CHEESE, bre'-ehez', n. a soft cream 
cheese made in the district of Brie in 
France. [Fr. fromage de Brie.'] 

BRIEF, href, acU., short: concise. — adv. 
Brief'ly. — n. Briep'ness. 

BRIEF, bref, n. a short account of a client's 
case for the instruction of counsel : a 
writ : a short statement of any kind. [Fr. 
bref — L. brevis, short. 

BRIEFLESS, bref'les, adj. without a brief. 

BRIER, bri'er, n. a prickly shrub : a com- 
mon name for the wild rose. — adj. Bei'- 
ERY. [M.E. brere — ^A.S. brer, Ir. briar, 

BRIG, brig, n. a two-masted, square-rigged 
vessel. [Shortened from Brigantine.] 

BRIGADE, brig-ad', n. a body of troops 
consisting of two or more regiments of 
infantry or cavalry, and commanded by 
a general-oflBcer, two or more of whicn 
form a division. — v.t. to form into brig- 
ades. [Fr. brigade — ^It. brigata — ^LowL. 
l/viocL stri f G 1 

BRIGADIER,* brig-a-der', BRIGADIER- 
GENERAL, brig-a-der'-jen'er-al, n. a gen- 
eral officer of the lowest grade, who has 
command of a brigade. 

BRIGAND, brig'and, n. a robber or free- 
booter. [Fr. — It. brigante — briga, strife.] 

BRIGANDAGE, brig'and-aj, n. freeboot- 
ing : plundering. 

BRIGANDINE, brig'an-din, n. a coat of 
mail. [Fr. ; so called because worn by 

BRIGANTINE, brig'an-tin, n. a small, light 
vessel or brig. [From Brigand, because 
such a vessel was used by pirates.] 

BRIGHT, brit, adj., shining : full of light : 
clear : beautiful : clever : illustrious. — 
adv. Briqht'ly. — n. Bright'ness. [A.S. 
beorht, briht ; cog. with Goth, batrhts, 
clear, Gr. phlego, L. flagro, to flame, 
flamma==flag-'ma, Sans, bhraj, to sfiine.] 

BRIGHTEN, brit'n, v.t. to make bright or 
brighter :' to make cheerful or joyful : to 
make illustrious. — v.i. to grow bright or 
brighter : to clear up. 

BRILL, bril, n. a fish of the same kind as 
the turbot, spotted with white. [Corn. 
brilli, mackerel=6riY7i-eZ, dim. otorith, 
speckled, cognate with Gael, breac, 
speckled, a trout. See Brock.] 



BRILLIANT, bril'yant, adj. sparkling : 
glittering : splendid. — n. a diamond of 
the finest cut. — adv. Brill'iantly. — ns. 
Brill'iancy, Brill'iantness. [Fr. bril- 
lant, pr.p . of briller, to shine, which, 
like Ger. brille, an eyeglass, is from Low 
L. heryllus. a beryl.] 

BRILLIANTINE, bril'-yan-ten, n. an oil to 
make the hair glossy: a fabric for 
women's dresses, glossy on both sides. 
[Fr. hrillantine.'] 

BRIM, brim, n. the margin or brink of a 
river or lake : the upper edge of a vessel. 
— v.t. to fill to the brim. — v.i. to be full 
to the brim •.—pr.p. brimm'ing ; pa.p. 
brimmed. [A.S. InHm, surge, surf, the 
margin of the sea where it sounds ; 
conn, with O. Grer. brcemen, to hum, 
L. fremere^ to roar.] 

BRIMFUL, brim'fool, adj. full to the brim. 

BRIMMER, brim'er, n. a bowl full to the 
brim or top. 

BRIMSTONE, brim'ston, n. sulphur. [Lit. 
burning stone ; from A.S. bryne, a burn- 
ing — byman, to burn, and Stone ; cf. 
Ger. bemstein.'] 

BRINDED, brin'ded, BBlN' 
with spots or streaks. [See Brand.] 

BRINE, brin, n. salt-water : the sea. [A.S. 
bryne, a burning ; applied to salt liquor, 
from its burning, biting quality.] 

BRING, bring, v.t. to fetch : to carry : to 
procure : to draw or lead.— ^a.f. and 
pa.p. brought (brawt). — Bring about, to 
bring to pass, efifect. — Bring down, to 
humble. — Bring forth, to give birth 
to, produce. — Bring to, to check the 
course of, as a ship, by trimming the sails 
so as to counteract each other. [A.S. 
bringan, to carry, to bring ; allied perh. 
to Bear.] 

BRINK, bringk, n. the edge or border of a 
steep place or of a river. [Dan. brink, 
declivity ; Ice. bringr, hUlock.] 

BRINY, brin'i, adj. pertaining to brine or 
to the sea : salt. 

BRIONY, brl'o-ni. n. same as Bryony. 

BRIQUET, BRIQUETTE, bri-ket', n., a steel 
for striking fire from a flint: one of the 
jewelled parts of the Spanish and Aus- 
trian order of the Golden Fleece: a piece 
of hardened coal dust used for fuel: a 
brick made of artificial stone, cement, or 
mortar, used for paving, [Fr, dim. of 
hrique, brick.] 

BRISK, brisk, adj. full of life and spirit : 
active : effervescing, as liquors. — adv. 
Brisk'ly. — n. Brisk'ness. [W. brysg, 
nimble, brys, haste. Other forms are 
Frisk, Fresh.] 

BRISKIET, brisk'et, n. the breast of an ani- 
mal : the part of the breast next to the 
ribs. [Fr. brechet, brichet — ^W. brysced.] 

BRISTLE, bris'l, n. a short, stiff hair, as of 
swine. — v.i. to stand erect, as bristles. 
rA,S. byrst; Scot, birse ; cog. with Ger. 
horste. Ice. burst."] 

BRISTLY, bris'li, adj. set with bristles; 
rouorh. — n. Brist'liness. 

BRISTOL MILK, bris'tol-mUk, a mixed 
beverage of which sherry is the chief in- 
gredient. "Plenty of brave wine, and 
above all Bristol milk." — Pepys. " A rich 
beverage made of the best Spanish wine, 
and celebrated over the whole kingdom 
as Bristol milk." — Macaulay. 

BRITANNIA-METAL, brit-an'i-a-met'l, n. 
a metallic alloy largely used in the manu- 
facture of spoons, etc. 

BRITANNIC, brit-an'ik, adj. pertaining to 
Britannia or Great Britain : British. 

BRITISH, brit'ish, adj. pertaining to Great 
Britain or its people, 

BRITON, brit'on, n. a native of Britain. 

BRITTLE, brit'l, adj., apt to break : easily 
broken. — n. Britt'leness. [A.S. breotan, 
to break.] 

BROACH, broch, v.t. to pierce as a cask, 
to tap : to open up or begin : to utter. 
[Fr. brocher, to pierce, broche, an iron 
pin — Lat. hrocchus, a projecting tooth.] 

BROACH-TURNER, broch'-tur-nur, n. a 
menial whose occupation it is to turn a 
broach : a turnspit. 

Dishwasher and broach-turner, loon I to me 
Thou smellest all of kitchen as before. 

— Tennyson. 
BROAD, brawd, adj. wide : large, free or 
open : coarse, indelicate. — adv. Broad'ly. 
— n. Broad'ness. [A.S. brad, Goth. 
BROADBRIM, brawd'brim, n. a hat with 
a broad brim, such as those worn by 
Quakers : (colloq.) a Quaker, 
BROADCAST, brawd'kast, adj. scattered 
or sown abroad by the hand : dispersed 
widely. — adv. by throwing at large from 
the hand. 

BROAD CHURCH, brawd church, n. a 
party in the Church of England holding 
broad or liberal views of Christian doc- 

BROADCLOTH, brawd'kloth, n. a fine kind 
of woollen fulled cloth, wider than twenty- 
nine inches, 

BROADEN, brawd'n, v.t. to make broad or 
broader, — v.i. to grow broad or extend in 

BROAD-GAUGE, brawd'-gaj,n. a distance 
of six or seven feet between the rails of a 
railway, as distinguished from the pres- 
ent standard gauge of 4 ft. 8i in. 

BROADSIDE, brawd'sid, n. the side of a 
ship : all the guns on one side of a ship 
of war, or their simultaneous discharge : 
a sheet of paper printed on one side. 

BROADSWORD, brawd'sord, n. a cutting 
sword with a broad blade. 

BROBDINGNAGIAN, brob-ding-na'ji-an, 
n. an inhabitant of the fabulous region 
of Brobdingnag in " Gulliver's Travels," 
the people of which were of great 
stature, hence a gigantic person. — adj. 

BROCADE, brok-ad', n. a silk stuff on which 
figures are wrought. [It, broccato, Fr. 
brocart, from It. broccare, Fr. brocher, 
to prick ; from root of Broach.] 



BROCADED, brok-ad'ed, adj. woven or 
worked in the manner of brocade : 
dres»ed in brocade. 

BROCCJOLI, brok'o-li, n. a kind of cabbage 
resembling' cauliflower. [It. pi. othrocco- 
lo, a sprout, dim. of brocco, a skewer, 
a shoot — root of Beoach.] 

BROCHETTE, bro-shet', n. a spit or skewer. 
Hence En bbochette, Sn-bro-shet', on a 
spit: skewered: as, chicken livers en 
hrochette. [Fr. dim. of hroche.] 

BROCHURE, bro-shoor', n. a pamphlet. 
[Lit. a small book stitched, Fr. — brocher, 
to stitch — hroche, a needle. See Broach.] 

BROCK, brok, n. a badger, an animal with 
a black and white streaked face. [From 
the Celtic, as in Gael, broe, a badger, 
which is from Gael, breac, speckled.] 

BROG, brog, n. a pointed steel instrument 
used by joiners for piercing holes in 
wood. [Gael, brog, a pointed instrument, 
as an awl ; W. procio, to stab.] 

BROGUE, brog, n. a stout coarse shoe : a 
dialect or manner of pronunciation, esp. 
the Irish. [Ir. and Grael. brog, a shoe.] 

BROIDER, broid'er, BROIDERY, broid'- 
er-i. Same as Embroidek, Embroidest. 

BROIL, broil, n. a noisy quarrel : a con- 
fused disturbance. [Tr. brouiller, to 
break out, to rebel, prob. from the Celt- 

BROIL, broil, v.t. to cook over hot coals. 
— v.i. to be greatly heated. [Ety. dub.j 

BROKE, brOk, pa.t. and old pa.p. of 

BROKEN, bro'kn, p.adj. rent asunder : in- 
firm : humbled. [From Break.] 

BROKEN-HEARTED, bro'kn-hart'ed, ad^. 
crushed with grief : greatly depressed in 

BROKER, brok'er, n. one employed to buy 
and sell for others, especially stocks and 
securities. [M.E. brocour — A.S. brucan, 
G«r. braiichen, to use, to profit.] 

BROKERAGE, brok'er-aj, n. the business 
of a broker : the commission charged by 
a broker. 

BROMA, bro'-ma, n. a ligrht preparation of 
cocoa, or the drink prodiiced from it by 
adding water or milk. [L. from Gr.] 

BROMIDE, brom'id, n. a combination of 
bromine with a base. 

BROMIDE-PAPER, bro'-mid-pa'-per, n. a 
paper sensitized and coated with a gela- 
tine bromide of silver; used in photog- 

BROMINE, brom'in, n. an elementary body 
closely allied to iodine, so called from its 
disagreeable smell. [Gr. bromos, a dis- 
agreeable odor.] 

BRONCHIiE, brongk'i-a, a name 
given to the ramifications of the rvind- 
pipe which carry air into the lungs. — 
adj. Bronch'ial. [Gr. bronchos, the 

BRONCHITIS, bron^k-I'tis, n. inflammar 
tion of the bronchiae. 

BRONCO, bron'-ko, n. a small horse used 
in the Western United States and Mexi- 

co. [Sp. bronco, rough, wild.] — Bronco 
BUSTER, bron'-ko bus-ter, one who tames 
or secures control of a bronco. 

BRONCHO-, bron'-ko {med.) , a combining 
form used to indicate connection with 
the bronchi, or the bronchi and trachea: 
as, ftroncfto-pneumonia. 

BRONZE, bronz, n. a mixture of copper 
and tin used in various ways since the 
most ansient times : anything cast in 
bronze : the color of bronze : impudence. 
— v.t. to give the appearance of bronze 
to : to harden. [Fr. — It. bronzo ; conn, 
with bruno, brown, and root bren, to 

BRONZIFY, bronz'i-fl, v.t. to represent in 
a bronze figure or statue : to cast in 
bronze. "St. Michael descending upon 
the Fiend has been caught and bronzified 
just as he lighted on the castle of St. 
Angelo. " — Thackeray. 

BROOCH, broch, n. an ornamental pin for 
fastening any article of dress. [Fr. hroche, 
a spit. See Broach.] 

BROOD, brood, v.i. to sit upon or cover in 
order to breed or hatch : to cover, as with 
wings : to think anxiously for a long 
time. — v.t. to mature or cherish with 
care. — n. something bred : offspring : the 
number hatched at once. [A.S. 6mf, a 
young one, esp. a young bird, from root 
of Breed, i 

BROOD-MAkE, brood'-mar, n. a mare kept 
for breeding. 

BROOK, brook, n. a small stream. [A.S. 
broc, water breaking forth.] 

BROOK, brook, v.t. to bear or endure. [A. 
S. brucan, to use, enjoy ; G«r. brauchen, 
L. fnurr, fruc-tiis.'\ 

BROOKLET, brook'let, n. a little brook. 

BROOM, broom, n. a wild evergreen shrub : 
a besom made of its twigs. [A.S. brom.^ 

BROOM, broom, v.t. to sweep, or clear 
away, as with a broom. " The poor old 
workpeople brooming away the fallen 
leaves." — Thackeray. 

BROOM-CORN, broom'-com, n. a variety 
of maize from the tufts of which brooms 
are made. Scientific name. Sorghum vul- 
gare. It is a native of India, and is now 
much cultivated both in Europe and 

BROOMSTICK, broom'stik, n. the stafif or 
handle of a broom. 

BROTH, broth, n. a kind of soup. [A.S. 
broth — breowan, to brew ; cf. Fr. brouet, 
O. Ger. prot, and Gael, brod.] 

BROTHEL, broth'el, n. a house of ill-fame. 

. [Fr. bordel—O. Fr. borde, a hut, from 
the boards of which it was made.] 

BROTHER, bruf/^'er, n. a male born of the 
same parents : any one closely united 
with or resembling another : a fellow- 
creature ; also, in certain religious, bene- 
ficial, and secret societies, a fellow mem- 
ber. (Amer.) [A.S. brodhor ; cog. with 
Ger. bruder, Gael, brathiiir, Fr. frire, 
L. frater. Sans, bhratri ; from root 
bhar, to bear, and hence brother orig. 



meant one who supports the family after 

the father's death.] 
BROTHER-GERMAN, bru^Ti'er-jer'man, n. 

a brother having^ the same father and 

mother, in contradistinction to one by 

the same mother only. 
BROTHERHOOD, bruf^'er-hood, n. the 

state of being a brother : an association 

of men for any purpose. 
BROTHER-IN-LAW, bruf^'er-in-law, n. 

the brother of a husband or wife : a sis- 
ter's husband. 
BROTHER-LIKE, bruf/i'er-lik, BROTHER- 
LY, hruth'er-li, adj. like a brother : kind : 

BROUGHAM, broo'am or broom, n. a one- 
horse close carriage, either two or fovir 

wheeled, named after Lord Brougham. 
BROUGHT, brawt, pa.t. and pa.p. of 

BROW, brow, n. the ridge over the eyes : 

the forehead : the edge of a hiU. (A-S. 

tru ; Ice. brun, Scot, brae, a slope ; conn. 

with Gr. ophrys.] 
BROWBEAT, brow'bet, v.t. to bear down 

with stern looks or speech : to bully. 
BROWN, brown, adj. of a dark or dusky 

color inclining to red or yellow.— n. a 

dark reddish color. — v.t. to make brown 

or give a brown color to. — adj. Brown'- 

ISH. — n. Brown'ness. [A.S. brun — ^A.S. 

byrnan, to burn.] 
BROWNIE, brown^i, n. in Scotland, a kind 

of good-natured domestic spirit. 
BROWN-STUDY, brown'-stud'i, n. gloomy 

reverie : absent-mindedness. 
BROWSE, browz, v.t. and v.i. to Jeed on 

the shoots or leaves of plants. ' [O. Fr. 

brouster (Fr. Lr outer)— br oust, a sprout ; 

also Celt. See Brush.] 
BRUIN, broo'in, n. a bear, so called from 

its brown color. [Dut. bruin, G«r. 

braun, brown.] 
BRUISE, brdoz, v.t., to break or crush: 

to reduce to small fragments. — n. a 

wound made by anything heavy and 

blunt. [O. Fr. bruiser, from O. G«r. 

bresten, to burst.] 
BRUISER, brooz'er, n. one that bruises : a 

BRUIT, bro5t, n. something noised abroad : 

a rumor or report. — v.t. to noise abroad: 

to report. [Fr. bruit — Fr. bruire; cf. 

Low L. brugitu^, Gr. brv^ho, to roar ; 

prob. imitative.] 
BRUMOUS, broo mus, adj. |>ertaining or 

relating to winter ; hence, foggy : misty: 

dull and sunless ; as, a brumous climate. 

[L. br uma , the winter season.] 
BRUNETTE, broon-et', n. a girl with a 

broicn or dark complexion. [Fr. dim. of 

brim, brown.] 
BRUNT, brunt, n. the heat or shock of an 

onset or contest : the force of a blow. 

[Ice. bruni; G&r. brunst, heat. See 

BRUSH, brush, n. an instrument for re- 

moWng dust, usually made of bristles, 

twigs, or feathers : a kind of hair-pencil 

used by painters : brushwood : a skirmish 
or encounter : the tail of a fox. — v.t. to 
remove dust, etc., from by sweeping: to 
touch lightly in passing : (with off) re- 
move. — v.i. to move over lightly. [Fr. 
brosse, a brush, brushwood — O. Ger. 
brusta (G«r. burst e), ace. to Brachet, 
orig. heather, broom. See Browse.] 
BRUSHMAN, brush'man, n. a painter. 
How difficult in artists to allow 
To brother brushmen even a grain of merit I 

Dr. Wclcot. 

BRUSHWOOD, brush'wood, n. rough, close 
bushes : a thicket. 

BRUSQUE, broosk, adj. blunt, abrupt in 
manner, rude. — n. Brusque'ness. [Fr. 
brusque, rude. See Brisk.] 

BRUSQUERIE,broosk-re,same as Brusque- 
NESS. " Dorothea looked straight before 
her, and spoke with cold iTusquerie." — 
George Eliot. [Fr.] 

BRUSSEI^-SPROUTS, brus'elz-sprowts, a variety' of the common cabbage 
with sprouts like miniature cabbages. 
[From Brussels, whence the seeds were 

BRUTAL, broot'al, adj. like a brute : un- 
feeling : inhuman. — adv. Brut' ALLY. — 
n. Brutal'ity. 

broot'i-fi, v.t. to make like a brute, to 

BRUTE, broot, adj. belonging to the lower 
animals : irrational : stupid : rude. — n. 
one of the lower animals. [Fr. brut — 
L. br utus, dull, irrational.] 

BRUTISH, broot'ish, adj. brutal : (B.) un- 
wise. — adv. Brut'ishly. — n. Brut'ish- 


BRYONY, brl'o-ni, n. a wild climbing 
plant. [L. bryonia, Gr. bryonS, perhaps 
from bryo, to burst forth with, to grow 

BUBBLE, bub'l, n. a bladder of water 
blown out with air : anything empty : a 
cheating scheme. — v.i. to rise in bubbles. 
[Dim. of the imitative word blob ; cf. 
Dut. bobbel, L. btdla, a bubble.] 

BUBBLE AND SQUEAK, bub'l and skwek, 
n. a dish consisting of fried beef and cab- 
bage : probably so called from the soundi^ 
made during frying. . Sometimes also 
used contemptuously for something spe- 
cious, deceptive, worthless. "Rank and 
title ! bubble and squeak ! No I not half 
so good as bubble and squeak; English 
beef and good cabbage. But foreign 
rank and title ; foreign cabbage and 
beef ! foreign bubble and foreign squeak.'" 

BUCCANEER, BUCANIER, buk-an-er', n. 
the buccaneers were pirates in the West 
Indies during the seventeenth century, 
who plundered the Spaniards chiefly. 
[Fr. boucaner, to smoke meat — Canb 
ooucan, a wooden gridiron. The French 
settlers in the West Indies cooked their 
meat on a boucan after the manner of 
the natives, and were hence called bou- 



BUCCINATORY, buk'sin-a-to-ri, etdj. of or 
pertaining to the buccinator or trumpet- 
er's muscle. " The bncdnutttry muscles 
alons: his cheeks." — Sterne. 

BUCEPHALUS, bfi-sef'-a-lus, n. the famoua 
warhoFBe used by Alexander the Great: 
hence applied jocosely to any riding 

BUCK, T3wlc, n. the male of the deer, goat, 
hare, and rabbit : a dashing young fel- 
low. [A.S. tme, biteca ; Ger. voch, a he- 

BUCK, buk, v.t. to soak or steep in lye, a 
process in bleaching. — n. lye in which 
clothes aje^ bleached. [From the Celt., 
as in Gael, buac, cowdung, used in 
blea<diing — &o, a cow; Ger. heuchen, etc., 
from the same source.] 

BUCKET, buk'et, n. a vessel for drawing 
or holding water, etc. [A.S. iuc, a 
pitcher ; probably from Oael. bucaid, a 

BUCKLE, bukl, n. an instrument for fast- 
ening shoes and other articles of dress. — 
v.t. to fasten with a buckle : to prepare 
for action : to engage in close fight. — v.z. 
to bend or bulge out: to engage with 
zeal. [Fr. bottcle, the boss of a shield, a 
ring — Low L. buccula, dim. of hueca, a 

BUCKLER, buk^er, n. a shield with a 
buckle or central boss. 

BUCKRAM, huk'ram, n. coarse cloth stif- 
fened with dressing. — adj. made of bock- 
ram : stiff: prticise. {O. Fr. boqueran — 
O. G«r. boc, a goat ; such stuff being made 
orig. of goat's hair.] 

BUCKSKIN, buk'skin, n.akind of leather : 
— ^. breeches made of buckskin. — etdj. 
made of the skin of a buck. 

BUCKWHEAT, buk'hwet, n. a kind of 
grain having three-cornered seeds like 
though much smaller than the kernels of 
beech-nuts. From buckwheat flour a nu- 
tritious griddle cake is njade, excellent as 
a winter diet, in the United States. [A. 
S. boc, beech, and Wheat ; Ger. bwc/i- 
"vteizen — buche, beech, weizen, corn.] 

BUCOLIC, -AL, bu-kol'ik, -al, adj. per- 
taining to the tending of cattle : pas- 
toral. — n. a pastoral poem. [L. bucolicus 
— Gr. boukolikos — boukolos, a herdsman, 
from botis, an ox, and perh. the root of 
L. colo, to tend-] 

BUD, bud, n. the first shoot of a tree or 
plant. — v.i. to put forth buds : to begin 
to grow. — v.i. to graft, as a plant, by in- 
serting a bud under the bark of another 
tree: — pr.p. budd'ing ; pa.p. budd'ed. 

{From a Low Ger. root, as in Dut. bot, a 
)ud. See Button.] 

BUDDHISM, bood'izm, n. the reformed re- 
ligion of the greater part of Central and 
E. Asia, so called from the titlo of i*<- 
f ©under, " the Buddha," " the wise.*^ It 
has well-nigh supplanted the cruel codes 
and rites of Brahminism. 

BUDDHIST, bood'ist, n. a - believer in 

BUDGE, buj, v.i. to move off or stir. TFr. 
bouger — It. bulicare, to boil, to bubble— 
L. ZntZZtVe.] 

BUDGE, buj, n. lamb-skin fur, formerly 
used as an edging for scholastic gowns. 
— adj. lined with budge : scholastic. 
[Doublet of Bag. See also Budget and 

BUDGET, buj'et, n. a sack with its con- 
tents : annual statement <)f the finances 
of the British nation made by the Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer. FFr. bougette, 
dim. of bouge, a poucli — L. mdga, a word 
of Gallic origin — ^root of Bag.] 

BUFF, buf, n. a leather made from the 
fikln of the buffalo : the color of buff, a 
light yellow : — pi. a regiment so named 
from their buff-colored facings. [Fr. 
imffle, a buffalo.] 

BUFFALO, buf'a-Io, n. a large kind of ox, 
generally wild. — Butfalo robe, the skin 
of the buffalo dressed for use. [Sp. buf- 
nlo — ^L. bubalus, Gr. boubdlos, the wild 
ox— bott«, an ox.] 

BUFFER, bufer, n. a cushion to deaden 
the " buff " or concussion, as in railway 
car riages. 

BUFFET, bufet, n. a blow with the fist, a 
slap. — v.t. to strike with the hand or fist : 
to contend against. [O. Fr. biifet — Intfe, 
a blow, esp, on the cheek ; conn, with 


BUFFET, buf et, n. a kind of sideboard. 
fFr. bnffet ; orig. unknown.] 

BUFFOON, huf-oon', n. one who amuses by 
jests, grimaces, etc. : a clown. \Ft. bouf' 
fan — It. bnffare, to jest, QM.) to puff out 

BUFFOONERY, buf-oon'er-i, n. the prac- 
tices of a buffoon : ludicrous or vulgar 

BUG, bug, n. an object of terror ; applied 
loosely to certain insects, esp. to one 
that infests houses and beds : a beetle. 
rW. bvyg, a hobgoblin.] 

BUGBEAR, bug'bar, n., an object of ter- 
ror, g«ierally imaginary. — adj. causing 

BUGGY, bug!, n. a single-seated, four- 
wheeled vehicle, with or without a top, 
draw^n by one or tw^o horses. 

BUGLE, bu'gi, BUGLE-HORN, bu'gl-hom, 
n. a hunting-horn, orig. a buffalo-horn : 
a keyed horn of rich tone. [0-. Fr. — L. 
bttculus, dlMi of bos, an ox.] 

BUHL, bul, n. unburnished gold, brass, or 
mother-of-pearl worked into patterns for 
Inlaying : furniture ornamented with 
such. [From Boule, the name of an 
Italian wood-carver who introduced it 
into France in the time of Louis XIV.] 

BUILD, bild, v.t. to erect, as a house : to 
form or construct. — v.i. to depend (on) : 
^-pa.p. built or build'ed. — n. construc- 
tion : make. [O. Swed. bfflja, to build ; 
Dan. bol ; A.S. bold, a house.] 

BUILDER, bild'er, n. one who builds. 

BUILDING, bild'ing, n. the art of erecting 
houses, etc. . anything built t a house. 



BUILT, bilt, p.adj. formed or shaped. 

BULB, bulb, 71. an onion-like root. — v.i. to 
form bulbs : to bulge out or swell. — adjs. 
Bulbed, Bul'bous. 

.BULBUL, bool'bool, n. the Persian night- 

BUfiSE, bulj, n. the bilge or widest part 
of a cask. — v.i. to swell out. [A.S. belgan, 
to swell ; Gael, bolg, to swell. See Bilge, 
Bellv. Bag, etc.] 

BULGER, bwT-jer, n. one of the clubs with 
a convex face used in golf. 

BULK, bulk, n. magnitude or size : the 
greater part : (of a ship) the whole cargo 
in the hold. [A form of Bulge.] 

BULKHEAD, bulk'hed, n. a partition sep- 
arating one part of a ship between decks 
from another. [Bulk=halk, a beam.] 

BULKY, bulk'i, adj. having bulk : of great 
size. — n. Bdlk'iness. 

BULL, bool, n. the male of the ox kind : 
a sign of the zodiac. — adj. denoting 
largeness of size — ^used in composition, 
as bull - trout. [From an A.S. word, 
found only in dim. bidluca, a little bull — 
A.S. bellan, to bellow.] 

BULL, bool, n. an edict of the pope which 
has his seal affixed. [L. bulla, a knob, any- 
thing rounded by art ; later, a leaden 

BULL, . bool, n. a ludicrous blunder in 
speech. [Perh. in sarcastic allusion to 
the pope's bulls.] 

BULL-BAITING, bool'-bat'ing, n. the sport 
of baiting or exciting bulls with dogs. 

BULLDOG, bool'dog, n. a kind of dog of 

freat courage, formerly used for baiting 
uUs : a cant name for a pistol. " 'I 
have always a brace of bulldogs about 
me.' ... So saying, he exhibited a very 
handsome, highly finished, and richly 
mounted pair of pistols." — Sir W. Scott. 
Also a bailiff. "1 sent for a couple of 
bulldogs and arrested him." — Farquhar. 

BULLDOZE, bool'doz, v.t.l, to administer a 
dozen strokes of a bull whip or cowhide 
to, a mode of summary punishment in 
some parts of the United States, where 
the action of the law was considered too 
slack or dilatory ; 2, to intimidate at 
elections, as negroes by the whites, to 
influence their votes : hence, to exercise 
poUtical influence on in any way. [Recent 
American political slang.] 

BULLDOZER, bool'doz-er, n. one who bull- 

JULLET, bool'et, n. a ball of lead for load- 
ing small arms. [Fr. boulet, dim. of bovZe, 
a ball — L. bulla. See Bull, an edict.] 

BULLETIN, bool'e-tin, n. an official report 
of public news ; also apphed to a sum- 
mary of the news, advertised outside of 
the business offices of metropohtan daily 
newspapers. (Amer.) [Fr. — It. bulletino, 
dim. of bulla, a seal, because issued with 
the seal or stamp of authority. See Bull, 
an edict.] 

BULLET-PROOF, bool'et-proof, adj. proof 
against buUets. 

BULLFIGHT, bool'm, n. bull-baiting, a 
popular amusement in Spain. 

Bullfinch, bool'finsh, n. a species of 
finch a little larger than the common 
linnet. [Ace. to Wedgwood, prob. a corr. 
of Imd-finch, from its destroying the buds 
of fruit-trees.] 

BULLION, bool yun, n. gold and sUver re- 
garded simply by weight as merchandise. 
pEty. dub.j 

BULLOCK, Doorok, n. an ox or castrated 
bull. [A.S. bulluca, a calf or young bull. 
See Bull.] 

BULL'S-EYE, boolz'-i, n. the centre of a 
target, of a t'ifferent color from the rest, 
and usually round ; also the centre of 
a railroad si'^nal lamp or semaphore. 

BULLTROUT, bool'trovd;, n. a large kind 
of trout, nearly allied to the salmon. 

BULLY, bool'i, n., a blustering, noisy, over- 
bearing fellow. — v.i. to bluster. — v.t. to 
threaten in a noisy way : — -pr.p. bull'y- 
ing; pa.p. buU'ied. [Dut. bulderen, to 
bluster ; Low Ger. buUerbrook, a noisy 
blustering fellow.] 

BULRUSH, bool'rush, n. a large strong 
rush, which grows on wet land or in 

BULWARK, bool'wark, n. a fortification 
or rampart : any means of defence or 
security. [From a Teut. root, seen in 
Ger. bollwerk — root of Bole, trunk of 
a tree, and Ger. werk, work.] 

BUM, bum, v.i. to hum or malie a mur- 
muring sound, as a bee :—pr.p. bumm'- 
ing ; pa.p. bummed'. [Bum = boom, 
from the sound.] 

BUMBAILIFF, bum'bal'if, n. an under- 

BUMBLE-BEE, bum'bl-be, n. a large kind 
of bee that makes a bumming or hum- 
ming noise : the humble-bee. [M. E. 
Ifumble, freq. of Bum, and Bee.] 

BUMBO AT, bum'bot, n. boat for carrying 
provisions to a ship. [Dut. bum-boot, 
for bunboot, a boat with a bun, or recep- 
tacle for keeping fish alive J 

BUMP, bump, v.i. to make a neavv or loud 
noise. — v.t. to strike with a dull sound : 
to strike against. — n. a dull, heavy blow : 
a thxmip : a lump caused by a blow : the 
noise of the bittern. [W. pwmpio, to 
thump, pxvmp, a round mass, a bump ; 
from the sound.] 

BUMPER, bump'er, n. a cup or glass filled 
till the liquor swells over the orim : the 
buffer of a raUroad car. [A corr. of bom^ 
bard, bumbard, a large drinking- vessel.] 
BUMPKIN, bimip'kin, n. an awkward, 
clumsy rustic : a clown. [Dut. boom, a 
log, and dim. -kin.] 

BUMPTIOUS, bump'-shus, adj. offensively 

BUN, bun, n. a kind of sweet cake: the 
familial* name for the squirrel. (Amer.) 
[O. Fr. bugne, a kind of fritters, a form 
of bigne, a swelling, and found also in 
beignet, a fritter; of. Scot, bannock; 



vconn. with Bunion and Bunch, the orig. 
meaning' being a swelling.] 

BUNCH, bunsh, n. a number of things tied 
together or growing together : a cluster: 
something in the form of a tuft or knot. — 
v.i. to swell out in a bunch. [O. 8w. and 
.X>an. bunke. Ice. bunki, a heap— O. Bw. 
bu nga, to strike, to swell out.] 

-BUNCHY, bunsh'i, adj. growing in bunches 
or like a bunch - 

BUNCOMBE, BUNKUM, bung'-kum, «. 
empty, noisy, bombastic oratory. Said 
to have originated in the remark of a 
member of Congress for Buncombe 
County, North Carolina, that he was 
"talking only for Buncombe." 

BUNDLJ!], bun'dl, n. a uumber of thingss 
loosely bound together. — ■v.t. to bind or 
tie into bundles. [A.S. byndel — ^froro 
the root of Bind.] 

BUNDESRATH, bowi'-des-rat, n. the Fed- 
eral Council of tile Greimaii Empire. 

BUNG, bung, n. the stopper of the hole rn a 
barrel: a large cork. — v,t. to stop up with 
a bung. [Ety. dub.J 

BUNGALOW, bung'garlS, n. a country- 
house in India. [Pers., "belonging to 

BUNGLE, bung'l, n. anything clumsily 
done: a gross blunder. — v.i. to act in a 
clumsy, awkward manner. — v.t. to make 
or mend clumsily : to manage awkwardly. 
—n. Bungl'er. [Perh. freq. of bang ; cf. 
O. Sw. bunga, to strike, bangla, to work 

BUNION, bun'yun, n. a lump or inflamed 
swelling on the ball of the gr^it toe. 
[From root of Bun.] 

Bunk, bungk, n. a wooden raise used in 
country taverns and in oflSces, which 
serves. for a seat during the day, and for 
a bed at night : a sailor's sleeping berth : 
a berth or rude bed in a lumber camp, on 
construction trains with boarding cars, 

BUNKER, bun'-ker, n. a chest that serves as 
a seat: as, a box placed in a window for 
the purpose of using the cover as a seat : 
a bin in which coal is kept: in golf, any 
rough or hazardous ground, natural or 
artificial, or any hole or pit, on the links. 

BUNKO, bun'-ko, v.t. to swindle, cheat, or 
victimize by passing bad checks or by 
other forms of deception. Hence Bunko 
o\^rF. Also snelled Bunco. 

BUNTING, bunf ing, n. a thin woollen 
stuff of which ships' colors are made : a 
kind of bird. [Ety. dub.] 

BUOY, bwoi, n. a floating cask or light 

£iece of wood fastened by a rope or chain 
3 indicate shoals, the position of a ship's 
anchor, etc. — v.t. to fix buoys or marks : 
to keep afloat, bear up, or sustain. [Dut. 
boei, buoy, fetter, through Romance 
forms (Norman, bote), from O. L. boia, a 
collar of leather — ^L. bos, ox.] 
BUOYANCY, bwoi'an-si, n. capacity for 
floating lightly on water or in the air; 

epecific %htness: (Jg.) lightness of 
spirit, cheerfulness. 

BUOYANT, bwoi'ant, adj. lighi- : cheerful. 

BUB, BURR, bur. n. the prickly seed-case 
or head of certain plants, which sticks 
to clothes : the rough sound of r pro- 
nounced in the throat. [Prob. E., but 
-with cognates in maiw lai:^., as Swed. 
borre, a sea-urchin, L. burrce, trash— 
from a root signifying rough.] 

SURBOT, bur'bot, n, a fresh-water fish, 
Uke the eel, having a longish beard on its 
lower jaw. [Fr. barbote — L. barba, a 

BURDEN, bur'dn, n. a load : weight : car- 
go : that which is grievous, oppressive, 
or difficult to bear. — v.t. to load : to op- 
press: to encumber. [A.S. byrthen — 
oeran, to bear.] 

FURDEN, bur'dn, n. part of a song re- 
peated at the end of every stanza, refrain. 
[Ft. bourdon, a humming tone in music 
— ^Low L. burdo, a drone or non-working 

BURDENOUS, hur'dn-us, «<^*. burdensome. 

BURDENSOME, bur'dn-sum, adj. heavy: 

BURDOCK, bur'dok, n. a dock with a, bur 
or prickly head. 

BUREAU, btir'6, u. a writing-table or chest 
of drawers, orig. covered with dark cloth : 
a room or office where such a table is used : 
a department for the transactingof public 
business :—^l. Bureaux, bur's. Bureaus, 
bur'oz. [O. Ft. buret, coarse russet cloth 
— Li. burrus, dark red ; cf . Gr. pyrrhos, 
flame-colore d— j :^r — FlRE.] 

BUREAUCRACY, bur-6'kras-i, n. govern- 
ment by officials appointed by the ruler, 
as opposed to self-government or g:ov- 
eriunent by parliamentary majority. 
[Bureau and Gr. krato, to govern.] 

BUREAUCRATIC, bur-6-krat'ik, adj. re- 
lating to, or having the nature of a 

BURGAGE, burg'aj, n. a system of tenure 
in boroughs, cities, and towns, by which 
the citizens hold their lands or tene- 
ments, in Great Britain and Holland- 

BURGAMOT, bur'ga-motj n. same as 

BURGEON, bur'jun, v.i. same as Bour- 

BURGESS, bur'jes, BURGHER, burg'er, n. 
an inhabitant ol a borough : a citizen or 
freeman : a magistrate of certain towns. 

BURGH, bur's or burg, n.—a4j. Bur'GHAL. 

BURGLAR, burg'lar, n. one who breaks 
into a house lyy night to steal. [Fr. 
bourg, town (--Oer. burg, E. BOROUGH), 
O. Fr. teres— L. latro, a robber.] 

BURGLARIZE, burg'lar-ize, v.t. to steal 
from a residence, church, etc, in the 
night time. (Amer.) 

BURGLARY, bui^lar-i, ». hreaking into a 
house by night to rob. — adj. Burglae'- 
lous.— adr. Burglar'iously. 

BURGOMASTER, burg'o-mast'er, n. the 
chief raasistrate of a German or a Dutch 



burgh, answering to the English term 
mayor. [Dut. our gemeester— burg, and 
meester, a master.] 

BURGUNDY, bur'gun-di, n. a French wine, 
so called from Burgundy, the district 
where it is made. 

BURIAL, ber'i-al, n. the act of placing a 
dead body in a grave : interment. [A.S» 
birgels, a tomb. See Bury.] 

BURIN, bur'in, n. a kind of chisel used by 
engravers. [Ft.; from root of Bore.] 

BURK[E, burk, v.t. to murder, esp. by sti- 
fling : hence, (fig.) to put an end to quiet- 
Iv. [From Burke, an Irishman of Lon- 
don, who committed the crime in order 
to sell the bodies of his victims for dis- 

BURLAP, berlap, n. a coarse, heavy, 
textile fabric of jute, flax, manilla, or 
hemp used for bags or wrappers. A 
superior quality is sometimes manufac- 
tured an d m ade into curtains. 

BURLESQUE, bur-lesk', n. (lit.) a Jesting 
or ridiculing: a ludicrous representa- 
tion. — adj. jocular : comical. — v.t. to 
turn into burlesque : to ridicule. [Fr. 
— It. burlesco ; prob. from Low L. burra, 
a flock of wool, a trifle.] 

BURLY, bur'li, adj. bulky and vigorous : 
boisterous. — n. Bub'mness. [Prob. Celt., 
as in Gael, horr, a knob, borrail-=4>urly, 

BURMESE, bur'-TO5z, adj. relating to Bur- 
ma, in India, or its langruage. — n. a na- 
tive, or the language, of Burma. 

BURN, bum, v.t. to consume or injure by 
fire. — v.i. to be on fire : to feel excess of 
heat : to be inflamed with passion : — 
pa.p. burned' or burnt. — n. a hurt or 
mark caused by fire. — ^To BURN ONE'S 
rrNGERS, to suffer from interfering in 
other's affairs, from embarking in specu- 
lations, etc. [A.S. byman; Ger. bren- 
nen, to burn ; akin to L. ferveo, to glow.] 

BURNER, burn'er, n. the part of a lamp or 
gas-jet from which the flame arises. 

BURNING-GLASS, burn'ing-glas, n. a 
glass so formed as to concentrate the 
sun's rays. 

BURNISH, burn'ish, v.t. to polish; to 
make bright by rubbing. — n. poUsh : 
lustre. (Tr. brunir, to make brown — 
root of Brown.] 

BURNISHER, burn'ish-er, n. an instru- 
ment e mploy ed in burnishing. 

BURNT-OFFERING, burnt'-ofer-ing, n. 
something offered and burned upon an 
altar as a sacrifice. 

BURR. bur. n. same as BUR. 

BURRO, bur'-ro, n. {zool.) a donkey used 
in the Western United States. [Sp. an 

BURROW, bur's, n. a hole in the ground 
dug by certain animals for shelter or de- 
fence.— v.i. to make holes underground 
as rabbits : to dwell in a concealed place. 
[A doublet of BOBOUQH— A.S. beorgan, 
to protect]. 

BURRO WER, bur'5-er, n. one who bur- 

rows ! specifically, an animal, such as th« 
rabbit, which excavates and inhabits 
burrows or holes in the earth : a burrow- 
ing animal. 
BURSAR, burs'ar, n. one who keeps the 
purse, a treasurer : in Scotland, a studAit 
maintained at a university by funds de- 
rived from endowment. [Low L. bursas 
rius — bursa, a purse — Gr. byrse, skin or 

BURSARY, burs'ar-i, n. in Scotland, the 

allowance paid to a bursar. 
BURST, burst, v.t. to break into pieces . to 

break open suddenly or by violence.— t7.i. 

to fly open or break in pieces : to break 

forth or away :—pa.t. and pa.p. burst.— 

n. a sudden outbreak. [A.S. berstan ; Ger. 

bers ten, Gael, brisd, to break.] 
BURTHEN, hur'thn, n. and v.t. same as 

BURY, ber'i, v.t. to hide in the ground : to 

glace in the grave, as a dead body : to 
ide or blot out of remembrance :—pr.p, 
bur'ying; pa.p. bur'ied. rA.S. byrgan, 
to bury ; Ger. oergen, to Yude.] 

BURYING - GROUND, L er'i-ing-grownd, 
BURYING- PLACE, ber'i-ing-^as, n. 
ground set apart for burying the dead: 
a gTave;^ard. 

BUS, bus, n. an omnibus. [An abbreviation 
of omnibus; used colloquially.] 

BUSBY, bus'-be, n. a fur hat worn by sol- 

BUSH, boosh, n. a shrub thick with 
branches : anything of bushy tuft-like 
shape : any wild uncultivated country, 
esp. at the Cape or in Australia. — In the 
United States, IN the bush means in a 
new country before it has been cleared 
up. A SUGAR BUSH, a cluster of sugar 
maple trees. [M.E. Imsk, busch ; from a 
Teut. root found in Gter. busch. Low L. 
boscus, Ft. bois.'\ 

BUSH, boosh, n. the metal box or lining 
of any cylinder in which an axle works. 
[Dut. bits, — ^L. bziarus, the box-tree.] 

BUSHEL, boosh'el, n. in U. S., a dry meas- 
ure containing 33 dry quarts or 2150*4 cu. 
in.; in Great Britain, 8 imperial gallons 
or 2218-2 cu. in. [O. Fr. boissel, from the 
root of Box.l 

BUSHELLING, bush-el-ing, n. in ironwork- 
ing, a process by which scrap iron is 
heated and made into a ball in a fur- 
nace. Hence Bushelling Fubnace. 

BUSHMAN, boosh'man, n. a settler in the 
uncleared land of British America or the 
British colonies, a woodsman, similar to 
a backwoodsman in the United States; 
one of a savage race in South Africa. 

BUSH-RANGER, boosh'-ranj-er, ft. in Aus- 
tralia, a lawless fellow, often an escaped 
criminal, who takes to the bush and lives 
by robbery. 

BUSHY, boosh'i, ac^'. full of bushes : thick 
and spreading. — n. Bush'iness. 

BUSILY, biz'i-u, adv. in a busy manner. 

BUSINESS, biz'nes, n. employment : en- 
£^agement : trade, profession, or occupa- 



tion : one's concerns or affairs : a matter 
or aJfair, 

BUSK, busk, Vit. or v.i. to prepare: to 
dress one's self. [Ice. bua, to prepare, 
and -sk, contr. of sik, the recip. pron.= 

BDSKT, busk, n. the piece of bone, wood, or 
steel in the front of a woman's stays, 
[A form of Bust.] 

BUSKIN, busk'in, n. a kind of half-boot 
with high heels worn in ancient times by 
actors of tragedy : hence, the tragic dra- 
ma as distinguished from comedy. — adj. 
Busk'ined, dressed in buskins, noting 
tragedy, tragic. [Ety. dub.] 

BUSS bus, n. a rude or playful kiss. — v.t, 
to kiss, esp. in a rude or playful manner, 
[M. E. bass, prob. from O. Ger. hussen, to 
Kiss, but modified by Fr. baiser, to kiss, 
from L. basium, a kiss.] 

BUST, bust, n. the human body from the 
head to the waist : a sculpture represent- 
ing the upper part of the body. [Fr. buste 
— ^Low. L. bustum.] 

BUSTARD, bus'tard, n. a genus of large, 
heavy birds, akin to the ostrich family, 
and of which the Great Bustard is the 
largest of European land-birds. [Fr. bis- 
tard, corr. from L. avis tarda, slow birdj 
from the slowness of its flight.] 

BUSTLE, bus' I, v.i., to busy ones self : to 
be active. — n. hurried activity : stir : tu- 
mult ; also a part of ladies' attire, now 
no longer fashionable. (Amer.) [M. E, 
buskle, prob. from A.S. bysig, busy.] 

BUSY, biz'i, adj. fully employed : active ; 
diligent : meddling. — v.t. to make busy ; 
to occupy : — 'pr.p. busying (biz'i-ing) ; 
pa.p. busied (biz'id). — adv. Bus'lLY, 

M.S. bysig.} 


BUSYBODY, biz'i-bod-i, n. one busy about 
others' affairs, a meddling person. 

BUT, but, prep, or cunj. without : except % 
besides : only : yet : still. [A.S. butan, 
biutan, without — be, by, and utan, out- 
wear and yet outside.] 

BUT, but, n. same as Butt. 

BUTCH, booch,r.i. to butcher. (Rare.) 
Take thy huge offal and white liver hence, 
Or in a twinkling of this true blue steel 
I shall be hutching thee from nape to rump. 
—Sir H. Taylor. 

BUTCHER, booch'er, n. one whose business 
is to slaughter animals for food : one who 
delights in bloody deeds. — v.t. to slaugh- 
ter animals for food : to put to a bloody 
death, to kill cruelly, [Fr. boucher, orig. 
one who kills he-goats— ^oztc, a he-goat ; 
allied toE. buck.] 

BUTCHER-MEAT, booch er-met, n. the 
flesh of animals slaughtered by butchers, 
as distinguished from fish, fowls, and 

BUTCHERY, booch'er-i, n. great or cruel 
slaughter; a slaughter-house or shambles. 

BUTLER, but'ler, n. a servant who has 
charge of the liquors, plate, etc. — n. 
But'lership. [Norm. Fr. bututiler, Fr^ 
bouteiller — bouteille, a bottle.] 

WflTCT, but, vA> and v.t., to strike with the 

Snead, as a goat, etc. — n. the thick and 
he&yy end : a push with the head of an 
animal : a mark to be shot at : one who 
is made the object of ridicule. [O. Fr. 
boter, to push, strike, from O. Qer. bozen, 
to st rike (see Beat).] 

BUTT, but, n. a large cask : a wine-butt = 
126 gallons, a beer and sherry butt ==> 108 
gallons, [Fr. botte, a vessel of leather. 
See Boot, of which it is a doublet. Cf. 
A.S. bytte, a bottle,] 

BUTTE, but', n, in the far West, a detached 
hill or ridge rising abruptly, but not 
high enough to be called a mountain. 

BUTT-END, but'-end, n. the striking or 
heavy end : the stump. [See Butt, to 

IBUTTER, but'er, n. an oily substance ob- 
tained from cream by churning. — v.t. to 
spread over with butter. [A,S. hitter ; 
Ger. butter ; both from L. bittyr^m — Gr. 
bou tyron — bous, ox, tyros, cheese.] 

BUTTERCUP, but'er-kup, n. a plant of the 
crow-foot genus, with a e«p-like flower 
of a golden yellow, Uke butter. 

BUTTERFLY, but'er-fll, n. the name of 
an extensive group of beautiful winged 
Insects, so called perh. from the butter- 
like color of one of the species. 

BUTTERINE, but'er-en, n. an artificial fat- 
ty compound, sold as a substitute for but- 
ter, and upon the manufacture and sale 
of which an internal revenue tax is now 
imposed in the United States. 

BUTTERMILK, but'er-milk, n. the milk 
that remains after the butter has been 
separated from the cream by churning. 

BUTTER-WEIGHT, but'er-wat, n. more 
than full weight : a larger or more liberal 
allowance than is usual or stipulated for : 
from an old local custom of allowing 18 
to 22 oz. to the pound of butter. Sunft. 

BUTTERY, but'er-i, n. a storeroom in a 
house for provisions, esp. liquors. [Fr. 
bouteillerie, ht. " place for bottles." See 
Butler, Bottle,] 

BUTTHORN, but'thorn, n. a kind of star- 
fish, Asterias aurantiaca. [The first 
part of the word is prob. the but at 
halibut, the second part from its spiny 
surface J^ 

BUTTOCK, but'ok, n. the rump or pro- 
tuberant part of the body behind. [Dim. 
of Butt, end,] 

BUTTON, but'n, n. a knob of metal, bone, 
etc., used to fasten the dress by means of 
a buttonhole : the knob at the end of a 
foil, — v.t. to fasten by means of buttons. 
[Ft. bouton, any small projection, from 
oouter, to push; cf. W. botwm, a button.] 

BUTTRESS, but'res, n. a projecting sup- 
port built on to the outside of a wall : 
any support or prop. — v.t. to prop or sup- 
port, as by a buttress. [Prob. from O. 
Fr. bretesche, a battlement,] 

BUXOM, buks'um, adj. yielding, elastic: 

fay, lively, jolly. [M.E. buhsum, plia- 
le, obedient— A.S. btigan, to bow. yield; 
an" afllxsome,] 



BUY, !»♦».*. to purchase for money : to 
bribe: — pr.p. buy'ing ; pa.t. »nd pa.p. 
bought (bawt). [A.S. bycgan ; Goth. 

BUYABLE, bfa-bl, ac^. capable of being 
bought or of being obtained for money. 
" The spiritual fire which is in that man 
.... is not buyable nor salable." — 

BUYER, bTer, n. one who buys : a pur- 

BUZZ, buz, v.i. to make a humming noise 
Uke bees. — v.t. to whisper or spread se- 
cretly : familiar slang for, to address a 
young lady in coquetry (Amer.). — n. the 
noise of bees and flies : a whispered re- 
oort, [From the sound.] 

BU2JZABD, buz'ard, n. a bird of prey of 
the falcon family : a blockhead. [Fr. 
busard — L. buteo, a kind of falcon.] 

BY, bi, prep, at the side of : near to ; 
through, denoting the agent, cause, 
means, etc. — adv. near : passingnear : 
in presence of : aside, away. — -By and 
BY, soon, presently. — ^By the bye, by 
the way, in passing. [A.S. bi, big ; Grer. 
bet, L. ambi, Gr. amphi. Sans, abhi.] 

BY-FORM, bf-form, n. a form of a word 
slightly varying from it. [Prep. By.] 

BYGONE, bfgon, BY-PAST, bf-past, adj. 
past. — n. a past event. 

BYLAW, bi'law, n. the law of a city, 
town, or private corporation : a supple- 

mentary law or regulation. [From Ice. 
byar-ldg, Dan. by-lov, town or municipal 
law; Scot, bir-law ; from Ice: bua, to 
dweU. See Boweh. By, town, is a suf- 
fix in many place-names. The form by 
in bylaw, esp. in its secondary meaning, 
is generally conlused with the prep.] 

BYNAME, brnam, n. a nickname. 

BYPATH, bfpath, n. a side path. [Prep. 

BYPLAY, brpia, n. a scene carried on, 
subordinate to, and apart from, the main 
part of the play. [Prep. By.] 

BY-PRODUCT, br-prod-ukt, n. a second- 
ary or additional product : something 
produced, as in the course of a manu- 
facture, in addition to the principal prod- 
uct or material ; as, wood-tar is obtained 
as a by-product in the destructive distilla- 
tion of wood for the manufacture of 
wood-vinegar or wood-spirit. 

BYROAD, bi'rod, n. a retired sideroad. 

BYSTANDER, bfstand'er, n. one who 
stands by or near one : hence, a looker^ 

BYWAY, bFwa, n. a private and obscure 

BYWORD, bfwurd, n. a common saying : 
a proverb. 

BYZANT, biz'ant, BYZANTINE, biz'an- 
tln, n. a gold coin of the Greek empire, 
struck at Byzantium or Constantinople* 
valued at 75 dollars. 

CAB, kab, n. short for Cabriolet. 

CAB, kab, n. a Hebrew dry measure » 
nearly 3 pints. [Heb. kab — kabab, to 

CABAL, karbal', n. a small party united 
for some secret design : the plot itself. — 
v.i. to form a party for a secret purpose : 
to plot : — ]yr.p. cabaU'ing ; pa.p. car 
balled'. — n. Caball'ee, a plotter or in- 
triguer. [Fr. cabale; from Cabala.] 

CABALA, kab'a-Ia, n. a secret science of 
the Jewish Rabbis for the interpretation 
of the hidden sense of Scripture. — n. Cab'- 
ALLST, one versed in the cabala. [ChaL 
kabbel, to receive.] 

CABALLERO, ka-bal-ya'-ro, n. a cavalier, 
one of high degree socially: hence a gen- 
tleman. [Sp.] 

CABARET, kab'-a-ra, n. a small hotel or 
inn. [Fr.] 

CABBAGE, kab'aj, n. a well-known kitch- 
en vegetable. [Fr.-ca5i*s, headed {choux 
cabus, a cabbage) ; from L. caput, the 

CABIN, kab'in, n. a hut or cottage : a small 
room, especially in a ship. — v.t. to shut 
up in a cabin. [W. cab, caban, a rude 
little hut.1 

CABINET, kab'in-et, n. a small room or 
closet : a of drawers for articles of 
value : a private room for f.onsultation 

— Whence The Cabinet, the advisers of the 

CABINET, kab'in-et, adj. confidential : se- 
cret : private. In accordance with this 
sense tlie term cabinet council was ioag 
in general use before it became specific 
cally applied in politics. 

Those are cabinet councils. 
And not to be communicated. — Massinger. 
Others still g-ape t' anticipate 
The cabinet designs of FaXe.—Hudibrcui.] 

CABINET-MAKER, kab'in-et-mak'er, n. a 
maker of cabinets and other fine furni- 

CABLE, ka'bl, n. a strong rope or chain 
which ties anything, especially a ship to 
her anchor : a nautical measure of IOC 
fathoms. [Fr. — Low L. caplum., a halter 
~-capio, to nold.J 

CABLEWAY, ka'-bl-wa, n. a railway run 
on a wire or other rope. 

CABOOSE, ka-boos', n. the kitchen or 
cooking-stove of a ship. [Dut. kombuis. 
a cook's room.] 

CABOOSE, ka-boos', n. in the United States, 
a car carried at the end of a freight 
train, for the sleeping and living quarters 
of the train crew. 

CABRIOLET, kab-ri-6-la', n. a covered car- 
riage with two or four wheels drawn by 
one horse. £Fr. cabriole» formerly cap- 



Hole, the leap of a kid ; the springing 
motion being implied in the name of 
the carriage — L. capra, a she-goat.] 

CACAO, ka-ka'o, n. the chocolate-tree, 
from the seeds of which chocolate is 
made. fMex. kakahuatl.] 

CACAO-BUTTER, ka-ka'o-but-er, n.. the 
oil expressed from the seeds of the choco- 
iate-tree {Theobroma Cacao). [See Cacao.] 

CACHE, kash, n. a hiding-place for treas- 
ure, stores, ammunition, etc. : the stores 
themselves. — v.t. to hide anything. [Fr. 
cacher, to hide.] 

CACHINNATION, kak-in-a'shun, n., loud 
laughter. [L. cachinno, to laugh loudly 
— from the sound.]. 

CACHOU, kash-6o', n. a sweetmeat made 
in the form of a pellet, of licorice, etc., 
used by smokers to sweeten the breath. 

CACKLE, kakl, n. the sound made by a 
hen or goose. — v.i. to make such a sound, 
[E. ; cog. with Dut. kakelen — from the 

CACODOXY, kak'o-dok-si, n. a false or 
wrong opinion or opinions ; erroneous 
doctrine, esp. in matters of religion : 
heresy. [Gr. kakos, bad, and doxa, doc- 

CACOGASTRIC, kak'o-gas-trik, adj. per- 
taining to a disordered stomach or dys- 
pepsia : dyspeptic. " The woes tliat 
chequer this imperfect cacogastric state 
of existence." — Carlyle. [Gr. kakos, bad, 
and gaster, the stomach.] 

CACOPHONY, ka-kof'6-ni, n. a bad, dis- 
agreeable sound; discord of sounds. — 
adj. Cacoph'onous. [Gr. kakos, bad, 
phone, sound.] 

CACTUS, kak'tus, n. an American plant, 
generally with prickles instead of leaves. 


[Short for 

CAD, kad, n. a low fellow. 

CADASTRE, ka-das'ter, n. the head survey 

of the lands of a country : an ordnance 

survey. — adj. Cadas'tral. [Fr. — Low L. 

capitastrum, register for a poll-tax — L. 

caput, the head.] 
CADAVEROUS, ka-dav'er-us, adj. looking 

like a dead body: sickly-looking. [L. 

cadaver, a dead body — cado, to fall dead.] 
CADDY, kad'i, n. a small box for holding 

tea. [Malay kati, the weight of the 

small packets in which tea is made up.] 
CADE, kad, n. a barrel or cask. [L. cadu^, 

a cask.] 
CADDIE, kad'-di, n. in golf, a boy or other 

attendant who carries the player's club, 

tees his ball, etc. 
CADENCE, ka'dens, n. (lit.) a falling: the 

fall of the voice at the end of a sentence : 

tone, sound, modulation. [Fr. — L. cado, 

to fall.] 
CADET, ka-det', n. the younger or youngest 

son : in the army, one who serves as a 

private in order to become an officer : 

a student in a military school. — n. Cadet'- 

SHIP. [Fr. cadet, formerly capdet— how 

L. capiteftum, dim. of caput, the head. 

See Captain.] 
CADI, ka'di, n. a judge in Mohammedan 

countries. [Ar. kadhi, a judge.] 
CADRE, kardr, n. a list of the commissioned 

and non-commissioned officers of a regi' 

ment forming the staff : the skeleton o: 

a regiment : the staff. [Fr., from L 

quadrum, a square.] 
CADUCOUS, ka-du'kus, adj., falling early. 

as leaves or flowers. [L. caducus — cacJo, 

to fall.] 
Q^SARISM, se'zer-izm, n. a system of 

government resembling that of a Ccesar 

or emperor : despotic sway exercised by 

one who has been put in power by the 

popular will : imperialism. 
CJJeSURA, CESURA, se-zu'ra, n. a syllable 

cut off at the end of a word after the 

completion of a foot : a pause in a verse. 

—adj. C^ESU'RAI* [L. — ccedo, ccesum, to 

cut-off. i 
CAFE, ka-fa', n. originally a coffee-house; 

now applied to any room in a restaurant 

or hotel where any kind of drinks are 

served. [Fr.] 
CAFETAL, ka-fa-tal', n. name given to a 

coffee plantation in Spanish-American 

countries. [Sp.] 
CAFFEINE, kafe-in or kaf-e'in, n. the 

active principle of coffee and tea. [Fr. 

cafeine. See Coffee.] 
CAFTAN, kaftan, n, a Persian or Turkish 

CAGE, kaj, n. a place of confinement : a 

box made of wire and wood for holding 

birds or smrU animals. [Fr. — L. cavea, 

a hollow place.] 
CAIRN, karn, »., a heap of stones, esp. one 

raised over a grave. [Celt, katm.] 
CAITIFF, ka'tif, n. a mean, despicable 

fellow. — adj. mean, base. [O. Fr. caitif 

(Fr= chetif) — L. captivus, a captive — 

capio, to take.] 
CAJOLE, ka-jol , v.t to coax : to cheat by 

flattery. — ns. C>toler, ka-jol'er, Ca- 
jolery, ka-jol'er-i. [Fr. cajoler, O. Fr. 

cageoler, to chatter like a bird ia a 

CAKE, kak, n. a piece of dough that is 

baked or cooked : a small loaf of flne 

bread: any flattened mass baked hard. 

— v.t. to form into a cake or hard mass. 

—v.i. to become baked or hardened. 

[Sw. kaka, Qer. kuchen — kochen; all 

borrowed from L. coquo, to cook.] 
CALABASH, kal'a-bash, n. a vessel made 

of a dried groMrd-. hell : the gourd. [Sp. 

calabaza, the gourd — Ar. qar ayoas, 

dried gourd.l 
CALABOOSE, kal-a-boos', n. a name given 

in certain parts of the United States to 

a jail or prison. [A corruption of Sp. 

calabozo, dungeon.] 
CALAMINE, kal'-a-min, n. (min.) an ore, 

essentially of carbonate of zinc. [L. caha- 

CALAMITOUS, kal-am^i-tus, adj. making 

wretched : disastrous. 



CALAMITY, kal-am'i-ti, n. a great misfor- 
tune : affliction. [Fr. calamite — L. calam- 
itas. Ety. dub.] 

CALAMUS, kal'a-mus, n. an Indian sweet- 
scented grass. 

CALASH, karlash', n. a light Xoyr-wheeled 
carriage with a folding top : a hood worn 
by ladies to protect their bonnets. [Fr. 
caleche — Her. kaleache ; of Slav, origin, 
as Bohem. kolesa, Ross, holo, a wheel.] 

CALATHIFORM, ka-lath-i-fOrm, adj. hemi- 
spherical: cup or bowl shaped. Applied 
chiefly to flowers. 

CALATHUS, kal'-a-thus. n. a vessel or wo- 
man's workbasket, shaped like a lily: 
sometimes used in art to typify maiden- 
hood. [L. from Gr.] 

CALCAREOUS, kaJ-ka're-us, adj. like or 
containing chalk or lime. — n, CaL£!A'B£- 
OUSNESS. jL. ccUcarius, from calx.] 

CALCINEl, kal-sin' or kal'sin, v.t. to re- 
duce to a calx or chalky powder by the 
action of heat. — v.t. to become a calx or 
powder by beat. — n. Calcination, kal- 

CALCIUM, kal'si-um, n. an elementary 
substance present in limestone and chalk. 

CALCOGRAPHY, kal-kog'ra-fl, n. a style 
of engraving like chajue-draioing. — adj. 
CALCOGRAPffiCAL. [L calx, and Gr. 
graphe, writing — graphO, to write.] 

CALCULATE, kal'ka-lat, v.t. to count or 
reckon : to adjust. — v.i. to make a calcu- 
lation : to estimate.— ody. Cal'culablb. 
[L calcuU), to reckon by help of little 
stones — calculusy dim. of calx, a little 

CALCULATION, kal-kO-la'shun, n. the art 
or process of calculating : estimate. 

GALCULATIVE, kal'ku-lat-iv, adj. relating 
to calculation. 

CALCULATOR, kal'ka-lat-or, n. one who 

/^Q 1 /-»|| 1 Q ■4-pQ 

CALCULUS, kal'kQ-lus, iu one of the 
higher branches of mathematics : a 
stone-like concretion which forms in 
certain parts of the body.— ^i. Calculi, 

CALDRON, kawl'dron, n. a large kettle 
for boiling or heating liquids. [L cal- 
darium — calidus, hot— caieo, to grow 

CALEtX)NIAN, kal-e-do'ni-an, adj. pertain- 
ing to Caledonia or Scotland. 

CALENDAR, kal'en-dar, n. a register of 
the months : an almanac : a list of crimi- 
nal causes for trial. [L. calendaris, re- 
lating to the calends — calendce.] 

CALENDER, kal'en-der, n. (a corruption of 
Cylinder) a press consisting of two rollers 
for smoothing and dressing cloth : a per- 
son who calenders, properly a calendrer. 
— v.t. to dress in a calender. [Gr. kylirv- 
dros — kylindo, to roll.] 

CALENDS kal'endz, n. among the Romans, 
the first dixy of each month. [L. calendce 
— calo, . kaleo, to call, because the be- 
ginning of the month was proclaimed.] 

j CALENIURE, kal'cn-ttir, «. a kind of 
I fever or delirium occurring on board ship 
I in hot climates. [Fr. and Sp. — ^L. oaleo, 
\ to be hot.] 

' CALF, kaf, n. the young of the cow and of 

some other animals : a stupid, cowardly 

! person.— pZ. Calves, kavz. [A.S. cealf; 

Ger. katb, Goth, kalbo.l 
} CALF, kaf, n. the thick fleshy part of the 
leg behind : also calf-skin leather ; as, a 
I book bound in coif. [Ice. kalfi; perh. the 
same word as the preceding, the root 
idea being to be fat, thick.] 

CALF-LOVE, kaf'-luv, n. a youthful, ro- 
mantic passion or affection, as opposed 
to a serious, lasting attachment or love. 
*' It's a girl's fancy, just, a kind o' calf' 
love : let it go by." — Mrs. Oaskell. 

CALIBRE, CALIBER, kal'i-ber, n. the size 
of the bore of a gun : diameter : intel- 
lectual capacity. [Fr. calibre, the bore 
of a gun ; It. calibro.] 

CALICO, kal'i-ko, n. cotton cloth first 
brought from Calicut in the East In- 

CALIF, CALIPH, kSlif or kal'if, n. the 
name assumed by the successors of Mo- 

CALIFATE, CALIPHATE, kal'if-at, n. the 
office, rank, or government of a calif. 

CALIFORNIA JACK, a game of cards 
played in the Western United States, re- 
sembling seven-up, or all fours. 

CALIGINOSITY, ka-lij'i-nos'i-ti, n. dim- 
ness, obscurity, hidden meaning. " I dare 
not ask the oracles ; I prefer a cheerful 
caliqinosity, as Sir Thomas Browne might 
say." — Oeorge Eliot. 

ra-fl, n., beautiful hand-ioriting. [Gr. fco- 
las, beautiful (akin to E. hale), graphSj 

CALIPERS, kal'i-perz, CALIPER -COM- 
PASSES, kal'i-per-kum'pas-ez, n. com- 
passes with bent legs for measuring the 
diameter of bodies. [Corr. of Calibee.] 

is-then'iks, n. exercises for the purp>ose 
of promoting gracefulness, as well as 
strength of body. — ad/. Calisthen'ic. [Gr. 
kalos, beautiful, sthenos, strength.] 

CATiTX. See Calyx. 

CALK, kawk, v.t. to stuff (as if pressed 
with the foot) oakum into the seams of a 
ship to make it water-tight : to roughen 
a horse's shoe to keep it from slipping. — 
n. Calk'er. [O. Fr. cauquer — L. caleare^ 
to tread under foot — calx, the heel.] 

CALL, kawl, v.i. to cry aloud : to make 
a short visit. — v.t. to name : to summon: 
to appoint or proclaim. — n. a summons 
or invitation : an impulse : a demand : 
a short visit : a shrill whistle : the ciy 
of a bird. [A.S. ceallian ; Ice. kalla, Gr. 
ger-, in geryein, to proclaim.] 

CALLING, kawl'ing, n. that to which a 
person is called (by a divine voice, as it 
were) to devote his attention : trade : 
profession : occupation. 



CALLIOPE, kal-li'd-pe, n. an instrument 
producing musical notes by means of 
steam whistles: the muse of epic poetry. 

CALLOSrTY, kal-os'i-ti, n. a hard swelling 
on the skin. [L. callositas — callus, hard 

CALLOUS, kal'us, adj., hardened : unfeel- 
ing or insensible. — adv. CAiiOUSLY— > 


CALLOW, kal'o, ach. not covered with 
feathers : unfledged. [A.S. calu ; Dut. 
kaal, L. calvus, bald.] 

CALM, kam, adj. still or quiet: serene, 
tranquil. — n. aosence of wind : repose % 
serenity. — v.t. to make calm: to quiet. 
— adv. Calm'ly.— ^. Cauh'ness. [Fr. 
calme ; from Low L. cauma. — Gr. kauma, 
noonday heat — Jeaio, to burn.] 

CALOMEL, kal'5-mel, n. a preparation of 
mercury much used as a medioine : the 
white sublimate got by the application 
of heat to a mixture of mercury and 
corrosive sublimate, which is black. [Gr. 
kalos, fair, melas, black.] 

CALORESCENCE, kal-o-res'ens, n. inphys- 
ics, the transmutation of heat rays into 
others of higher refrangibility ; a pe- 
culiar transmutation of the invisible cal- 
orific rays, observable bevond the red 
rays of tne spectrum of solar and elec- 
tric light, into visible luminous rays, by 
Sassing them through a solution of io- 
ine in bisulphide of carbon, which in- 
tercepts the luminous rays and trans- 
mits the calorific. The latter, when 
brought to a focus, produce a heat strong 
enough to ignite combustible substances, 
and to heat up metals to incandescence ; 
the less refrangible calorific rays being 
converted into rays of higher refrangi* 
bility, whereby they become luminouso 
HL calor, heat.] 

CALORIC, ka-lor'ik, n., h^at: the supposed 

grinciple or cause of heat. [L. calor, 
eat — caleo, to be hot.] 

CALORIFIC, kal-or-if ik,|adj'., causing heat: 
heating. — n. Calorefica'tion. [L. calor i 
and facio, to make.] 

CALOTTE, ka-lot', n. a skull-cap : esp. a 
skull-cap worn by ecclesiastics. [Fr. J 

CALOTYPE, kal'6-tip, n. a kind of photog- 
raphy. [Gr. kalos, beautiful, typos, an 

CALOTYPIST, kal'o-tip-ist, n. one who 
takes photographs by the calotype pro- 
cess : in the extract used loosely and 
equivalent to photographer. 

I imprint her fast 
On tne void at last. 
As the sun does whom he wilt 
By the calotypisVs skill.— Brotwifno. 
CALPAC, CALPACK, kal'-pak, n. a large 
sheepskin or felt cap worn by Turks and 
other Orientals. [Turk.] 
CALTROP, kal'trop, n. a plant with prickly 
fruit : an instrument armed with four 
spikes, formerly strewn in the way of an 
enemy's cavalry. [A.S. coltrmpe.'\ 
CALUMET, kal'u-met, n. a kind of pipe, 

smoked by the American Indians, re< 
garded as a symbol of peace. [Fr. — L. 
calamus, a reed.] 
CALUMNIATE, ka-lum'ni-at, v.t. to accuse 
falsely : to slander. — v.i. to spread evil 
reports. — ns. CALUM'iaATiON, Calum'- 


CALUMNIOUS, ka-lum'ni-us, adj. of the 
nature of calumny : slanderous. — adv^ 

CALUMNY, kal'um-ni, n. false accusation t 
slander. [L. calumnia — calvere, to de- 

CALVARY, kal'-va-rg, n. the name of the 
place where Jesus was crucified: in the 
Rom. Catholic Church, a series of repre- 
sentations of the various scenes of Christ's 
crucifixion: an eminence crowned with 
one or three crosses bearing figures of 
Jesus and the two thieves. [Heb. gul- 
goleth, skull.] 

CALVE, kav, v.i. to bring forth a calf. 

CALVINISM, kal'vin-izm, n. the doctrineg 
of Calvin, an eminent religious reformer 
of 16th century. 

CALVINIST, kal'vin-ist, n. one who holds 
the doctrines of Calvin. 

CALVINISTIC, kal-vin-ist'ik, CALVINIST. 
ICAL, kal-vin-ist'i-kal, adj. pertaining to 
Calvin or Calvinism. 

CALX, kalks, n., chalk or lime: the sub- 
stance of a metal or mineral which re- 
mains after being subjected to violeBt i 
heat.^pZ. Calxbs, kalk'sSz, or CAiiOBS, ?^ 
kal'sez. [L. calx, a stone, limestone, ' 
lime ; alhed to Gael, carraig, a rock.] * 

CALYX, CALIX, kal'iks or ka'liks, n. the ' 
outer covering or cup of a flower. — ^l. 
CIl'yxes, Cal'yces, or Cal'ices. [L.; 
Gr. kalvx — kalypto, to cover.] 

CAMAGON, ka-ma-gon, n. the hardwood of 
a tree of the Philippine Islands. [Sp. 
— a native name.] 

CAMBRIC, kam'brik, n. a kind of fine white 
linen, originally manufactured at Cam- 
brav in Slanders. 

CAMBUCA kam-bu-ka, n. a bishop's crook 
or staff. [L.] 

CAME, kam — did come — past tense of 

CA3IEL, kam'el, n. an animal of Asia and 
Africa with one or two humps on its 
back, used as a beast of burden and for 
riding. [O. Fr. camel — L. camelv^ — Gr. 
kamelos — Heb. gramaZ.] 

CAMELLIA, ka-mel'ya, n. a species of 
evergreen shrubs, natives of China and 
Japan. [Named from Camellus, a 
Jesuit, said to have brought it from the 

CAMELOPARD, kam-ero-pard or kam'el- 
6-pard, n. the giraffe. [L. cameloparda- 
lis; from Gr. kamelos, the camel, and 
pardalis, the panther.] 

CAMELOT, kam'lot, n. see Camlet. 

CAMELRY, kam'-el-ry, n. troops m nortn- 
em Africa and in the Orient that are 
mounted on camels. Called also CameIi 




CAMEO, kam'e-5, n. a gem or precious 

stone, carved in relief. [It. cammeo; 
Ft. camee — Low L. cammcBus, traced by 

Littre to Gr. kamnein. to workj 

kam'er-a ob-sku'ra, n, an instrtunent for 
throwing" the images of external objects 
on a white surface placed within a dark 
chamber or box : used in photography. 


IMERATED, kam'er-at-ed, adj. divided 
into (Clambers: arched or vaulted. 

CAMESTRES, ka-mes'trez, n. in logic, a 
mnemonic word designating a-^lloginn 
of the second figure, having a universal 
aflBrmative major premiss, a universal 
negative minor, and a universal negative 

CAMLET, kamlet, «. a cloth originally 
made of cameU? hair, but now chiefly of 
wool and goats' hair. [Fr. — ^Low L. 
camelotum^-li. camelus.} 

a plant, or its dried flowers, used in medi- 
cine. [Gr. chamaimelon, the earth-apple, 
from the apple-like smell of its blossoms 
—chamaif on the ground, m^on^ wa. 

CAMORRA, ka-moT'-ra, ». a secret political' 
and criminal organization, formed at 
Naples, Italy, early in the Nineteenth 
Century. — ». Camokbist, ka-mor'-ist. [It] 

CAMP, kamp, n. the ground on which an 
army pitch their tents : the tents of an 
army. — v.i. to encamp or pitch tents. 
[Fr. camp, a camp — L. campus, a plain.] 

CAMPAIGN, kara-pan', n. a large open 
field or plain ; the time during which an 
army keeps the field. — v.i. to serve in a 
campaign. [Fr. campagne; from L. oa»- 
pania — campus, a field.] 

CAMPAIGN, kam-pan', v.t. to emi^oy in 
campaigns. " An old soldier . . . who 
had been campaigned, and worn out to 
death in the service.'*— nS^eme. 

CAMPAIGNER, kam-pan'er, li. one who 
has served several campaigma. 

CAMPANIFORM, kam-pan^i-form, CAM^ 
PANULATE, kam-pan'u-lat, adj., m the 
form of a bdl, applied to flowers. [It. 
campana, a bell, and Form.] 

:^AMP ANILE, kam-pan-e'la, n. Italian 

' name for a church - tower from which 

bells are hung. [It. — campana, a bell, 

also a kind of balance invented in Can^ 


(CAAIPANOLOGY, kam-pan-ol'o-ji, n. a di»- 
course on, or the science of, bm» or bell- 
ringing. [It. campana, a bell, and Gr. 
logos, a discourse.] 

CAMPESTRAL, kam-pes'tral. adj. growing 
in or pertaining to Jields. [L. campestris, 
front campus.] 

CAMP-FOLLOWER, kamp-fol'S-er, «. any 

one who follows in the tram of an army, 
but takes no part in battle. 
CAMPHOR (in B., Camfhire), kam'for, n. 

the white, solid juice of the laurel-tree 
of India, China, and Japan, having a 

bitteri^ taste and a pleasant smelL 

[Fr. campfcre— Low L. oamphora — ^Malay 

fcapur, chalk.] 
CAMPHORATED, kam'for-at-ed, ac^j. im- 

pregnated with camphor. 
CAMPHORIC, kam-for'ik, adj. pertaining 

to camphor. 
CAMP-STOOL, kamp'-stool, n. a, seat or 

stool with cross legs, so made as to fold 

up when not used. 
C3AN, kan, v.i. to be able : to have sufficient 

Eower :—pa.t. Could. [A.S. cunnan, to 
now (how to do a thing), to be able, 
pres. ind. can ; Goth, kunnan, G«r. kon- 
nen, to be able. See Kkow.I 

CAN, kan, n. a vessel for holding Uquor. 
fjA-S. canne ; cf. L. canna, a reed, Gr. 
«anne. a reed.] 

CANAILLE, ka-nal', n. the mob, the vulgaf 
rabble. [Fr.] 

GANAIi, kan-al', n. atn artificial water- 
course for navigation: a duct in th^ 
body for any of its fluids. [L. oanalis, 
a watervpipe ; £^in to Sans, kkan, to 

CANARD, ka-nar' or ka-nSrd', n. an ex* 
travagant or lying story. [Fr.] 

CANARY, ka-ua'ri, n. a wine from the 
Canary lolands: a bird ong. from the 
Canary Isiands. 

CAX-CAX, kan'-kan, n. a danoe with im- 
modest gestures and postures. 

CANCEIL, kon'sel, v.t. to erase or blot out 
by crossing tui^ lines: to annul or sup- 

f>ress:— pr.p. can'celUng^ pa.p. can'celled. 
Fr. canceller — L. cancello, from cancelli, 

raihnga, l attice - work, dim. of cancer.] 
CANCELLATED, kan'sel-at-ed, a^j. crossed 

by bars or lines. 
CANCEIR, kan'ser, n. an eating, spreading 

tumor or canker, supposed to resemble a 

crab : a sign of the zodiac. [L. cancer ; 

cog. with Gr. karkinos. Sens. TbarAeoto, a 

CANCEBOUa, kan'aer-UB, ck^'. of or like a 

CANDELABRITM, kan-de-la'bmm, n. « 

branched and ornamented candlestick.— 

pi. Cahdela'bea. fL.] 
CANDID, kan'did, ac(j. frank, ingenuous: 

free from prejudice: fair, impartial.— 

adv. CjkitDiDi^Y.—n. CA2f'Dii>NSBe. [Fr. 

oandid^—L. amdidiis, white — candeo, to 

inline. 1 
CANDIDATB, kac'di-dftt, n. one who offers 

himself for any offlor or honor, so called 

because, at Borne, the applicant used to 

dress in white. — ns. Can'didatubb, 

Can'didatb^iip. [L. eandidatus, from 

CANDLE, kan dl, H. was, tallow, or other 

like substance surrounding a wick: a 

light. [A.£k candid — L. eaimdeia, from 

candeo, to glow.] 
CANDLE-COAL, n. the same as CkSSBU- 

GOAL. , 

CANDLEMAS, kan'dl-mas, n. a festival of 
the R Catholic Church in honor of the 
puiificatitm of the Virgin Mar , on the ad 

cais^dlestice:— canonet 


of February* and so caDed from the num> 

ber of candles used. [Candle and Mass.] 
CANDLESTICK, kan'dl-stik, n. au instru- 
ment for holding a candle, orig. a stick 

or pioce of wood. 

CANDLEWOOD, kan'dl-wood, n. the wood 
of a West Indian resinous tree, Amyris 
halsamifera. Called also Bhodeswooa. 

CANDOR, kan'dvu", n. freedom from preju- 
dice or disguise : sincerity : openness. [L. 
candor, whiteness, from candeo, to oe 
shining white.] 

CANDYy kan'di, n. a sweetmeat made of 
sugar : anything preserved in sugar.— 
v.t. to preserve or dress with sugar : to 
congeal or crystallize as sugar. — v.t. to 
become congealed: — pr.p, can'dying; 
pa.p. can'died. [Fr. candi, from Ar, 
qand, sugar.] 

CANE, kan, n., a reed, as the bamboo, etc. ; 
a walking-stick. — v.t. to beat with a cane. 
TFr. canne — ^L. canna — Gr. kanne, a reed.l 

CANEPHORE, kan'-e-for, n. a basket-bearer 
in ancient Greece: in art, a youth or 
maiden carrying a basket containing fes- 
tival offerings and serving as a caryatid. 
Also Canephoeus, ka-nef'-o-rus. [L. from 

CANFIELDITE, kan'-f eld-it, ». (mm.) a 
rare sulphite of tin and silver containing 
a small percentage of germanimn, found 
in Bolivia. [Named after P. A. Ccmfield, 
an American mining engineer.] 

CANGUE, kang, n. a wide, heavy wooden 
collar which persons guilty of minor of- 
fences in China are made to wear in a 
public place as a punishment. [Fr. cangue 
— Port, canga, yoke.] 

CANINE, ka-nin', adj. like or pertaining to 
the dog. [L. caninus, from canis, a dog.] 

CANISTER, kan'is-ter, n. a box or case, 
usually of tin : a case containing shot, 
which bursts on being discharged. [L. 
canistrum, a wicker-basket, Gr. kana»- 
iron — kanne, a reed.] 

CANKER, kang'ker, n. small sores in the 
mouth : a disease in trees, or in horses' 
feet: anything that corrupts or con- 
sumes. — v.t. to eat into, corrupt, or de- 
stroy : to infect or pollute. — v.i. to grow 
corrupt : to decay. [Same as L. cancer, 
orig. pronounced canker.'] 

CANKEROUS, kang'ker-us, adj. corroding 

liIC6 3» C3,IiWpT* 

CANKER-ROOT, kan'-ker-root, n. (hot.) 
any one of many plants having astringent 
roots, as the marsh-rosemary, golden- 
thread, cancer-wort, etc. Also Cankeb- 
WEED, kan'-ker-wed, n. the ragwort of Eu- 

CANKER-WORM, kangTcer-wurm, n. a 
worm that cankers or eats into plants. 

CANNABIN, kan'na-bin, n. a poisonous re- 
sin extracted from hemp, by exhausting 
the bruised plant (Cannabis indica) with 
alcohol. To this resin are due the nar- 
cotic eifects of hashish or bhaner. [See 
Bhano.] ^ 


COAL, kan'dl-kOI, n. a very hard, black 
coal that bums without smoke, like a 
candle. fProv. cannel, candle.J 

CANNELXJRE, kan'-ng-ltir, n. {mil.) a! 
groove for holding the lubricant at the 
base of a bullet: a groove for the same 
purpose around the rotating band of a' 
projectile. — adj. Caniteltjbed, kan'-ni- 

CANNIBAL, kan'i-bal, n. one who eats hu- 
man flesh ; also an animal that eats tho 
flesh of members of its own or kindred 
species. "They (worms) are cannibals, 
for the two halves of a dead worm placed 
in two of the pots were dragged into 
the burrows and gnawed." — Darwin.— 
adj. relating to cannibalism. [Span, a 
corr. of Caribals (English Cartbs), the 
native name of the W. India islanders, 
who ate human flesh: prob. changed 
into a word expressive of their cteir- 
acter, from L. canis, a dog.] 

CANNIBALISM, kan'i-bal-izm, n. the prac- 
tice of eating hmuan flesh. 

CANNON, kan'un, n. a great |^n used in 
war: a particular stroke m billiards. 
[Fr. canon, from L. canna, a reed. 

CANNONADE, kan-un-ad', n. an attack 
with cannon. — v.t. to attack or batter 
with cannon. 

n. one who manages cannon. 

CANNOT, kan'ot, v.i. to be unable. [Cam 
and Not.] 

CANOE, ka-n5o', n. a boat made of the 
hollowed trvmk of a tree, or of bark or 
skins. [Sp. canoa, which like Fr. canot 
is from Carib canaoa.] 

CANOEIST, CANOIST, ka-n65'ist, n. one 
who practices the paddling of a canoe ; 
one skilled in the management of a 

CAS^ON, kan-yun', n. a deep gorge or 
ravine between high and steep banks, 
worn by water-courses. [Sp., a hollow, 
from root of Cannon.] 

CANON, kan'un, n. a law or rule, esp. in 
ecclesiastical matters: the genuine 
books of Scripture, called the sacred 
canon: a dig^tary of the Church of 
England : a list of saints canonized : a 
large kind of type. 

CANONIC, karuon'ik, CANONICAL, ka- 
non'ik-al, adj. according to or included 
in the canon : regular : ecclesiasticaL— 
adv. Canon'icaij.y. 

CANONICALS, ka-non'ik-alz, n. the offi- 
cial dress of the clergy, regidated by the 
church canons. 

CANONICITY, kan-un-is'i-ti. n. the state 
of belonging to the canon or genuine 
books of the Scripture. 

CANONIST, kan'im-ist, n. one versed in 
the canon law.— ac?/. Ganonist'ic. 

CANONIZE, kan'un-Iz, v.t. to enrol in the 
canon or list of saints. — n. Canoniza'- 


CANONRY. kan'un-ri, n. the benefice of » 



CANOPY, kan'o-pi, n. a covering^ over a 
throne or bea: a covering of state 
stretched over the head. — v.t. to cover 
with a canopy : — pr.p. can'opying ; pa.p. 
can'opied. [F"r. canape, O. Fr. conopee — 
L. conopeum — Gr. konopeion, a mosquito 
curtain — konops, a mosquito.] 

C2AN0R0US, kan-6'rus, adj., musical: 
melodious. [L. canorus, from eanor, 
melody — cano, I sing, j 

CANSTICK, kaa'stik. . n. a candlestick. 

CANT, kant, v.i. to talk in an affectedly 
solemn or In^pocntical way. — n. a hypo- 
critical or affected style of speech : the 
language peculiar to a sect : odd or pe- 
culiar talk of any kind. [Lit. to sing or 
«o5il^ ' ^ canto, freq. of cano, to sing.] 

CANT, kant, n. (orig.) an edge or comer: 
an inclination from the level : a toss or 
jerk.— p.f. to turn on the edge or comer: 
to tilt or toss suddenly. [Dut. kant; 
Qer. kante, a corner.] 

OANTABANK, kan'ta-bangk, n, a singer 
on a sta^ or platform; hence, a com- 
mon ballad singer : in contempt. (Rare.) 
ni cantare, freq. of cano, to sing, and It. 
banco, a bench. Comp, MountebaJ'IK.] 

Bfe was no tarena cantdbank that made it. 
Bat a Squire minstrel of your Highness' court. 

CANTALOUPE, kan'-ta-lop, n."a 'ribbS" v»^' 
riety of muskmelon. [Fr.] 

CANTANKEROUS, kaa-tangTjer-us, adj. 
cross-grained : perverse in temper. — n, 

CANTATA, kan-ta'ta, n. a poem set to 
music, interspersed with recitative. [It. 
— lu cantare, freq. of cario, to sing.] 

CANTEEN, kan-ten', n. a tin vessel used 
by soldiers for holding Uquors: a bar- 
rack-tavern. [Fr. cantine — It. cantina, 
a small cellar, dim. of canto, a comer.] 

CANTER, kan'ter, n. an easy gallop. — v.i. 
to move at an easy gallop. — v.t. to make 
to canter. [Ong. Canterbury-gaUop, from 
the easy pace at which the pilgrims rode 
to the shrine at Canterbury.] 

CANTHARIDES, kan-thar'i-dez, n.pL flies, u.sed for blistering. [L. 
oantharis. beetle, pi. cantharvlea. | 

CANTHARUS, kan'-tha-rus, n. a cup hav- 
ing a foot and two curved handles : in old 
churches, a fountain in the courtyard: 
also a metal disk for holding candles: — 
pi . C anthari, kan'-tha-ri. 

CANTICLE, kan'ti-kl, n, a song:— in pL 
the Song of Solomon. [L. canticuLviait 
dim. of canticum.] 

CANTILEVER, kan'ti-lev-er, n. (arch.) a 
wooden or iron block proiecting: from a 
wall to bear mouldings, balconies, and 
the like. The principle has been applied 
in the construction of bridges to support 
enormous weights, 

CANTINA, kan-te-na, n. the name given to 
a saloon, bar-room or canteen in South- 
western United States. 

CAiN'iX), kan'ts, ». division of a song m 
poem ; the treble or leading melody. 

CANTON, kan'ttm, n. a small division of 
territory : also, its inhabitants : a divis- 
ion of a shield or painting. — v.t. to divide 
into cantons : to allot quarters to troops. 
[Ft., a corner, a division.] 

CANTONAL. kan'tun-al, adj. pertaining to 
or divided into cantons. — 7i. CaJt'ton- 
MENT (also pron. Cantoon'mbnt), the 
quarters of troops in a town. 

CANVAS, kan'vas, n. a coarse cloth made 
of hemp, used for sails, tents, etc., and 
for painting on : the sails of a ship. [Fr. 
oanevag — L. and Gr. can»a6ts=E. Hemp.] 

CANVASS, kan'vas, v.t. to sift, examine : 
to discuss : to solicit votes. — n. close ex- 
amination : a seeking or solicitation. — n. 
Cam'vassbe. [Lit. to sift through can- 


S4^k^*°'*' ^'- '"'^ o' «• m»»de of canes. 
CANYON. Same as CA^fON. 

CANZONET, kan-zo-net', n. a little or short 
song. [It. camonetta, dim. of eam&ne, 

^ f"^^ ' ^^°™ ^- canto— cano, to sing.l 

CAOUTCHOUC, koo'chook, n. the hi|hly 
elastic juice or gum of a plant which 
grows in S. America and Asia: India- 
rubber. [S. American.] 

CAP, kap, n. a covering for the head : a 
cover : the top.— v.t. to put on a cap : to 
cover the end or top :—pr.p. capp'ing ; 
pa.p. capped'. [Low L. cappa, a cape or 

CAPA, kt'-pa, n. a cloak or mantle, used 
esp. in bull-fights: a fine grade of cigar 
wrapper grown in Cuba. [Sp.] 

CAPABLE, kap'a-bl, adj. having ability, 
power, or skill to do : qualified for. — n. 
Capabil'ity. [Fr.— L. capio, to hold, 
take or seize.] 

CAPACIOUS, kap-a'shus, adj. including 
much : roomy : wide : extensive.— adw. 
Capa'ciously. — n. Capa'ciousiiess. [L. 
capax, capacis — capio, to hold.] 

CAPACITATE, kap-as'i-tat, v.t., to make 
capable : to qualify. 

CAPACITY, kap-as'i-ti, n. power of tiold- 
ing or grasping a thing : room : power 
of mind : character, 

CAPARISON, ka-par'is-un, n. the covering 
at a horse : a rich cloth laid over a war- 
horse. — v.t. to cover with a cloth, as a 
horse : to dress very richly. [Fr. cap- 
aroQon — Sp. caparazon, augmentative of 
capa, a cape, cover — Low L. cappa.] 

CAPE, kap, n. a centering for the shoulders 
attached to a coat or cloak : a cloak. 
[O. Fr. cape — Low L. cappa.] 

CAPE, kap, n. a liead or point of land run- 
ning into the sea : a head-l&nd. [Fr. cap 
— L. caput, the nead.] 

CAPEADOR, ka-pa-a-thor', n. a bull-fighter, 
who excites or distracts the bull by means 
of a capa. [Sp.l 

CAPER, ka'per, n. the flower-bud of the 
caper-bush, used for pickling. [Fr, cApre 
— L. and Gr. capparis ; from Pers. iup- 
bar, capers.] 

CAPER, Ra'per, v.i. to leap or skip like a 
goat: to dance in a frolicsome manner. 



— ^t, a leap : a spring, pt. eaprioHare—' 

capriolo, a kid — 1.. caper, a goat.] 

CAPER- SPUEGE, ka/per-spurj, n. see 

CAPILLARITY, kap-il-ar'it-i, n. name 
given to certain effects |>roduced by 
liquids iu contact with capiUai'y tubes. 

CAPILLARY, kap'il-a-ri or l?a-pii'a-ri, adj. 
as fine or minute as a hair: having a 
very small bore, as a tube. — «, a tube 
with a bore as fine as a hair : — ^in pi. the 
minute vessels that unite the veins and 
arteries in animals. [L. capiUaris — 
eapilliis, hair, akin to caput, the head, 
akin to E. Head.] 

CAPITAL, kap'it-al, adi. relating to the 
head : involving the loss of the head : 
chief : principal : important. — adv. Cap*- 
ITATJ.Y. [Fr. — L. capitalis — caput, the 

CAPITAL, kap'it-aJ, n. the head or top 
part of a column or pillar : the chief or 
most important thing : the chief city of 
a country : a large letter : the stock or 
money for carrying on any business. 

CAPITAL, kap'i-tal, v.t. to furnish or 
crown with a capital, as a pillar or 
column. *' The white column capitalled 
with gilding." — Charlotte Bronte. 

CAPITALISM, kap'it-al-izm, n. the state 
of having capital or property : possession 
of capital. "The sense of capitalism 
sobered and dignified Paul de Florae." 
— Thackeray. 

CAPITALIST, kap'it-al-ist, n. one who has 
capital or money. 

CAPITALIZE, kap'it-al-iz, v.t. to convert 
into capital or money. 

CAPITATION, kap-it-a'shun, n. a number- 
ing of every head or individual : a tax on 
every heaa. rPr. — Low L. capitatio^ 
caput, the head.] 

CAPITOL, kap'it-ol, n. the temple of Jup. 
ter at Rome, built on the top of a hill ; 
in the U.S. the house where Congress 
meets. [L. Capitolium — caput, the head.] 

kap-it'ul-ar-i, n. a statute passed in a 
chapter or ecclesiastical court : a mem- 
ber of a chapter. — adj. relating to a 
chapter in a cathedral : belonging to a 
chapter. — adv. Capit'ulakly. [See ChaP" 


CAPITULATE, kap-it'ul-at, v.i. to yield or 

surrender on certain conditions or heads. 

— n. Capitula'tion. 
CAPON, ka'pn, n. a young cock cut or 

castrated. [A.S. capun — L. capo— Gr. 

kannn — kopto, to cut. See CHOP.] 
CAPORAL, Kap-or-al', n. a kind of shag 

tobacco, used in the United States for 

cigarettes. [Fr.] 
CAPOTE, ka-p6t', n. a kind of cloak. [Fr., 

dim. of cajie, a cloak.] 
CAPRICE, ka-pres', n. a change of humor 

or opinion without reason : a freak. [Fr, 

caprice — It. capriccio ; perh» from L. 

eapra, a she-goat] 
CAPRICIOUS, ka-prish'us, adj. full of ca- 

price .• ehanreabte.—ad«. CAPRfCIOtrSLT. 

CAPRIlX^i.^, kap'ri-korn, n. one of the 
signs of tiie zodiac, Uke a homed goat, 
nl oapricamus — caper, a goat, comu, a 

CAPRIOLE, kap'ri-6l, «., a caper ; a leap 
without advancing. [O. Fr. capriole. — It 
eapriola — L. caper, capra, a goat.] 

CArelCUM, kap'si-kum, n. a tropical 
plant, from which cayenne pepper ia 
made. [From L. capscu, a case, its ber- 
ries being contained in pods or capsules 
— capio, to hold.] 

CAPSIZE, kap-siz', v.t. to upset. [Ety. dub.) 

CAPSTAN, kap'stan, n. an upright machine 
turned by spokes so as to wind upon it a 
cable which draws something, generally 
the anchor, on board ship. [Fr. cabestan; 
ety. dub.] 

kap'sul-ar-i, oc^. hollow like a capsule s 
pertaining to a capsule. 

CAPSULE, kap'sul n. the seed-vessel of a 

Slant: a small dish. [Fr. — L. capsula, 
im. of capsa, a case — capio, to hold.] 

CAPTAIN, kap'tin or kap'tan, n. a head or 
chief officer : the commander of a troop 
of horse, a company of infantry, or a 
ship: the overseer of a mine. [O. Fr. 
capitain — ^L. caput, the head.] 

CAPTAINCY, kap'tin-si or kap'tan-si, n. 
the rank or commission of a captain. 

CAPTION, kap'shun, n. the act of taking: 
an arrest. [L. captio — capio, to take.] 

CAPTIOUS, kap'shus, adj. ready to catch 
at faults or taJc^ offence : critical : peev- 
ish. — adv. Cap'tiously. — n. Cap'tious- 
NESS. [Fr. — L. captiosus — capto,to snatch 

CAPTIVATE, kap'tiv-at, v.t. (lit.) to take 
or make captive : to charm : to engage 
the affections. [See Captive.] 

CAPTIVATING, kap'tiv-at-ing, adj. bar- 
ing power to engage the affections. 

CAPTIVE, kap'tiv, n. one taken : » pris- 
oner of war : one kept in bondage.— ac^., 
taken or kept a prisoner in war : charmed 
or subdued by any thing. — n. Capttt'ity. 
[L. captivus — capio, captus.] 

CAPTIVE, kap'tiv, v.t. to take captive : to 

CAPTOR, kap'tor, n. one who takes a pris- 
oner or a prize. 

CAPTURE, kap'tur, n. the act of taking : 
the thing taken : an arrest. — v.t. to take 
as a prize : to take by force. [Fr. cap* 
ture — L. captura — capio, to take.] 

CAPUCHIN, kap-ii-shen', n. a Franciscan 
monk, so called from the hood he wears : 
a hooded pigeon. [Fr. capuein — It. 
cappudno, a small cowl — Low L. cappa. 
See Cap, Capk.] 

CAR (old form Cabb), kir, n. a light veht* 
cle moved on wheels : a rail way carriage, 
{poetic) a chariot. [Fr. char, O. Fr. car: 
char — L. carrus ; from Celt, cdr, allied 
to Lat. currus.] 

CARABAO, ka-ra-ba'-o, n. {zool.) th« 



water-buffalo of the Philippine Islands. 
[Native name.] 

CARABINE, kar-a-bln, CAEBINE, k&rTi)In, 
n. a short light musket. [Fr. carabine, 
O. Fr. calairrin, a carabineer— caZo&rc, a 
machine for casting stones — Low L. 
chadabula—GT. katcuxM, overthrown — 
kataballo — kata, down, and baUd, to 
throw. The name was transferred to 
the musket after the invention of gun- 

CARABINEER, kar-a-bin-er', CARBI- 
NEER, kar-bin-er', n. a soldier armed with 
a carabine. 

CARACK, kar'ak, n. a large ship of bur- 
den. [Fr. caraque, Sp. carraca ; perh. 
from Low L. carica, a load — root of Car.] 

CARACOLE, kar'a-kdl, n. the haXt-tum 
which a horseman makes : a winding 
stair. — v.i. to turn half round, as cavalry 
in wheeling. [Fr. caracoie — Sp. caracol, 
the spiral shell of a snail — Ar. karkara^ 
to turn.] 

CARAFE, ka-raf , n. a water-bottle for the 
table. [Ft.— Sp. garrafa—Ar.] 

CARAT, kar'at, n. a weight of 4 grains : 
l-24th part of piu*e gold. [Fr. — Ar. qirat 
— Gr. keration, a seed or beam used as a 

CARAVAN, kar'arvan, n. a company of 
travelers associated together for security 
in crossing the deserts in the East : a 
large close carriage. [Fr. caravane-^ 

CARAVANSARY, kar-a-van'sarri, CARA- 
VANSERA, kar-a-van'se-ra, n. a kind of 
unfurnished inn where caravans stop. 
[Pers, kdrwdnsardi—kdrwdn, caravan, 
sardi, inn.] 

©ARAVEL, kar'av-el, n. a kind of light 
sailing vessel. [Fr. — It. caravella — It. 
caraims^-Gv. Tearabos, a barque.] 

CARAWAY, kar'a-wa, n. a jjlant with 
aromatic seeds, used as a tonic and con- 
diment. [Sp. alcaravea — ^Ar. karviya — 
Gr, karoru] 

CARBIDE, karT)Td, n. a carbon-metallio 
compound.— Old word. Carburet, n. 

CARBOLIC ACID, kar-bol'ik as'id, n. an 
acid produced from coaZ-tar, used as a 
disinfectant. [L. carbo, coal.] 

CARBON, karTaon, n. an elementary sub- 
stance, widely diffused, of which pure 
charcoal is an example. [Fr. carbcm.e-' 
L. carbo, coal.] 

CARBON, kar'-bon, n. in electric lighting, a 
carbon pencil or rod used in an arc lamp : 
^ in a voltaic battery, a plate or piece of 
carbon forming one of the elements. 

CARBONACEOUS, kar-bon-a'she-us, CAR- 
BONIC, kar-bon'ik, adj. pertaining to or 
composed of carbon. 

CARBONARI, kar-bon-§,r'i, n. members of 
a secret society in Italy at the beginning 
of this century. [It. " charcoal-burn- 

CARBONATE, karTion-at, n. a salt formed 
by the union of carbonic acid with a 

CARBONIC, kSr-bon'ik, a4f. relating to 
carbon. Carbonic acid is an acid formed 
of carbon and oxygen, generally gaseous, 
and evolved by respiration and combus- 

CARBONIFEROUS, kar-bon-ifer-us, a^j., 
producing carbon or coal. [L. caroOf 
and /ero, to produce.] 

CARBONIZE, kar'bon-Iz, v.t., to maA^ into 
carbon. — n. Carboniza'tion. 

CARBORUNDUM, kiir-bd-run'-dum, n. 
(chem.) a hard mixture of carbon and 
silicon, or carbon silicide, made in an 
electric furnace by heating sand and car- 
bon together. Is used as an abradant, 
like emery. [Carbon and Corundum.'] 

CARBUNCLE, karT)ung-kl, n. a fiery red 
precious stone : an inflamed ulcer. [L. 
carbunculus, dim. of carbo, a coal.] 

CARBUNCULAR, kar-bung'ku-lar, adj. 
belonging to or resembling a carbuncle : 
red : inflamed. 

CARBURET, kar^bu-ret, v.t. to combine 
with carbon or a compound of it : specif- 
ically, to saturate, as anflammable vapor, 
by passing it through or over a liquid 
hydrocarbon, for the purpose of inten- 
sifying the illuminating power. E. H. 

CARBURETOR, karTsu-ret-er, n. an ap- 
paratus of various forms by which coal- 
gas, hydrogen, or air is passed through 
or over a liquid hydrocarbon, to confer 
or intensify illuminating power, E. H. 

CARBURIZE, karT)Q-riz, v.t. same as Car- 

CARCANET, karT£a-net, n. a collar of 
jewels. [Fr. — Bret. kercJien, the neck.] 

CARCASS, CARCASE, kar'kas, n. a deau 
body or corpse : the framework of any- 
thing : a kind of bombshell. [Fr. car* 
casse, a skeleton — It. carcasso, a quiver, 
hull, hulk — Low L. tarcasius — Pers. tar- 
kash, a quiver.] 

CARD, kard, n. a piece of pasteboard 
marked with figures for playing a game, 
or with a person's address upon it : a 
note. [Fr. carte — ^L. charta, Gr. chartes, 
paper. Carte is a doublet.] 

CARD, kard, n. an instrument for comb- 
ing wool or flax. — v.t. to comb wool, etc. 

CARDER, kard'er, n. one of an associa- 
tion of Irish rebels, so termed because 
they punished their victims by driving a 
wool or flax card into their backs and 
then dragging it down along the spine. 
Miss Edgeworth. 

Tliis shall a Carder, that a Wh!te-boy be; 
Ferocious leaders of atrocious bands. — Hood. 

CARDIAC, kar'di-ak, CARDIACAL, kar- 
dl'ak-al, adj., belonging to the heart : 
cordial : reviving. [L. — Gr. kardiakos— 
kardia, the heart.] 

CARDINAL, kar'din-al, adj. denoting that 
on which a thing hinges or depends : 

grincipal. — n. a dignitary in the R. C. 
hurch next to the pope. [L. cardinalia 
—-cardot cardinis, a hinge.} 



GARDINALATE, kar'dlB-al-at, CARDIN- 
ALSHIP, kar'din-al-ship, w. the oflBce or 
dignity of a cardinal. 

CARDIOMETER, kar-d<5-oni'-e-t«r, n. an in- 
strument for ascertaining the degree of 
pulse by measnring the ahrinking and 
swelling of the heart. 

CAKDOPHAGI, kar-dora-ji, n.pL eaters of 
thistles ; hence, donkeys. " Kick and 
abuse hira, you who have never brayed ; 
but bear with him all honest fellow car- 
dophagi ; long-eared messmates, recog^ 
nize a brotherjdonkey!" — Thackeray. [Gr. 
kardos, a thistle, and phago, to eat.] 

GARB, kar, n.,ananety, heedfulness: charge, 
oversig'ht : the object of anxiety. — v.i, 
to be anxious : to be inclined : to have 
regard. [A.S. caru; Goth, kara, sor- 
row, Ice. hcera, to lament, Celt. caVy 
care : allied to L. carus, dear.] 

CAREEN, ka-ren', v.t. to lay a strip on her 
side to repair her bottom and keeL [Fr. 
carener — ear^e — L. carina, the bottom 
of a ship, the keel.] 

CAREIENAGE, ka-ren'aj, n. a place where 
ships are careened: the cost of careen- 

CAREER, ka-p^, n. a racecourse: a race : 
course of action ; also, onset. Milton. — 
v.i. to move or run rapidly. [Fr. carridre 
— O. Fr. cctr, a car. See Cab.] 

CAREFUL, kar'fool, adj., fuU of care: 
heedful: in B., amrions: m Dan. iS. 16, 
at: a loss, puzzled. — adv. Cabi/fully. — 
n. Care'fulness. 

CARELESS, kar'les, adj., wifhottt care: 
heedless : unconcerned. — adv. Gase'- 


CARESS, ka-res', v.t. to treat with affec- 
tion : to fondle : to embrace. — n. any act 
or expression of affection. [Fr. caresser 
— ^It. carezza, an endearment — Low L. 
caritia — ^L. cants, dear.] 

CARET, ka'ret, n. a mark. A, used in writ- 
ing when a word is left out, [L. carety 
there is wanting.] 

CARGO, kar'go, n. what a ship carries'} 
its load. [Sp. from Celtic root of Cab.] 

CARICATURE, kar-i-ka-tur', n. a likeness 
of anything so exaggerated or distorted 
as to appear ridiculous. — v.t. to turn into 
ridicule by overdoing a likeness. [It. 
caricaturu — earricare, to load, from root 
of Car.] 

CARICATURIST, kar-i-ka-tOr'ist, n., one 
who caricatures, 

CARIES, Ira'ri-ez, w., rottenness or decay 
of a bone. [L.] 

CARINA, ka-rfna, n. in bot. same as Keel : 
in zool. a prominent median ridge or keel 
in the sternum of all existing" birds ex- 
cept the Cursores. [L., the keel of a 
boat. See Cabinate.J 

CARINARIA, kar-i-na'ri-a, n. a genus of 
gasteropodous molluscs, of the order 
called Heteropoda or Nucleobranchiata, 
whose shells are known to collectors un- 
der the name of Venus' slipper and glass 
nautilus. The gills are protected by a 

anal] antf very delicate sheU of glassy 
translncence. 'Hie creature itself is 
about 3 inches in lei^h, and is of 
oceanic habits. It is so transparent 
that the vital functions may be watched 
by the aid of a microscope. [L. canna, 
a keel, from the shape.] 

CARINATJE, kar-i-na'tg, Huxley'^ 
second order of the class Aves, the other 
two b^ng' Saururae and Ratitae. The 
Garinats» include all the living flying 
birds, that is, all existing birds except 
the Cursores, and are characterized by 
the fact that the sternum is furnished 
with a prominent median ridge or keel, 
whence the name. [From L. carina, a 

CARmATE, kar'i-nat, CARINATED, kar'- 
i-nat-ed, atij. shaped like a keel : keeled : 
speeiflcally, (a) in bot. having a longi- 
tudinal ridge like a keel: applied to s^ 
calyx, corolla, or leaf ; (6) in zool. ap- 
plied to those birds whose sternum is 
keeled, a character of all existing birds 
except the cursorial. [L. carinatus, from 
carina, a keel.] 

OARIOLE, kar'i-6l, n. a light one-hors^ 
carriage, used in Norway. [Fr. carriole 
— ^poot of GABi] 

CARIOUS, ka'ri-us, a4j. affected with 

GARKING, kaarfc'ing, adf. distressing, caosr 
ing anxiety. [A.Si cearc, care ; allied 
to Cabe.] 

CARMELITE, fcar'meRt, n. a monk of th^ 
order of Mount Carmel, in Syria, in th^ 
12th century : a kind of pear. 

CARMINE, kar'min, n. a crimson color, 
[Fr. or Sp. cctnnin — Sp. carmesin, crim-r 
son — carmes, cochineal — Ar. girmizi, 
crimson. Same root as CRIMSON. J 

GARNAGEl, kar'naj, n. slaughter. [Pr. 
carnage, from L. cc^o, camis, flesh.] 

CARNAGE, kar'naj, v.t. to strew or cover 
with carnage or slaughtered bodies, 

CARNAL, kar'nal, adj., fleshly: sensual: 
unspiritual. — adv. Car'nally. [L. coT' 
nalis — caro, camis, flesh.] 

CARNALIST, kar'nal-ist, w. a sensualist : 
a world ling . 

CARNALITY, kar-nal'i-ti, n. state of being 

CARNARIE, CARNARY, kar'na-ri, n. a 
bone - house attached to a church or 
burial - place : chamel - house. [L. caro^ 
camis. flesh.] 

CARNATE, kar'nat, adj. invested with or 
embodied in flesh : same as the modern 
Incarnate, which word, however, is used 
in the extract as if the in- were priva- 
tive. "I fear nothing . . . that devil 
carnate or incarnate can fairly do against 
a virtue so established." — Richard^'fi, 

CARNATION, kar-na'shun, n. flesh-color: 
a flesh -colored flower. [L. camatiOf 

CARNEIJAN, kar-ne'li-an, n. a corr. of 
Cornelian, owing to a supposed ety. 
from cai~neust fle«hy.J 



CARNIVAL, kSr'ni-val, n. a feast observed 
by Roman Catholics just before the fast 
of Lent : riotous feasting or merriment. 
[Fr. camavcU — It. camovale — Low L. 
camelevamen, solace of the flesh — caro, 
camis, flesh, and levamen, solace — levare, 
to lighten.] 

CARNIVORA, kar-niv'o-ra, n.pL order oJ 
fles h-ea ting animals. 

CARNIVOROUS, kar-niv'o-rus, a4j., flesh- 
eatrrcg. [L. carOt camis, flesh, voro, to 

CAROL, kar'ol, n. a song of joy or praise. 
— ^.f. to sing a carol : to sing or warble. 
— v.t. to praise or celebrate in song:— 
pr.p. car'olling ; pa.p. car'oUed. [O. Fr. 
Carole ; It. carola, orig. a ring-dance ; 
ety. dub., either dim. of L. chorus, a 
choral dance, or from Bret. koroU, a 
dance, W. carols a song — root car, cii> 
cular motion.] 

CAROTID, ka-rot'id, adj. relating to the 
two §:reat arteries of the neck. [Gr. 
harotides — karos, sleep, deep sleep being 
causedby compression of them.J 

CAROTTE, ka-rot', n. a measure or roll of 
tobacco ; as, in trade, a carotte of perique. 

CAROUSAL, kar-owz'al, n. a carouse: a 

CAROUSE, kar-ow^, n. a drinking-bout : 
a noisy revel. — v.i. to hold a drinking- 
bout : to drink freely and noisily. [O. 
Fr. carous, Fr. carrousse — Gter. gar avs, 
quite out I — that is, empty the glass.] 

CARP, kS,rp, v.i. to catch at small faults 
or errors.— adv. Cabp'ingly. [Ice. karpa, 
to boast, modified in meaning through 
likeness to L. carpo, to pluck, deride.] 

CARP, karp, n. a fresh-water fish. [In aU 
Teut. lang., also Fr. and It.] 

CARPENTER, kar'pent-er, n. a worker in 
timber as used in building houses, ships, 
etc. — n. Carpentry, kar'pent-ri, the 
trade or work of a carpenter. [Fr. char- 
pentier, O. Fr. carpentier — ^Low L. car- 
pentarius — carpentum, a car, from root 
of Car.] 

CARPENTER, kar'pent-er, v.i, to do cajv 
penter's work : to practice carpentry. 
"Mr. Grim wig plants, fishes, and carpenf^ 
ers with great ardor." — Dickens. 

** He Tamishedf he carpentered, he glued.** 
— Miaa Austirt, 

CARPER, kSrp'er, n. one who carps or 

CARPET, kar'pet, n. the woven or felted 
covering of floors, stairs, etc. — v.t. to 
cover with a carpet : — pr.p. and n. 
car'peting; pa.p. car'peted. [Fr. car^ 
pette — Low L. carpeta, a coarse fabric 
made from rags pulled to pieces — ^L. car- 
pere, to pluck.] 

CARRIAGE, kar^ij, n., act or cost of carry- 
ing : a vehicle for carrying : behavior : 
(B.) baggage. 

CARRIAGE-COMPANY, kar'ij-kum-pa-ni, 
n. people who keep their carriages : tho^e 
wealthy people who pay visits, etc., in 

their own carriages. " There Is no phrase 
more elegant and to my taste than that 
in which people are described as • seeing 
a great deal of carriage-company.^ "t' 

CARRIAGED, kar'ijd, adj. behaved : man- 
nered. [See Carriage.] " A fine lady . . . 
very well carriaged and mighty dis- 
creet. " — Pepys. 

CARRION, kar'i-im, n. the dead and putrid 
body or flesh of any animal.— ^od/. relat- 
ing to, or feeding on, putrid flesh. [Fr. 
carogne — ^Low L. caronia — L. caro, car- 
nis, flesh.] 

tJARRONAJJE. kar-un-ad', n. a short can- 
non of large b(H^e, first made at Camm 
in Scotland. 

CARROT, kar'ut, n. an eatable root of a 
reddish or yellowish color. [Fr. carotte 
— L. carota.] 

CARROTY, kar'ut-i, adj., carrot-colored. 

CARRY, kar'i. v.t. to convey or bear : to 
lead or transport : to effect : to behave 
or demean. — v.i. to convey or propel as 
a gun :—pr.p. carr'ying ; pa.p. carr'ied. 
[O. Fr. carier, from root of Cab.] 

CART, kart, n. a vehicle with two wheels 
for conveying heavy loads. — v.t. to con- 
vey in a carL [Celt, cart, dim. of 

CART ACE, kart'aj, n. the act or cost of 

CARTE, kart, n. a bill ol rare : a term in 
fencing. [Fr. — L. charta, Gr. chartes, 
paper. See CardJ 

CARTE -BLANCHE, -blansh, n. a tohite 
or blank card, with a signature at the 
foot, which mav be filled up at the pleas- 
ure of the receiver : unconditional terms. 

CARTE-DE-VISITE, -viz-it', n. a photo- 
graphic portrait pasted on a small card. 

CARTEL, kar'tel, n. a paper at agreement 
for exchange of prisoners. [Fr. cartel — 
It. cartello, dim. from root of Carte.] 

CARTER, kart'er, n. one who drives a cart. 

CARTESIAN, kar-te'zhi-an, adj. relating 
to the French philosopher Des Cartes, or 
his philosophy. 

CARTILAGE, kSr'ti-laj, w. a tough, elastic 
substance, softer than bone : gristle. [Fr. 
— ^L. cartilago, ety. of which is doubtful.] 

CARTILAGINOUS, k&r-ti-laj'in-us, adj. 
pertaining to or consisting of cartilage : 

CARTON, kar'-ton, n. a thin pasteboard, 
or a box made from thin pasteboard, 
largely used in trade for packing biscuit 
and the like. [Fr.] 

CARTONNAGE, kar-ton-nazh', n. a kind of 
pasteboard, esp. that used in bookbind- 
ing: many thicknesses of linen glued to- 
gether forming the case containing a 
mummy. [Fr. carton, pasteboard.] 

CARTOON, kar-toon', n. a preparatory 
drawing on strong paper, to be trans- 
ferred to frescoes, tapestry, etc. : any 
large sketch or design on paper. [Fr. 
carton (It. cartone), augmentative of 




CAETOUCHE, kfir-t66sh', n. a case for 
holding" cartridges : a case containing 
bullets to be dischargfed from a mortar : 
(arch.) an ornament resembling a scroll 
of paper with the ends rolled up. [Fr. 
— It. cartoecio — L. cJiarta, paper.] 
CARTRIDGE, kfir'trij, n. a paper case 
containing the charge for a gun. [Cor- 
ruption of Caktouche.] 
CARTULARY, kar'tu-lar-i, n. a register- 
book of a monastery, etc. : one who kept 
the records, [Low L. cartzdarium — char- 
tula, a document — charta, paper.] 
CARVE, karv, v.t., to cut into forms, de- 
vices, etc.: to make or shape by cutting.: 
to cut up (meat) into slices or pieces : 
to apportion or distribute. — vA. to exer- 
cise the trade of a sculptor. [A.S. ceor- 
fan, to cut, to hew ; Ihit. kerven, Ger. 
Kerhen, to notch. See Grave.] 
CARVER, karv'er, n. one who carves : a 

kar-i-at'i-dez, n.pL (arch.) figures of wo- 
men used instead of c<4umns for sup- 
porters, rii. Caryates, Gr. Karyatides, 
the women of Caryoe, a town in Arcadia.] 
CASA, ka'-sa, n. a mansion or hiunbler abode 
in the Philippine Islands and Spanish- 
American coimtries. [Sp. casa, cabin.] 
CASCADE, kas-kad', n. a water/o/Z. [Fr. 
cascade — It. cascata, from cascare, L. 
cad^, casttSy to fall.] 
CASCO, kas'-ko, n. a lighter or barge for 
freight, in the Philippine Islands; is long 
and has square ends and usually has 
sails. [Sp.] 
CASE, kas, n. a covering box or sheath. 
[Fr. caisse, O. Fr. caaae — ^L. capea, from 
capio, to receive.] 
CASE, kas, v.t. to put in a case or box. 
CASE, kas, n. that which falls or happens: 
event : particular state or condition : 
subject of question or inquiry : state- 
ment of facts : (gram.) the inflection of 
nouns, etc. [Fr. cas — ^L. camis, from 
cado, io fall.] 
CASEIN, CASEINE. ka'se-in. n. an organic 
substance, contained in milk and cheese. 
[Fr. — L. ca,seus, cheese.] 
CASEMATE, kas'mat, n. a bomb-T«oof 
chamber or battery in which cannon 
may be placed to be fired through em- 
brasures. [Fr.; ety. duD.] 
CASEMENT, kas'ment, n. the case or frame 
of a window : a window that opens on 
hinges : a hollow moulding. 
CASH, kash, n. coin or money : ready 
money. — v.t. to turn into or exchange 
for money: to pay money for. [A doublet 
of Case, a box — O. Fr. casse, a box or 
CASHIER, kash-er', n. a casfe-keeper : one 
who has charge of the receiving and pay- 
ing of money. 
CASHIER, kash-er', v.t. to dismiss from a 

f)ost in disgrace : to discard or put away. 
Ger. cassiren — Fr. casse^ — ^L. cassare — 
eassus, void, empty.] 

CASHMERE, kash'mer, n. a rich kind of 
shawl, first made at Cashmere, in India. 

CASINO, kas-e'no, n. a room for public 
dancing. [It. ; from L. casa, a cottage.] 

CASK, kask, ti. a hollow round vessel for 
holding liquor, made of staves bound 
with hoops. [Fr. casque, Sp. casco, skull, 
helmet, cask/] 

CASKET, kask'et, n., a little cask or case : 
a small case for holding jewels, etc 

CASQUE, CASK, kask, n. a cover for th< 
head : a helmet. [A doublet of Cask.] 

CASSATION, kas-sa'-shun, n. the act of 
making null or void: in French law, the 
act of annulling the decision of a coifrt; 
hence Coubt of Cassation, the supreme 
tribunal. [Fr. — Low L. cassatio — casso. 
to quash.] 

CASSEROLE, kas'-e-rol, n. in cookery, a 
stew-pan in which a steak and the like 
are served on the table. [Fr,] 

CASSIA, kash'ya, n. a species of laurel- 
tree whose bark is cut off on account of 
its aromatic qualities: wild cinnamon; 
the senna-tree. [L. cassia — Gr. kasia; 
from a Heb. root, to cut.] 

CASSIMERE, kas-i-mer' (also spelled Ker- 
SEYMERE), n. a twilled cloth of the finest 
wools. [Corr. of Cashmere.] 

CASSOCK, kas'ok, n. a vestment worn by 
clergymen under the gown or surplice^ 
[Fr. casaqtte — It. casacca — L. casa, a cot« 
tage, a covering. ] 

CASSOWARY, kas'o-war-i, n. an ostrich- 
like bird, found in the K Indies. [Malay 

CAST, kast, v.t., to throwor fling: to throw 
down : to throw together or reckon : to 
mould or shape. — v.i. to warp ; — pa.t. 
and pa.p. cast. — n. act of casting : a 
throw : the thing thrown : the distance 
thrown : a motion, turn, or squint, aa 
of the eye : a chance : a mould : the 
form received from a mould : manner : 
the assignment of the various parts of 
a play to the several actors : the com- 
pany of actors to whom such have been 
assicrned. [Scan. : as Ice. kasia, to throw.] 

CASTANET," kas-ta-net*, n. a . musical in- 
strtunent, used chiefly by Spanish people 
as an accompaniment to dances and gui- 
tars, consisting of two hollow shells of 
ivory or hardwood tied together at the 
top, the whole fitting into the palm of 
the hand. [Sp.] 

CASTAWAY, kast'a-wa, n., one cast away, 
an outcast. 

CASTE, kast, n. one of the classes into 
which society in India is divided : any 
class of society which keeps itself apart 
from the rest. [A name given by the 
Port, to the classes of people in India, 
Port, ca^ta, breed, race — L. castus, pure, 
CASTELLAN, kas'tel-an, n. governor or 

captain of a castle. 
CASTELLAR. kas-tel'er, a4}. belonging or 

Sertaining to a castle. " Ajicient castellar 
1 1 n-j^eonsi " — Walpole. 



CASTELLATED, kas'tel-at-ed, adj, having 
turrets and battlements like a castle^ 
[L. castellatu8.'\ 

CASTER, kast'er, n. a small wheel on the 
legs of furniture. — in pi. small cruets. 

CASTIGATE, kas'tig-at, v.t., to chastise : to 
correct : to punish with stripes. [L. 
castigo, castigatus, from casttis, pure.] 

CASTIGATION, kas-tig-a'shun, n. act of 
castigating : chastisement : punishment. 

CASTIGATOR, kas'tig-at-or, n. one who 

CASTING, kast'lng, w. act of casting or 
^moulding : that which is cast : a mould ; 
also same as Worm-cast. " I resolved . . . 
to weigh all the castings thrown up with- 
in a given time in a measured space, in- 
stead of ascertaining the rate at which 
objects left on the surface were buried 
by worms." — Darwin. 

OAST-mON. See under Iron. 

65ASTLE, kasl, n. a, fortified house or forU 
ress : the residence of a prince or noble- 
man. [A.S. castel — L. casteUum, dim. of 
castrmm, a fortified place : from root 
skad, as E. shade.'] Formerly a term ap- 
plied to a kind of helmet. Some com- 
mentators have unnecessarily given 
casque or helmet as the equivalent of 
castle in the foUowing passage : — 
Which of your bands hath not defended Rome, 
And reared aloft the bloody battle-ax. 
Writing' destruction on the enemy's casttef — Shak, 

CASTOR, kas'tor, n. the beaver : a hat 
made of its fur. [L., Gr. kastdr; cf. 
Sans, kasturi, musk.] 

CASTOR-OIL, kas'tor-oil, n. a medicinal 
oil obtained from a tropical plant, the 
Ridnus communis. [Ety. dub.J 

CASTRATE, kas'trat, v.t. to deprive of the 
power of generation, to geld : to take 
from or render imperfect. — n. Cas- 
te a'tion. niu castrare.] 

CASTRATE, kas'trat, n. one who has been 
castrated, gelded, or emasculated: a 

CASUAL, kazh'fl-al, adj. accidental : un- 
foreseen : occasional. [L. casndtis-~ 
casus. See Case.] 

CASTTATiTSM, kazh'u-al-izra, n. the doc- 
trine that all things exist or that aJI 
events happen by chance, that is, with 
an efficient, intelligent cause, and with- 
out design. 

CASUAUST, kazh'fl-al-ist, n. one who be- 
lieves in the doctrine of casualism. 

CASUALTY, kazh'u-al-ti, n., that which 
falls out : an accident : a misfortune. 

CASUIST, kazh'u-ist, n. one who studies 
and resolves cases of conscience. 

CASmSTIC, kazh-a-ist'ik, CASUISTICAL, 
kazh-u-ist'ik-al, adj. relating to cases of 

CASUISTRY, kazh'u-ist-ri, n. the science 
or doctrine of cases of conscience. 

CAT, kat, 7i. a common domestic animal, 
rin Teut., Celt., Slav., Ar., Turk., and 
Late L.1 

CATACLASM, kat'-a-klaz'm, n. a breaking 

into parts : disruption. — adj. Cataclastic, 
kat-a-klas'-tik (geol.), broken asunder; 
said of rocks crushed into fragments. 
CATACLYSM, kat'a-klizm, n. a flood of 
water s a deluge. [Gr. kataklysmos— 
kata, downward, klyzein, to wash or 

CATACtYSMIST, kat'arkliz-mist, n. one 
who believes that many important geo- 
logical phenomena are due to cataclysms. 

CATACOMB, kat'a-koroj n. a hollow or 
cave underground used as a burial-place. 
[It. catacomha^ Low L. catacuniba—QtT, 
kata, downward, and kymbCf a hollow, 
akin to W. cwm, a hollow.] 

CATAFALQUE, kat-a-falk', n. a tempo- 
rary structure of carpentry representing 
a tomb or cenotaph : a tomb of state. 
^V. — It. cafa/aZco— Sp. catar, to see, and 
jalco. from the Ger. root of BALCONY. 
Scaffold is a doublet through Fr. ecfia- 

CATALEPSY, kat'a-lep-si, n. a disease 
that seizes suddenly. — adj. Catalep'tio. 
[Gr., from kata, down, lambano, len- 
somai, to seize.] 

CATALOGUE, kat'a-log, n. a list of names, 
books, etc. — v.t. to put in a ca»;alogue :— 
pr.p. cat'aloguing ; pa.p. cat'alogued. 
TFr. — L^te Lat. — Or., from kata, down, 
logos, a counting.] 

CATAMARAN, kat-a-ma-ran', n. a raft of 
three trees, used by the natives of India 
and Brazil. [Tamul " tied logs."] 

CATAPHRACT. kat'a-frakt, ». a cavalry 
soldier, horse and man being both in 
complete armor. [Gr. kataphraktos, 
covered— fcato, quite, phrasso, to in- 

CATAPULT, kat'a-pult, n. anciently a 
machine for throwing stones, arrows, 
etc. ; an instrument used by boys for 
throwing small stones. [L. catapulta — 
Gr. katapeltes — kata, down, pallo, to 

CATAPULTIER, kat'a-pul-ter, n. one who 
manages or discharges missiles from a 
catapult. C. Reade. 

CATARACT, kat'a-rakt, n. a great water- 
fall : a disease of the eye which comes on 
as if a veil fell before the eyes. [Gr. kata, 
down, arasso, to dash, to rush.] 

CATARRH, kat-ar*, n. a discharge of fluid 
from a mucous membrane, especially of 
the nose, caused by cold in the head : the 
cold itself. — adj. Catarrh'al. [L. ca- 
tarrhus, Gr. katarrhoos — kata, down, 
rheo, to flo\vJ 

CATASTROPHE, kat-as'tr6-fS, n., an over- 
turning : a final event : an unfortunate 
conclusion : a calamity. 

CATASTROPHISM, kat-as'tr5-flzm, n, the 
theory or doctrine that geological changes 
are due to catastrophes or sudden, violent 
physical causes, rather than to continu- 
ous and uniform processes. 

CATCAL, CATCALL, kat'kawl, n.a squeak- 
ing instrument used in theatres to con- 
demn plays. 



CATCH, kach, v.f., to take hold of: to seize 
after pursuit : to trap or insnare : to take 
a disease by infection. — v.i. to be con- 
tagious i—pa.t. and pa.p. caught (l^awt). 
— n. seizure: anything that seizes or 
holds : that which is caught : a sudden 
advantage taken : a song the parts of 
which are caught up by different voices. 
[A doublet of Chase, from O. Fr. cachier 
— Ii. captiare for captare, inten. of capere, 
to take. See Chask.] 

CATCHPENNY, kach'pen-i, n. any worth- 
less thing, esp. a publication. Intended 
merely to gain money. 

CATCHPOLL, kacb'pol, n. a constable. 

CATCHUP, kach'up, CATSUP, kat'sup, 
KETCHUP, kectfup, n. a liquor ex- 
tracted from mushrooms, etc., used as a 
sauce. [Prob. of K Indian origin.] 

CATCHWORD, kach'wurd, n. among ac- 
tors, the last word of the preceding 
speaker : the first word of a page given 
at the bottom of the preceding page. 

CAL, kat-e-ket'ik-al, adj., relating to a 
catechism. — adv. Cateceodt'icaLiLY. 

CATECHISE, kat'e-kiz, v.t. to instruct by 
question and answer : to question : to 
examine. — n. Cat'echiseb. [Gr. kat^ 
chizo, katecheo, to din into the ears— 
kata, down, echeo, to sound.] 

CATECHISM, kaf e-kizm, n. a book con- 
taining a summary of principles in the 
form of questions and answers. 

CATECHIST, kat'e-kist, n. one who cate- 

CATECHU, kat'-e-shoo, n, a substance ob- 
tained from the betel-nut and other East 
Indian trees, used for tanning and dye- 
ing, and medicinally as an astrinsrent. 

CATECHUMEN, kat-e-kfl'raen, n. one who 
is being taught the rudiments of Chris- 
tianity. [Gr. katechoumenos, being 
taught, p. of katecheo, to teach.] 

CATEGORICAL, kat-e-gor'ik-al, adj. posi- 
tive : absolute : without exception. 

CATEGORY, kat'e-gor-i, w., what may be 
affirmed of a class : a class or order. 
[Gr. kategoHa — kata, down, against, 
agoreud, to harangue, declare.] 

CATER, ka'ter, v.i. to provide food, enter- 
tainment, etc. — n. Ca'teree. [Lit. to 
act as a cater, the word being orig. a 
substantive, and spelled catour — O, Fr. 
acat (Ft. achat}, a purchase — Low I* oo- 
captare, to buy — L. ad, to, captart^ 
intensive of capere, to take.] 

CATERPILLAR, kat'er-pil-ar, n. a grut 
that lives upon the leaves of plants^ 
[O. Fr. chattepeleuse, a hairy cat— Wiatte, 
a she-eat, peleuse =- Lat. pilosus, hairy.] 

CATERWAUL, kat'er-wawl, v.i. to make a 
noise like cats. 

CATES, katz, dainty food. [O. R 
acates — root of Cater.] 

CATGUT, kat'gut, n. a kmd of cord made 
from the intestines of animals, and used 
as strmgs for musical instruments. 


kath-art'ik-al, adj. having the power of 
cleansing the stomach and oowels : purga 
tive. [Gr. kathartikos, fit for cleansing, 
from katharos, clean.] 

CATHARTIC, katb-arl'ik, n. a purgative 

CATHEDRAL, kath-e'dral, n. the principal 
church of a diocese, in which is the seai 
or throne of a bishop. — adj. belonging to 
a cathedral. [L. cathedra — Gr. kathedra, 

CATHODE, kath'-od, n. part of a voltaic 
battery. — Cathode bay, -ra, a ray pro- 
duced by the cathode in vacuum tube. — 
od; . Cathcwal, kath'-d-dal. [Gr. kathodos, 
a going down — kata, down, and hodos, a 

CATHODOGRAPH, ka-thod'-6-graf, n. a 
radiograph or picture produced by the 
Rontgen ray process. Also written 
Cathodegeaph. [Cathode and sfx. graph.] 

CATHOLIC, kath'ol-ik, adj., universal i 

general, embracing the whole bod^ off 
hristians : liberal, the opp. of exclusive j 
the name claimed by its adherents for 
the Church of Rome as the representa- 
tive of the church founded by Christ 
and his apostles : relating to the Roman 
Catholics. — n. an adherent of the Ro- 
man Catholic Church. [Gr. katholikos, 
universal — kata, throughout, holos, the 

CATHOLICISM, ka-thol'i-sizm, CATHOL- 
ICITY, kath-ol-is'it-i, n., universality; 
Kberality or breadth of view : the tenets 
of the R. Catholic Church. 

OATHOOD, kat'hood, n. the state of being 
a cat. "Decidedly my kitten shoula 
never attain to cathood." — Southey. 

CATKIN, kafMn, n. a loose cluster of 
flowers like a cat's tail growing on cer- 
tain trees, as hazels, etc. [Cat, and dim. 
suffix 'kin.] 

OAT-O'-NINE-TAILS, kat'-C-nln'-talz, n. a 
whip with nine lashes. 

CATOPTRIC, kat-op'trik, adj. relating to 
catoptncs, or vision by reflection. [Gr., 
from katoptron, a mirror — kata, against, 
optomai, to see.] 

CATOPTRICS, kat-op'triks, n.sing. the part 
of optics which treats of reflected light, 

CAT'S-PAW, kats'-paw, n. the dupe or tool 
of another : {nam.) a light breeze. [From 
the fable of the monkey who used the 
paws of the cat to draw the roasting 
chestnuts out of the fire.] 

CAT-THYME, kat'-tim, n., Teucrium 
Marum, a plant belonging to the Labi- 
ataa, one of the germanders, formerly 
used in medicine. 

CATTLE, kat'l, beasts of pasture, esp= 
oxen, bulls, and cows ; sometimes also 
horses, sheep, etc. [O. Fr. catel, chatel 
— ^Low L. capiale, orig. capital, property 
In general, then esp. animals — L. capi- 
talis, chief — caput, the head, beasts in 
early times forming the chief part o^ 

CAUCUS, kaw^us, n. a party combinatioE 



or meeting for influencing elections, esp. 
in Amer. [Ety. dub. ; perh. a corr. of 
caJkers' club, the nickname of a Bostoa 
clique about 1706.] 

CAUDAL, kaw'dal, ac^'. pertaining to the 
tail : having a tail or something like one. 
[L. ca^lda.'] 

CAUDLE, kaw'dl, n., a warn drink given 
to the sick. [O. Fr. chaiidd—FT. &iaud 
— L. calidus, hot.] 

CAUGHT, ka.wt, pa.t. andpa.p. of Catch. 

CAUL, kawl, n. a net or covering for the 
head : the membrane covering the head 
of some infants at their birth. [O. Fr, 
eale, a little cap— Celt. coOo, a veil, 

CAULDRON. See Caldbon. 

CAULIFLOWER, kawli-flow-er, n. a vari- 
ety of cabba^, the eatable part of which 
is the flower. fL. atvlis, cabbage, and 
Flowee. See Cole.] 

OAUL K. S ee Calk. 

CAULKER, kawVer, n. a dram : a glass <Mf 
other small quantity of spirits. (Slang.) 
(Perhaps so called from being regarded 
as keeping all tight, keeping out the wet.] 
"Take a cavlkerf . . . No? Tak* a 
drap o' kindness yet for auld langsyne." 
— Kingsley. 

CAUSAL, kawz'al, ad(j. relating to a cause 
or caus es. 

CAUSALITY, kaw*«l'it-i, n. the working 
of a cause : (phren.) the faculty of trao- 
ing effects to their causes. 

CAUSATION, kawB-5'shun, n., tJie act of 
causing: the bringing about of an ef- 
the law or doctrine that every event 
or phenomenon is the result or sequel 
atf some previous event or phenomenon 
without which it could not have taken 
place, and which being present it is sure 

CAU8ATIONISM, kawz-a'shun-lzm, n. 
same as Law of Universal Causatum. 
[See under Causation.] 

CAUSATIONIST, kawz-a'shun-ist, ». one 
who believes in causationisra or in the 
operation of the law of causation. 

CAUSATIVE, kawz'artiv, adj. producing 
an effect : causing. — adv. Causatively. 

CSAUSE, kawz, n. that by or through which 
anything is done : inducement : a legal 
action. — v.t. to produce : to make to ex- 
ist ; to bring about. [Fr. caiise — L. 

CAUSELESS, kawz'les, adj., having no 
cause or occasion. — adv. Cause'lessly. — 
n. Cause'lessness. 

CAUSERIE, kos-re', n. informal discussion, 
esp. about books and authors: chat: con- 
versation in a light vein. [Fr. causer, to 

OAUSEUSE, ko-ssez, n. a small sofa or set- 
tee for seating two persons. [Fr., from 
causer, to converse.] 

CAUSEWAY, kawz'wa, CAUSEY, kawz'e, 
n. a'pathway raised and paved with stone. 
[O. Fr. caucie, Fr. chauss4e — L. calciata 
'"Calx. chalk, because built with mortar.] 

GAUSTIC, kaws'tik, adj., huming: severe, 
cutting. — n. a substance that bums or 
wastes away the flesh. [L. — Gr. kau»- 
tikos — kaiO, kausH, to bum.] 

CAUSTICITY, kaws-tis'i-ti, n. quality of 
1)6111*' ccittst'io 

CAUTERIZATION, kaw-ter-Iz-a'shim, 
CAUTERISM, kaw'ter-ism, CAUTERY, 
kaw'ter-i, n. a burning with caustics or a 
hot ir on. 

CAUTERIZE, kaw'ter-Iz, v.t. to bum with 
a caustic or a hot iron. [Fr. cavieriser 
— Gr. kauter, a hot iron— -X;ai5, to bum.] 

CAUTION, kaw'shun, n. heedfulness : se- 
curity : warning. — v.t, to warn to take 
c are. [Fr. — ^L. oawf«>—«it?eo, to beware.] 

CAUTIONARY, ka%v'shun-ar-i, adj. con- 
taining caution : given as a pledge. 

CAUTIOUS, kaw'shus, adj. possessing or 
using caution : watchful : prudent. — adv. 
Cat/tiously. — n. Cau'tiousness. 

CAVALCADE, kav'al-kad, n. a train of 
persons on horseback. [EV. — It. cavaJlo — 
L. cdballus, Gr. kabdlles, ahorse, a nag.] 

©AVALIER, kav-al-er', n. a knight : a par- 
tisan of Charles I. — adi. like a cavalier ; 
gay : warlike : haughty. — adv. Cava- 
uer'ly. [Fr. — ^It. cavaUo. See Caval- 

CAVALRY, kav'al-ri, n., Aorse-soldiers. 
[Fr. cavalerie — ^It.] 

CAVATINA, kav-a-te'-na', n. a short form 
of operatic air, consisting only of one 
part. [It.] 

CAVE, kav, n. a hollow place in the earth : 
a den. [Fr. — ^L. cavea — cavus, hollow. 
Cage is a doublet.] 

CAVEAT, ka've-at, n. (lit.) let him take 
care: a notice of warning: a notice to 
stop proceedings in a court. [L.-H»t>eo, 
to take care.] 

CAVENDISH, kav'en-dish, n. tobacco 
moistened;and pressed into quadrangular 

CAVERN, kav'em, n. a deep hoUow place 
in the earth. [L. cavemor— cavus, hol- 

CAVERNOUS, kav'er-nus, adj., hollow: 
full of caverns. 

CAVIARE, CAVIAR, kav-i-Sj^, n. an ar- 
ticle of food made from the salted roes of 
the sturgeon, etc. [Fr. caviar— It. caviale 
--Turk. naviAr.'X 

CAVIL, kav'il, v.t. to make empty, trifling 
objections : to use false argmnents :— 
pr-p. cavilling; pa.p. cav'uled. — ». a 
frivolous objection. — n. Cay'illeb. [O. 
Ft. caviller — L. cavitlor, to practice jest- 
ing — cavilla, jesting.] 

CAVITi, kav'it-i, n., a fioUow place: hoi- 
lowness : an opening. [L. cavita»-' 
cavus, hollow.] 

CAVO-RTLIEVO, kfi'v5.r5-lS-a'vO, «. in 
Sddp. a kind of reUef in which the high- 
est surface is only level with the plane 
of the original stone. Sculpture of this 
kind is much employed in the decoration 
of the walls of Egyptian temples. [It.] 

CAW. kaw, v.uto ciy as a crow. — iu the 



cry of a crow.— n. UAWiNd. [From the 
sound. See Chough.] 

CAZIQUE, ka-zek', n. a chief in certain 
parts of America at the time of its dis- 
covery. [Span, cacique^ orig. Haytian.] 

CEASE, ses, v.i., to give over : to stop : to 
be at an end. — v.t. to put an end to. 
[Ft. cesser — L. cesso, to give over — cedo, 
to yield, give up.] 

CEASELESS, ses^es, adj., tcithout ceasing : 
incessant.— adv. Cease'lessly. 

CEDAR, se'dar, n. a large evergreen tree 
remarkable for the durability and frag, 
ranee of its wood. — adj. made of cedar. 
Also Cedarn, [L.— Gr. kedros.] 

CEDE, sed, v.t, to yield or give up to an- 
other. — v.i, to give way, (L. cedo, cea- 
sum^ to go away from.] 

CEDRON, se'-drun, n. {hot.) a tropical 
American tree, the fruit of which is used 
as an antidote for snake-bite and as a 
cure for hydrophobia; also the remedy 
itself. [Sp. cedron.'\ 

CEIBA, Ba-gnt)& or thare'b&, n. the silk- 
cotton tree {Bombax Ceiba). [Sp.] 

CEIL, s5l, v.t. to overlay the inner roof of 
a room. [See Ceimng.] 

CEILING, sSl'ing, n. the inner roof of a 
room. [M. E. tyle or cyU, a canopy — Pr. 
del, heaven, a canopy, a ceihng — L. 
coelum, the vault of heaven. Cf. Gr. 
koUos — E. Hollow.] 

CEINTURE, san-tur', n. a dressmaking 
ter m for a belt or girdle. [Fr.] 

CEILADON, sel'a^lon, n. a soft, pale, sea- 
green color, so called from the name of 
the hero of the romance " Astr^ e," pop- 
ular in France in the Louis XIV. epoch. 
" Porcelain beautiful with celadon.^ — 

CELANDINE, seran-din, n., suxillom-wort, 
a plant of the poppy family, so named 
because it was supposed to flower when 
the swallows appeared, and to perish 
when they departed. [O. Fr. celidoine— 
Gr. cheliaonion — chelickn, a swallow.] 

GELATION, se-la'-shun, n. term used in 
medical jurisprudence, meaning conceal- 
ment of childbirth or pregnancy. [L. 
celatus, p.p. of celo, to conceal.] 

CELEBRATE, sel'e-brat, v.t. to make fa- 
mous : to distinguish by solemn cere- 
monies. [L. cetebro, -atum — celeber, 

CELEBRATION, sel-e-brfi'shun, n., act of 
cdcfyr a titiOm 

CELEBRITY, sel-eb'ri-ti, n. the condition 
of being celebrated : fame. [L. celebritas 
— celeber.] 

CELERITY, sel-er'it-i, n. quickness : rapid- 
ity of motion. [Fr. — L. celeritas — celer, 
quick — cello, Gr. kello, to drive, urge on.] 

CELERY, sel'er-i, n. a kitcheij vegetable. 

^Fr. c^eri — L. and Gr. sellnon, parsley.] 

CELESTIAL, sel-est'yal, adj., heavenly: 
dwelling in heaven : in the visible heav- 
ens, — w. an inhabitant of heaven.— adu, 

C/BLKSTIALLY. [L. COelCStis ~~ (XBfWb^ 

heaven ; Gr. koilos.E. HoLLOW.] 

CELIBACY, sel'i-bas-i or se-lib"^s-i, n-. s> 
single life : an unmarried state. jX. 
ccelebs, single.] 

CELIBATE, sen-bat, adj., pertaining to m 
single life. — n. one unmarried. 

CELL, sel, n. a small room : a cave : a 
small shut cavity. [L. cella, conn, with 
celare, to cover.] 

CELLARET, sel-ar-et', n. an ornamental 
case for holding bottles. [A diminutiva 
of Cellak.] 

CELLAR, sef ar, n. a ceU under ground! 
where stores are kept. [L. cellarium — 

CELLARAGE, sel'ar-aj, n. space for cellars^ 
cellars : charge for storing in cellars. 

CELLULAR, seT'Q-lar, ac^'., consisting of ov 
containing cells. [From L. celltUa, a lit- 
tle cell.] 

CELLULOID, sellQ-loid, w. an artificial 
substance, chiefly composed of cellulosa 
or vegetable fibnne, and much used as a 
substitute for ivoiy, bone, coral, etc., iai 
the manufacture of piano-keys, buttons^ 
biUiard-baUs, shirt cuffs, etc. The cellu- 
lose is first reduced by acids to pyrojcy- 
line, camphor is then added, and the 
mixture is subjected to immense hydrau- 
lic pressure. The compound may them 
be moulded by heat ana pressure to any 
desired shape, and it becomes hard, elas- 
tic, and capable of taking on a fine finish. 
rFrom cellulose, and Gr. eidos, resem- 

CELT, selt, n. a cutting instrument of 
stone or metal found in ancient barrows. 
[Founded on Celte (translated " with a 
chisel'^, perh. a misreading for cert« 
(" surely **X in the Vulgate, Job xix 24.] 

CELT, seft, n. one of the Celts, an Aryaa 
race, now represented by the "Welsh, 
Irish, and Scottish Highlanders.— ac^, 
Celt'ic. [L. Celtce ; Gr. Keltoi or Keltai.} 

CEMENT, se-ment', n, anything that makes 
two bodies stick together : mortar : a 
bond of union. [L. ccementa, chips oi? 
stone used to fill up in building a waU, 
ccedimenta — ccedo, to cut off.] 

CEMENT, se-ment', v.t. to unite with ce- 
ment : to join firmly. 

CEMENTATION, sem-ent-a'shun, n., ths 
act of cementing : the process by which 
iron is turned into steel, glass into por- 
celain, etc. — done by surrounding thenni 
with a cement or powder and exposing 
them to heat. 

CEMETERY, sem'e-ter-i, n. a burying- 
ground. [Low L. coemeteHum—JQv. koim&- 
terion — koimad, to lull to slepp.] 

CENOBITE, sen'6-blt or se'no-bit, n. one 
of a reli^ous order living in a community, 
in opposition to an Anchorite : a monkc 
— adis. Cenobit'ic, Cenobit'ical. [L. 
comooita — Gr. koinobios, from koinoa, 
common, and bios, life.] 

CENOTAPH, sen'o-taf, n. (lit.) an emjatw 
tomb : a monument to one who is buried 
elsewhere. [Fr. — L. — Gr. kenotaphiov& 
"-kenos, empty, and taphos, a tomb.] 



CENSER, senser, n. a pan In which Mt- 
cense \9 burned, [fts encensoir — ^Low K 

CENSOR, sen'sor, n. in ancient Rome, aa 
oiBcer who kept account of the property 
of the citizeasy imposed taxes^ anc 
watched over their morals-; in moderc 
times^ an. oflBcer who examines boolra oc 
newspapers before they ara printed, and 
whose permission is necessary for their 
pubJication : one who censures or blames 
[L. — censeo, to weig-h, to estimate,] 

CENSORATB, sen'-'sor-St, n. a body of cen- 
sors: the censors of a country or prov- 
ince, collectively. 

CENSORIAL, 8enHaO'rf«al, adj. belonging 
to a censor, or to the correction of pwQlk: 

CSN80RIOtrS= sen-eo'ri-us. adf, espreswir^ 
censure : fault-finding, — adv. CEMSQif- 
Rioua^Y. — n. Censo'riottsness. 

CENSORSHIP, sen'sor-ship, n. ofRpe of 
oensor : time during which he holds oU 
hce.—C^JUBOBSBlP OP THE PRESS, a regu- 
lation of certain governments, by which 
books and newspapers must be examined 
by officers, whose approval is necessary 
to their publication. 

CENSURABLE, sen'shur-a-bl, adj. deserv- 
ing of censure: blamable. — adv. Ceh'- 
SURABLT. — n. Cen'surableness. 

CENSURE, sen'shur, n. an unfavorable 
judgment : blame : reproof. — v.t. to 
blame : to condemn as wrong. [L. cerv- 
sura, an opinion, a severe judgment — 
censeo, to estimate or judge.J 

CENSUS, sen'sus, n. an official enumera- 
tion of the inhabitants of a coimtry. [L. 
amsus, a register.] 

CENT, sent, n., a hundred: an American 
coin=the hundredth part of a dollar. — 
Per Cent, by the hundred. [L. centum, 
a hundred.] 

CENT AGE, sent'aj, n. rate by the hundred. 

CENTAL, sen'tal, n. a weight of 100 lbs. 
proposetl for general adoption, legalized 
in 1878 in Eng., but not in U. S. 

CENTAL, sen'tal, adj. pertaining to or con- 
sisting of a hundred : reckoning or prot-- 
ceeding by the hundred. [L. centum, a 

CENTAUR, sen'tawr, n. a fkbulous mon- 
ster, half-man half-horse. [L. — Grr. kenr 
tauros ; ety. dub.] 

CENTAVO, saii-1«'-vo, n. in Cuba and Cen- 
tral and South America, a cent, or the 
one-hundredth part of a dollar, called. 
in those countries a peso. [Sp. — L. ceiu 
tvm, hundred.] 

CENTEN, san-tan'. n. in Porto Rico, a 
Spanish gold coin worth about $5, .30. 
[Sp. — L. centeni, a hundred each — cen' 
tiir>T. VinTidred.1 

CENTENARY, sen'ten-ar-i, n. a hundred : 
a century or hundred years. — adj. i>er- 
taining to a hundred. — n. Centena'rian, 
one a hundred years old. [L. — centeni, 
a hundred each — eentum.'l 

CENTENNIAL, sen-ten'i-al, adj. ha open- 

ing oHce in a. hundred year9i PCbined 
troni L.. centum, and annus, a vear- 1 
CENTESIMAL, sen-te*'i-mal, Llj.,^htm. 
dredth.—adv. CBNTBS'lMAiXY. FL. cerv- 
tesimu^ — centun^.l 
CENTIGRADE, sen'ti-grad, adj. having a 
hundred degrees : divided into a hundred 
degrees, as the centigrade thermometer, 
in which freezing-point is zero and boil- 
mg-pomt is 100°. [L. centum, and gradus, 
a step. a. degree.] 
CENTIMO. sSn'-te-mo. n. in Costa Rica, a 
coin worth a hundredth part of a colon. 
[Sp. centimo.] 
CENTIPBD, sen'tt-ped, CENTIPEDE, sen', 
ti-ped, n. an insect with a hundred or a 
great many feet. [L. centum, and pes, 
pedis, a foot.] 
CENTNER, aenf ner, n. a common name 

on the Continent for a hundredweight. 
CENTRAL, sen'tral, CENTRIC, sen'trik, 
CENTRICAL, sen'trik-al, adjs., relating 
to, placed in, or containing the centre.-^ 
advs. Cen'trat.t.y, Cen'tmcally. 
CENTRALIZE, sen'tral-iz, v.t. to draw to a 

c entre . — n. Cbntraliza'tion. 
CENTRE, CENTER, sen'ter, n. the middle 
point of anything: the middle. — v.t. to 
place on or collect to a centre. — v.i. to 
be placed in the middle :—^pr.p. cen'tring, 
cen'tering ; pa.p. cen'tred, cen'tered. [Fr. 
— L. centrum~Gr. hentron, a sharp point 
— kented, to prick.] 
CENTRIFUGAL, sen-trifu-gal, adj. tend, 
ing to flee from the centre. [L. centrum, 
and fxtgio, to flee from.] 
GENTRIFUGENCE, sen-trif'u-jens, n. the 
tendency to fly off from the centre : cen- 
trifugal force or tendency. Emerson. 
CENTRIPETAL, sen-trip'et-al, adj., tend- 
ing toward the centre. [L. centrum, and 
peto, to seek.] 
CENTUPLE, sen'tu-pl, adj., hundred-fold. 
[lu centuplex — centum, and plico, to fold.] 
CENTURION, sen-tu'ri-on, n. among the 
Romans, the commander of a hundred 
men. [L. centurio.] 
CENTURY, sen'ta-ri, n,, a hundred, or 
something consisting of a hundred in 
number : a hundred yearSb [L. oenturia 
— centum.] 
CEPHALIC, se-fal'ik, adj. belonging to 
the Jiead. [Gr. kephalihos — kephale, the 
CEPHALOTRIPSY, sefa-lo-trip-si, n. m 
obstretrics, the act or practice of operat- 
ing with the cephalotribe : the operation 
of crushing the head of the foetus in the 
womb to facilitate delivery. Dunglison. 
CERACEOUS, se-ra'shus, a^., of or like 

CERAMIC, se-ram'ik, adj., pertaining to 
pottery. [Gr. keramos, potter's earth, 
and suffix -ic.] 
CERASTES, se-ras'tez, n. a genus of poi- 
sonous African serpents, having a horny 
scale over each eye. [L. — Gr. kerastes, 
horned — keras, horn.] 
CERE, ser, v.t. to cover with wax. — ns. 



Cere'cloth, Cere'ment, a cloth dipped 
in melted wax in which to wrap a dead 
body. [L. cera ; cog. with Gr. keros, 
Gael, ceir, beeswax.] 

CEREAL, se're-al, adj. relating to corn or 
edible grain. — Cereals, se're-alz, 
the grains used as food, such as wheat, 
barley, etc. [L. cerealis — Ceres, the god- 
dess of corn or produce.] 

CEREBELLUM, ser-e-bel'um, n. the hinder 
and lower part of the brain, [L., dim. of 
cerebrum. '\ 

CEREBRAL, ser'e-bral, adj., pertaining to 
the cerebrum. — n. Cerebra'tion, action 
of the brain, conscious or unconscious. 

CEREBRALISM, ser'e-bral-izm, n. in psy- 
chol. the theory or doctrine that all men- 
tal operations arise from the activity of 
the cerebrum or brain. 

CEREBRALIST, ser'e-bral-ist, n. one who 
holds the doctrine or theory of cere- 

CEREBRATE, ser'-e-brat, v.t. in psychology, 
to accomplish by cerebration, or action 
of the brain. 

CEREBRUM, ser'e-brum, n. the front and 
larger part of the brain. [L. cerebrum, 
the brain, of which cere = Gr. kara, the 
head, M. E. hemes, brains, Scot, hams.] 

CEREMONIAL, ser-e-mo'ni-al, adj. relat- 
ing to ceremony. — n. outward form: a sys- 
tem of ceremonies. — adj. Ceremo'nially. 

CEREMONIOUS, ser-e-mo'ni-us, adj.,fyi.ll 
of ceremony : particular in observing 
forms : precise. — adv. Ceremo'niously. 
— n. Ceremo'niousness. 

CEREMONY, sei''e-mo-ni, n. a sacred rite : 
the outw^ard form, religious or otherwise. 
[Fr. — L. ccerimonia, from root, kar, to 
make, do.] 

CERES, se'-rez, n. the Roman name for the 
goddess of com and tillage. [See 

CERTAIN, ser'tan or ser'tin, adj. sure : 
fixed : regular : some : one. — adv. Cer'- 
TAiNLY. — ns. Cer'tainty, Cer'titude. 
[Fr. certain — L. certus, old part, of cerno, 
to decide.] 

CERTIFICATE, ser-tif'i-kat, n. a written 
declaration of some fact : a testimonial 
of character. — v.t. to give a certificate. — 
n. Certifica'tion. [Fr. certificat — L. 
certus, and /acio.] 

CERTIFY, ser'ti-fi, v.t., to make known as 
certain ; to inform : to declare in writ- 
ing :—pr.p. cer'tifying ; pa.p. cer'tified. 
[Fr. certifier — L. certus, and facto, to 

CERULEAN, se-roole-an, adj., sky-blue; 
dark-blue : sea-green. [L. cceruleus =— 
coeluleus — caelum, the sky.] 

CERUSE, se'roos, n. white-lead, the nar 
tive carbonate of lead. [Fr. — L. cerussa, 
conn, with cera, wax.] 

CERVICAL, ser'vi-kal, adj. belonging to 
the neck. [Fr. — L. cervix, cervicis, the 

CERVINE, ser'vin, adj. relating to deer. 
[L. cervus, a stag ; akin to E. nart.] 

CESAREAN, se-ea're-an, adj. the Cesarean 
operation is taking a child out of the 
body of its mother 02/ cutting. [L. cosdo, 
ccesus, to cut.] 

CESS, ses, n. a tax. — v.t. to impose a tax. 
[Shortened from Assess.] 

Cessation, ses-a'shun, n. a ceasing or 
stopping : a rest : a pause. [Fr. — L. ; see 
Cease. 1 

CESSION, sesh'un, n. a yielding up. [BVo 
— L. ; see Cede.] 

CESSPOOL, ses'pool, n., a pool or hollow in 
which filthy water collects. [Ace. to 
Skeat, from Celt, soss-pool, a pool into 
which foul messes flow. Cf. Scot, soss, 
a mixed dirty mess.] 

OESTRUM, ses'-trum, n. a tool used in 
encaustic painting: — pi. Cestba, ses'-tra. 

CESTUS, ses'tus, n. the girdle of Venus, 
which had power to awaken love : an 
ancient boxing-glove loaded with lead or 
iron. [L. — Gr. kestos, a girdle.] 

CESURA. See C-esura. 

CETACEOUS, set-a'shus, adj. belonging to 
fishes of the whale-kind. [L. ce?e— -Gro 
ketos, anv sea-monster.] 

CHABLIS, shab'-le, n. a white Burgundy 
wine made at Chablis, France. [Fr.l 

CHACE. See Chase. 

CHAFE, chaf, v.t., to make hot by rubbing; 
to fret or wear by rubbing : to cause to 
fret or rage. — v.t. to fret or rage. — n. 
heat caused by rubbing: rage : passion, 

EFr. chauffer — L. calefacere — caleo, to be 
ot, and /acere, to make.] 

CHAFER, chafer, n. a kind of beetle. [A.S. 

CHAFF, chaf, n. the case or cpvering of 
grain : empty, worthless matter. — adjs. 
Chaff'y, Chaff'less. [A.S. ceaf; Ger. 

CHAFF, chaf, v.t. to banter. — n. Chafp'- 
ING. [A corr. of chafe.] 

CHAFFER, chafer, v.t., to buy. — v.i. to 
bargain : to haggle about the price. 
[M.E. chapfare, a bargain, from A.S. 
ceap, price, faru, way — a business pro- 
ceedino . 1 

CHAFFINCH, chaf insh, n. a little song- 
bird of the finch family. [Said to deUght 
in chaff. See FiNCH.] 

CHAGRIN, sha-gren', n. that which wears 
or gnaws the mind : vexation : ill-hu- 
mor. — v.t. to vex or annoy. [Fr. chagrin, 
shagreen, rough skin used for rasping or 
polishing wood.] 

CHAIN, chan, n. a series of links or rings 
passing through one another : a number 
of things coming after each other : any- 
thing that binds : a measure of 100 links, 
66 feet long. — v.t. to bind with or as with 
a chain. [Fr. chaine — L. catena.] 

CHAIR, char, n. something to stt down 
upon : a movable seat for one, with a 
back to it : the seat or office of one in 
authority. — v.t. to carry one publicly in 
triumph. [Fr. chaire — L. catnedra--Gr, 
katheara — fcathezomai, to sit down.] 

QHAISE, shaz, n. a light two-wheeled car- 



riage, for two persons, drawn by one 
horse. [Fr., a Parisian pronunciation of 
chaire. See Chair.] 

CHALCEDONY, kal-sed'6-ni or kal'-, n. a 
variety of quartz of a milk-and-water 
color. — adj. Chalcedon'ic. [From Chal- 
cedon, in Asia Minor.] 

CHALCIDID^, kal-sid'i-de, n.pL a family 
of lizards, with long-, snake-Uke bodies, 
but having minute fore and hind limbs 
present ; the scales are rectangular, and 
arranged in transverse bands which do 
not overlap. All the members of the 
group are American. H. A. Nicholson. 

■ [Gr. chalkcis, a kind of lizard, and eidos, 

CHALCOPYRITE, kal-ko-pirlt, n. yeDow 
or copper pyrites. [Gr. kalJcos, copper, 
and pyrites, from pyr, fire. See under 

CHALDAIC, kal-da'ik, CHALDEE, kal'de, 
adj. relating to Chaldea. 

CHALDRON, chawl'drun, n. a coal-measure 
holding 36 bushels. [Fr. chaudron. See 

CHALICE, chal'is, n. a cup or bowl: a 
oonamiinioiKnip. — adj. Chal'iced. (Ft. 
edlice — ^L. caiix, calicis ; Gr. kylix, a cup. 
Calyx is a different word, but from the 
same root.] 

OBLAXiK, chawk, n. the well-known white 
substance, a carbonate of lime. — v.t. to 
rub or manure with chalk. — adj. 
Chalk'y.— n. Chalk'iness. [A.S. cealc, 
Uke Fr. chaux, O. Fr. chauLc, is from L. 
calx, limestone.] 

CSHALLENGE, chaJ'enj, v.t. to call on one 
to settle a matter by fighting or any kind 
of contest: to claim as one's own: to 
accuse : to object to. — n. a summons to 
a contest of any kind : exception to a 
juror : the demand of a sentry. [O. Fr. 
ehalenge, a dispute, a claim — L. caJumnia, 
a false accusation — ccUui, caJttere, to de- 

CHALYBEAN, ka-lib'e-an, ad^'. forged by 
the Chalyhea of Pontus, noted for their 
preparation of steel : well-tempered. 

CHALYBEATE, karhb'e-&t, adj. contain- 
ing iron. — n. a water or other liquor con- 
taining iron. [Gr. chalyps, chalybos, 
steel, so called from the Chalybes, a na- 
tion in Pontus famous for steel.] 

CHAMBER, cham'ber, n. an apartment : 
the place where an assembly meets : an 
assembly or body of men met for some 

Eurpose, as a chamber of commerce : a 
all of justice : the back end of the bore 
of a gun. — adj. Cham'bered. — n. Oham*- 
BERINO, in JB., lewd behavior. [Fr. charn' 
bre — L. camera — Gr. kamara, a vault, a 
room ; akin to Celt, cam, crooked.] 
CHAMBERLAIN, chamTier-lan or-lin, to. 
an overseer of the private apartments of 
a monarch or nobleman : treasurer of a 
corporation. — n. Cham'berlainship. [O. 
Fr. chaTnbrelenc ; O. Ger. cham^rling — 
L. camera, a chamber, and affix ling or 
lenc=^. ling in Mreling.^ 

'JHAMBERLIN, cham^ser-Iin, n. a servant 
in an inn, in olden times, who united in 
huiiself the offices of chambermaid, 
waiter, and boots. [A form of Chambkb- 

CHAMBERTIN, shang'-bert-ang', n. a red 
Burgundy from the vineyards of Cham- 
bertin, France. [Fr.] 
CHAMELEON, karmel'yun, n. a small liz- 
ard famous for changing its color. [L. 
chamxKleon — Gr. cliamaileon—chamai (= 
L. humi), on the ground, leon^ a Uon— a 
CHAMOIS, sham'waw or sha-moi', n. a 
kind of goat : a soft kind of leather orig- 
inally made from its skin. [Fr.— Ger., a chamois.] 
CHAMOMTTiF.. See Camomile. 
CHAMP, cbamp, v.i. to make a snapping 
noise with the jaws in chewing. — v.t. to 
bite or chew. [Older form cJiam, from 
Soand., as in Ice. kiapta, to chatter, 
hiaptr, the jawj 
CHAMPAGfNE, sham-pan', to. a Ught 
sparkhng wine from uJuimpagne, in 
CHAMPAIGN, sham-pan', adj., level, open. 
— n. an open, level country. [A doublet 
of Campaign, from O. Fr. champaigne— 
L. Campania, a plain.] 
CHAMP AIN, sham-pan , adj. champaign. 
CHAMPION, cham'pi-un, n. one who fights 
in single combat for himself or for an- 
other : a successful combatant : a hero. 
— n. Cham'pionship. [Fr. — Low L. cam^ 
pio — ^Low Lb campus, a combat — ^L. cam^ 
pus, a plain, a place for games ; whence 
aJso are borrowed A.S. camp, a fight, 
cempa, a warrior, Qer. kdmpfen, to flgnt.j 
CHANCE, chans, n. that wTiich foMs out 
or happens : an unexpected event : risk : 
opportunity : poasibility of something 
happening. — v.t. to risk. — v.i. to happen. 
— adj. happening by chance. [Fr. — Low 
L. oadentia — L. caao, to fall.] 
CHANCEL chan'sel n the part of a 
church where the altar te placed, for- 
merly inclosed with lattices or rails. [O. 
Fr. — ^L. cancer ' lattices ] 
CHANCELLOR, chan'sel-or, to. the presi- 
dent of a court of chancery or other 
court. — n. Cha^i'cellorship. [Fr. charv' 
cdier — ^Low L. cancellarius, ong. an offi- 
cer that had charge of records and stood 
near the cancelli (L.), the crossbars thaA 
surrounded the iudgment-seat.] 
CHANCE-MEDLEY, chans'-med-n, ru the 
killing of a person by chance or in self- 
defence. [Chance, a corruption of Fr. 
ehaude hot, milee, fray, flght.J 
CHANCER, ehan'-ser, v.t. a law term, 
meaning to settle in a court of chancery. 
CHANCERY, chan'ser-i, n, the highest 
Enghsh court next to the parliament; 
in the United States a lower court of 
equit^jr. Also a pugilistic term for the 
position of an opponent's head when it 
is under one's arm, so that it may be 
held and pommelled severely, the victim 



meanwhile being unable to retaliate ef- 
fectively ; hence, sometiines figuratively 
used of an awkward fix or predicament. 

CHANDELIER, shan-de-ler", n. a frame 
with branches for holding fights. [Fr. — 
Low L. candelaria, a candlestick — L. 
candela, a candle.] 

CHANDLER, chand'ler', n. orig. a candle 
maker and dealer : a dealer generally. 
[Fr. chandelierA 

CHANDLERY, chand'ler-1, n. goods sold 
by a chandler. 

CHANGE, chanj, v,t. to alter or make dif- 
ferent : to put or give one thing or per- 
son for another : to make to pass from 
one state to another. — v.i. to suffer 
change. — n. alteration or variation of 
any kind : a shift : variety : small coin : 
also used as a short term for the Ex- 
change.— To PUT THE CHANGE ON, to trick : 
to mislead : to deceive : to humbug. "I 
have x^t the change upon her that she 
may be otherwise employed." — Corir 
greve. " You cannot put the change on 
me so easy as you think, for I have lived 
among the quick-stirring spirits of the 
age too long to swallow chaff for grain." 
— iSir W. Scott. [Ft. changer — ^Late L. 
cambiare — L. canioire, to barter.] 

CHANGEABLE, chanj'a-bl, adj. subject 
or prone to change : fickle : inconstant. — 
adv. Change' ABLY. — n, Change'ablb- 


CHANGEFUL, chanj'fool, ac(j., full of 
change ; changeable. — adv. Change'FXJI/- 
LY.— n. Change'fulness. 

CHANGELESS, chanj'les, ac^., without 
change : constant. 

CHANGELING, chanjling, n. a child taken 
or left in place of another : one apt to 

CHANNEL, chan'el, n. the bed of a stream 
of water : the deeper part of a strait, 
bay, or harbor : a strait or narrow sea : 
means of passing or conveying. [O. Fr. 
Chanel or canel — L. canalis.'] 

CHANT, chant, v.t., losing: to celebrate 
in song : to recite in a sin^ng manner. 
— n., song : melody : a kind of sacred 
music, in which prose is sung. [Fr. 
chanter (It. cawfare)— L. canto— cano, to 

CHANSON, shan'-song', n. a song. [Fr.] 

CHANTER, chant'er, n., one who chants : 
a chief singer : the tenor or treble pipe of 
a bagpipe. 

CHANTICLEER, chant'i-kl5r, n. a cock. 
[M. E. chaunte-cleeTf from Chakpt and 

CHANTRY, chant'ri, n. an endowed chapel 
in which masses are chanted for the 
souls of the donors or others, [O. Fr. 
chanterie — chanter, to sing.] 

CHAOS, ka'os, n. a confused, shapeless 
mass : disorder : the state of matter be- 
fore it was reduced to order by the Crea- 
tor. [L. and Gr. chaos — root ha, to ga:pb_ 
seen also in Gr. chaind, chad, to gape, 
to yawn.] 

CHAOTIC, ka-ot'ik, at^'., like chaos: con- 
fused or disordered. 

CHAP, chap or chop, v.t., to cut : to cleave, 
split, or crack. — v.i. to crack or open ia 
slits :—pr.p. chapp'ing ; pa.p. chapped', 

■ chapt. [E.; Dut. happen, Dan. kappe,to 
cut. See Chip.] 

CHAP, chap, CHOP, chop, n. a cleft, crack, 
or chink. 

CHAPARRAL, chap-a-ral', n. dense tan- 
gled brushwood. [Sp.] 

CHAPBOOK, chap'book, n. a small kind of 
book or tract, at one time carried about 
for sale by chapmen. 

CHAPEAU, sha-po', n. a hat, cap, or bon- 
net. [Fr.] 

CHAPEL, chap' el, n. place of worship in- 
ferior or subordinate to a regular church, 
or attached to a palace or a private dwell- 
ing : a dissenters' place of worship. [Fr. 
chapelle, O. Fr. capele — Low L. capeUa, 
dim. of capa, a cloak or cope : such a 
small cope was kept in the palaces of 
kings on which to administer oaths ; the 
name was transferred to the sanctuary 
where the capella was kept, and hence to 
any sanctuary containing relics. Littri.] 

CHAPELRY, chap'el-ri, n. the jurisdiction 
of a chapel. 

CHAPERON, shap'e-r6n, n. a kind of hood 
or cap : one who attends a lady in public 

{)laces as a protector. — v.t, to attend a 
ady to pubhc places. [Fr., a large hood 
or head-dress, and hence a person who 
affords protection Uke a hood — chape, a 
hooded cloak — ^Low L. cappa. See Cape.] 

CHAP-FALLEN, chap-fawln. Same as 

CHAPITER, chap'i-ter, n. the head or 
capital of a column. 

CHAPLAIN, chap'lan or chap'lin, n. a 
clergyman attached to a ship of war, a 
regiment, a public institution, or family, 
— ns. Chap'laincy, Chap'lainship. [It. 
chapelain — Low L. capellanus — capella^ 
See Chapel.] 

CHAPLET, chaplet, n. a garland or wreath 
for the head : a rosary. [Fr. chapelet, 
dim. of O. Fr. chapel, a nat — ^Low L. 
capa, a cape.] 

CHAPLET, chaplet, v.t. to crown or adorn 
with a chaplet. " His forehead chapleted 
green with wreathy hop." — Browning. 

CHAPMAN, chap'man, n. one who buys or 
sells : a dealer. rA.S. ceap-man — ceap, 
trade, and man. See Cheap.] 

CHAPS, chaps, the jaws. [N. E. and 
Scot. chafts—Scand.t as Ice. J^'aptr, the 
jaw. See Jowi*.] 

CHAPT, chapt, pa.p. at Chap. 

CHAPTER, chap'ter, n., a head or division 
of a book: a corporation of clergymen 
belonging to a cathedral or collegiate 
church : an organized branch of some 
society or fraternity. [Fr. chapitre—L. 
capitulum, dim. of capw, the head.] 

CHAPTER, chap'ter, v.t. to divide or ar- 
range into chapters, as a literary compo- 



CQAR, dhST,n. work done iiy the dayt b 
turn of work : a job. — v.i. to work by the 
•ilay. ;fA.B. cierr, a turn, spaoe of time— • 
■cyrran, to turn.] 

CELAE, char, n. a red-bellied fish of the 
salmon kind, found in mountain lakef^ 
and rivers. [Ir. and Gael, oeor, red blood 

CHAR, cHS,r, v.t. to roast or bum until >» 
-ducedlo ccn^on or coal :—pr.j). charr'ing ; 
pa.p. charred'. [Bty. dub. ; ace. to Skesd;, 
I'becaujBe wood is turned to coal, from 
CteAR, a #?«m of work.] 

CHARACTER, kar'ak-ter, n. a letter, sign, 
or figure : the peculiar qualities of a per- 
son or thing : a description of the quali« 
tties of a person or thing: a person with 
*hfe peculiar qualities, f^, earadir^^ 
Ij. character — Gr. oharafe^r, from cfear- 
a^so, to cut, engrave.] 

OHARACTERIZE, kar'ak-ter-iz, v.t. togive 
a character to : to describe by peculiar 
qualities : to distinguish or designate. — 
n. Chabacteiriza'tion. [Qr. charakter- 

CH A R ACTEIRI STI C, kar-ak-ter-is'tik, 
OHARACTERISTICj^I., kar-ak-ter-is'tik- 
al, adj. marking or constituting the pe- 
culiar nature. — Characteris'tic, n. that 
which marks or constitutes the charao- 
ter. — adv. Chabacteris'tic a t.t.y. [Gr.] 

OKARADE, shar-ad', or-ad, n. a species of 
riddle, the subject of whidh is a word 
'proposed for solution from an enigmat- 
icad descripition of its several syllables 
and of the whole ; the charade is often 
acted. [Fr.; ety. dub.] 

CHARCOAL, char'kol, n., coal made by 
charring or burning wood under turf. 

CHARGE, char j, v.t. to lay on or load: 
to impose or intrust : to fall upon or at- 
tack : to put to the account of : to im- 
.pute to : to command : to exhort. — v.i, 
to make an onset. — n. that which is laid 
on-: cost or price : the load of powder, 
etc., for a gun : attack or onset : care, 
custody : the object of care : command : 
exhortation : accusaction. [Fr. charger-^ 
tow L. carricare, to load — 'L. carrus, a 
wagon. See Car, Cargo.] 

OHARGEABIiE, charj'a-bl, ac{j'. liable to 
be charged: imputable : blamable : in 
B., burdensome. — n. Charoe'abueness. — ■ 

nd7\ CHARGP;'Am>Y. 

CHARGE D'AFFAIRES, «har'-zha-da-far, 
n. a diplomatic agent who holds creden- 
-tials from the minister or ambassador, and 
is in charge during the absence or illness 
of his superior, or for the time being. 

CHARGEIR, dhSij'er, n. a dish capable oT 
holding a lieavy charge or quantity : a 
horse used in charging, a war-horse. 


CHARIOT, char'i-ot, n. a four-wheeled 
pleasure or state carriage : a car used in 
ancient Avarfare. [Fr., dim. of ehar^ a 
car, from root of Cab.] 

CHARIOT, char'i-ot, v.i. to convey in a 

CHABIOTEER, char-i-ot^rC, n. one who 
dr ives a chariot. 

CHARITABLE, char'i-ta-bl, adj,^ ftdl of 
charity : of or relating to charity : lib- 
eral to the poor. — adv. Char'itably. — n. 


CHARITY, char'i-ti, n. in New Test., uni- 
versal love : the disposition to tliink 
favorably of others, and do them good : 
almsgiving. [Fr. charite — L. caritas, 
from caj~us, dear.] 

CHARLATAN, shar'la-tan, n. a mere talk- 
ing pretender : a quack. [Fr. — ^It. ciar- 
latano — ciarlare, to chatter, an imitative 

dCHARLATAlsRT, shar'la-tan-ri, n. the 
profession of a charlatan: undue or 
empty pretension : deception. 

CHAKLOCK, char'lok, n. a plant of the 
mustard family, with yellow flowers, that 
grows as a weed in cornfields. [A.S. cer- 
Uce—cer, unknown, lie =• leek, a plant.] 

CHARM, charm, n. a spell : something 
thought to possess hidden power or 
fluence : that which can please irresisti- 
bly. — v.t. to influence by a charm : to 
subdue by secret influence : to enchant : 
todeliaht : to allure. — adv. Charm'ikglY. 

CHARMEK, charm'er, n., onewho'etichanta 
or delights. 

CHAENEL, char'nel, aS^. containing flesh 
or carcasses. [Fr. charnel—^ camalis — 
carOy camis, flesh.^] 

GHAENEL-BOUSE, char'nel-hows, n. a 
place where the bones of the dead are de- 
^p osited. 

CHART, chart, n. a map of a part of the 
sea, with its coasts, shoals, etc., for the 
use of sailors. [L. charta, a paper. See 

CHARTER, chart'er, n. a formal written 
paper, conferring or confirming titles, 
Tights, or privileges: a patent: grant: 
immunity. — v.t. to establish by charter : 
to let or hire, as a ship, on contract. [Fi. 
chartre — ^L. chartarium, arctuves— cftor- 

CHARTER-PARTY, chart'er-parrti, n. a 
mutual charter or contract for the hire 
of a vessel. [Fr. cliartre-partie, (lit^) a 
divided charter, as the practice was to 
divide it in two and give a half to eaoh 


CHARTISM, chart'izm, n. the principles 
of a party who sprung up in Gt. Britain 
in 1838, and who advocated the people's 
charter — viz. universal suffrage, etc. 

CHARTIST, chart'ist, n. one who supports 

CHARWOMAN,- char-woom'sm, «..a woman 
who chars or does odd work by the day. 

CHARY, char'i, adj. sparing : cautious. — 
adv. ChaR'ily. — n. Char'iness, [A.S. 
cearig — cearu, carej 

CHASE, chas, v.t. to pursue : to hunt.: to 
drive away. — n. pursuit : a hunting : that 
which is nunted : grovmd abounding in 
game. [Fr. chasser — Low L. coctare— il* 
capto—camo, to take.l 



CHASE, chas, v.t. to incase: to emboss. 
[See Enchase.] 

CHASE, chas, n. a case or frame for hold- 
ing types : a groove. [Fr. chdsse, a shrine, 
a setting — L. capsa, a chest. See Case.] 

CHASER, chas'er, n., one who chases : an 

CHASM, kazm, n. a yavming or gaping 
hollow : a gap or opening : a void space. 
[Gr. chasma, from chaino, to gape ; con- 
nected with Chaos. 1 

CHASSE, shas, n. a samt's shrine: a small 
quantity of spirituous liquor taken to 
remove the taste of tobacco or coflFee. 
[Fr.] In E. slang, Chaseb, a small 
quantity of vichy, water, or the like to 
remove the taste of liquor. 

CHASTE, chast, ac^. modest : refined : vir- 
tuous : pure in taste and style. — adv, 
Chaste'ly. [Fr. chaste— li. castus, pure.] 

CHASTEN, chas'n, v.t. to free from faults 
by punishing : hence, to punish : to cor- 
rect. [Fr. chdtier, O. Fr. chastier — L. 
castigare — castus, pure.] 

chas'ti-ti, n., purity of body, conduct, 
or language. 

CHASTISE, chas-tiz', v.t. to inflict punish- 
ment upon for the purpose of correction: 
to reduce to order or to obedience. — n. 
Chastisement, chas'tiz-ment. 

CHASUBLE, chaz'u-bl, n. the uppermost 
garment worn by a R. C. priest at mass. 
[Fr. — ^Low L. casubula, L. casula, a man- 
tle, dim. of casa, a hut.] 

CHAT, chat, v.i. to talk idly or familiarly: 
—pr.p. chatting; pa.p. chatt'ed. — n. 
familiar, idle talE [Short for Chatter.] 

CHATEAU, sha-to', n. a nobleman's castle : 
a country-seat. [Fr., O. Fr. ch&tel, cas- 
tel — L. castellum, dim. of castrum, a fort.] 

CHATTEL, chat'l, n. any kind of property 
which is not freehold. 

CHATTER, chafer, v.i. to talk idly or rap- 
idly : to sound as the teeth when one 
shivers. [From the sound.] 

CHATTINESS, chat'i-nes, n. the quaUty or 
state of being chatty : talkativeness. 

CHATTY, chat'i, ac^'., given to chat : talka- 

CHAUFFEUR, sho-fer', n.masc. one who 
drives or attends an automobile. 

CHAUTAUQUA SYSTEM, sha-taw'-kwa, 
an educational system by which the stu- 
dents study at home, in connection with 
the summer schools at Chautauqua, N. Y. 

CHAUVINIST, sho'vin-ist, n. a person im- 
bued with chauvinisme, which means an 
absurdly exaggerated patriotism or ex- 
cessive military enthusiasm. 

OHAUVINISTIC, sho-vin-ist'ik, adj. per- 
taining to or characterized by chauvin- 
isme : fanatically devoted to any cause. 

CHEAP, chep, adj. low in price : of small 
value. — adv. Cheap'ly. — n. Cheap'ness. 
[Grig. Good cheap, i.e., a. good bargain; 
A.S. ceap, price, a bargain ; A.S. ceapan, 
Ice. kaupa, Ger. kaufen, to buy ; Scot. 

coup — all borrowed from L. caupOi a 

CHEAPEN, chep'n, v.t. to make cheap: 
to beat down in price. 

CHEAT, chet, v.t. to deceive and defraud. 
— n. a fraud : one who cheats. [A corr. 
of Escheat, the seizure of such property 
being looked upon as robbery.] 

CHECK, chek, v.t. to bring to a stand : to 
restrain or hinder : to rebuke. — n. a- term 
in chess when one party obliges the other 
either to move or guard his king : any- 
thing that checks : a sudden stop : in J5., 
a rebuke. [Fr. dchec = Pers. shah, king 
— (mind your) king !] — v.t. to compare 
with; a counterpart or authority in order 
to ascertain correctness. — n. a mark put 
against items in a list : a token : an order 
for money (usually written Cheque) : 
any counter-register used as security : a 
checkered cloth. [From the practice of 
the Court of Exchequer, where accounts 
were settled by means of counters on a 
checkered cloth.] 

CHECK-BOOK, chek'-book, n. a bank-book 
containing blank checks, for the use of 
persons having accounts with the bank. 

CHECKER, CHEQUER, chek'er, v.t. to 
form into little squares like a chessboard 
or checker, by lines or stripes of different 
colors : to variegate or diversify. — n. a 
chessboard. [Fr. 4chiquier, O. Fr. es- 
chequier, a chessboard— ^c^c] 

CHECKERS, check'erz, a game played 
by two persons on a checkered board ; 
also called Draughts. 

CHECKMATE, chek'mat, n. in chess, a 
check given to the adversary's king when 
in a position in which it can neither be 
protected nor moved out of check, so that 
the game is finished : a complete check : 
defeat: overthrow. — v.t. in chess, to make 
a movement which ends the game : to 
defeat. [Fr.echecetmat;Qer. schachmatt 
— Pers. shdh mdt, the king is dead.] 

CHEEK, chek, n. the side of the face below 
the eye. [A.S. ceace, the cheek, jaw.] 

CHEEP, chep, v.i. to chirp, as a young 
bird. [From the sound, like Chirp.] 

CHEEPER, chep'er, n. one who or that 
which cheeps, as a young chicken : spe- 
cifically, among sportsmen, the young 
of the grouse and some other game birds. 

CHEER, cher, n. that which makes the 
countenance glad : joy : a shout : kind 
treatment : entertainment : fare. — v.t. 
to make the countenance glad : to com- 
fort : to encourage : to applaud. [O. Fr. 
chiere, the countenance — ^Low L. cara, 
the face — Gr. kara, the head, face.] 

CHEERFUL, cher'fool, adj., full of cheer 
or good spirits : joyful : lively. — adv. 
Cheer'fuUjY. — n. Cheer'fulness. 

CHEERLESS, cher'les, adj., without cheer 
or comfort : gloomy. — n. Cheer'less- 


CHEERY, cher'i, adj., cheerful : promot- 
ing cheerfulness. — adv. Cheer'ily. — n. 



CHEESE, chez, n. the curd of milk pressed 
into a hard mass : also the inflated ap- 
pearance of a eown or petticoat result- 
ing from whirling round and making a 
low curtsey; hence, a low curtsey. 
" What more reasonable thing could she 
do than amuse herself with making 
cheeses f that is, whirling round . . . un- 
til the petticoat is inflated like a balloon 
and .then sinking into a curtsey." — De 
Quincey. " She and her sister both made 
these dieeses in compUment to the new- 
comer, and with much stately agility." 
— Thackeray. [A.S. cese, cyse, curdled 
milk ; Grer. kdse ; both from L. caseus ; 

CHEESECAKE, chez'kak, n. a cake made 
of s oft curds, sugar, and butter^ 

CHEESEMONGER, chez'mung'ger, n, a 
de aler in cheese. 

CHEESY, chez'i, adj. having the nature of 
cheese . 

CHEETAH, che'tah, n. an eastern animal 
like the leopard, used in hunting. [EUnd. 

CHEIROMANCY, ki'-ro-man-s€, n. the art 
of telling fortunes by the lineaments of 
the hand. Written also Cheibosophy. 
— Cheirosophist, ki-ros'-o-fist, n. one who 
tells fortunes by cheiromancy. — adj. Chei- 
BosoPHiCAX. [Gr. cheir, the hand, and 
manteia, prophecv.] 

iOHEMIC, kem^, CHEMICAL, kem'i-kal, 
adj., belonging to chemistry. — -adv. GoEit' 


CHEMICALS, kem'ik-alz, substances 
used for producing chemical effects. 

CHEMICO-ELECTRIC, kem'i-ko-e-lek'trik, 
adj. pertaining or relating to electricity 
resulting from chemical action : galvan- 
ism : also, pertaining to chemical action 
resulting from electricity. 

CHEMISE, she-mez', n. a lady's shift. [Pr. 
chemise — Low L. camisia, a nightgown — 
Ar. qamis, a shirt.] 

CHEMISETTE, shem-e-zet', n. an under- 

J garment worn by ladies over the chemise. 
Fr., dim. of chemise.] 
EMIST, kem'ist, n. one skilled in chem- 

CHEMISTRY, kem'is-tri formerly Chym- 
ISTRY, n. the science which treats of the 
properties of substances both elemen- 
tary and compound, and of the laws of 
their combination and action one upon 
another. [From the ancient Alchemy, 
which see.] 

CHEMOSMOSIS, kera-os-m6'sis, n. chemi- 
cal action acting through an intervening 
membrane, as parchment, paper, etc. 
[From chenp- in chemistry, and osmosis.] 

CHEMOSMOTIC, kem-os-mot'ik, adj. per- 
tainioL'- or relatintr to chemosmosis. 

CHENILLE, she-nel, n. a thick, velvety- 
looking cord of silk or wool, used in or- 
namental sewing and manufactured trim- 
min gs. [Fr.] 

CHEQUE.CHEQUER. See Check.Checker, 

CHERISH, cher'ish, v.t. to protect and 

treat with affection. [Fr. chirir, ehiri»- 

sant — cher, dear — L. carus.] 
^JHEROOT, she-r6ot', n. a kind of cigar. 

[Ety. unknown.] 
OHERRY, cher*!, n. a small bright-red 

stone-fruit : the tree that bears it.— -ad;. 

like a cherry in color : ruddy. [iS*. cerise — 

Qr. kerasos, a cherry-tree, said to be so 

named from Cerasus, a town in Pontus, 

from which the cherry was brought by 

CHERT, chert, n. a kind of quartz or flint : 

hornstone. [Ety. dub.] 
CHERTY, cherfi, adj., like or containing 

CHERUB, cher'ub, n. a celestial spirit : a 

beautiful child. — pi. Cher'ubs, Cher'- 

UBIM, Chee'ubims. [Heb. kerub.] 
'^ERUBIC, che-rooblk, CHERUBICAL, 

che-roob'i-kal, adj. pertaining to cherubs x 
CHESS, ches. n. a g:ame played by two peh 

sons on a board Uke that used in checkerw. 

[Corr. of Checks, the pi. of Check.] 
CHEST, chest, n. a large strong box : the 

part of the body between the neck and 

the abdomen. [A.S. cyste, Scot, kist — L. 

CHESTNUT, CHESNUT, ches'nut, n. a nut 
or fruit inclosed in a prickly case: the 
tree that bears it. — adj. of a chestnut 
color, reddish-brown. rM.E. chesten-nut 
— O. Fr. chastaigne — L. castanea — Gr. 
kasianon, from Castana, in Pontus, where 
the tree abounded.] 

3HEVAL-DE-FRISE, she-val'-de-fr6z, n. a 
piece of timber armed with spikes, used to 
defend a passage or to stop cavalry. — pt 
Chevaux-de-frise, she-vo'-de-frez. [Fr. 
cheval, horse, de, of, Frise, Friesland" ; a 
jocular name.] 

CHEVALIER, shev-a-ler', n. a cavalier : a 
knight : a gallant man. [Fr. — cheval — ^L. 

, cabalb is, a horse. 1 

shev'-ron, n. the band or braid 
worn on the sleeve of a non-commissioned 

_ oflacer's coat to indicate his rank. [Fr.l 

jHEW, choo, v.t. to cut and bruise with 
the teeth. [A.S. ceowan ; G«r. kauen: 

. conn, with Jaw and Chaps.] 

CHIARO-OSCURO, ki-fir'6-os-k55'r5. See 

CHIBOUK, CHIBOUQUE, chi-book', n. & 
Turkish pipe for smoking. [Turk.] 

CHICANE, shi-kan', v.i. to use shifts and 
tricks, to deceive. — n. Chica'nery, trick- 
ery or artifice, esp. in legal proceedings. 
[Fr. chicane, sharp practice at law, 
through a form zicanum, from Low Gr. 
tzykanion, a game at mall — ^Pers. ichav/' 

CHICCORY. See Chicory. 

CHICK, chik, CHICKEN, chik'en, n. the 
young of fowls, especially of the hen : a 
child. [A.S. cicen, a dim. of oocc, a cock.] 

CHIC K E N-HEARTED, chik'en-hart'ed, 
adj. as timid as a chicken : cowardly. 

CHICKEN-POX, chik'en-poks, n. mild skin- 
disease, generally attacking children 



CaaiCKUNG, chikaing, n. a KUle ekit^en. 

CHICKWEED, chik'wed, n. a low creeping 
weed that birds are fond ol. 

CHICORY, CHICCORY, chik'o-ri, n., suc- 
cory, a carrot-Hke plant, the root of which 
when ground is used to adulterate coffee. 
[Ft. dkic(rree — ^L. eichoriitm, succory — 

CHIDE, chid, r.r. to scold, rebuke, reprove 
by words i—pr.p. chiding ; pa.t, chid, 
(ol».) chode ; pa.p. chid, chidaen. [A^. 

CHIEF, chef, ok^*., head: principal, high- 
est, first. — n. a head or principal person : 
a leader : the principal part or top of 
anything. [Fr. chef—L. eapnt, the head ; 
Gt. kephcUe, Sans. fcopaZa.l 

CHIEFLY, chefli, adv. in the first place : 
principally : for the most part. 

CHIEFTAIN, cheftan or 'tin, n. the head 
of a clan : a leader or commander. — 9ig. 
Chief'tainct, Chief'tainship. [From 
Chief, like Captain, which see.] 

CHIFFON, she-fOn', n. a guazy material, 
used for trimming or for the ornament of 
women's dress: hence any bimeh of rib- 
bon or other ornamental adjunct of 
wome n's clothing. [Fr.; lit. rag.] 

CHIFPONIEIR, shtf-tm-er', n. an ornamen- 
tal cupboard. [Fr., a place for rags — 
chiffon, a rag.] 

CHIGNON, ste-nong*, n. an artificial ar- 
rangement of hair at the back of tl^ 
head. fPr., meaning first the nape of 
the neck, the joints of which are like 
the links of a chain — chainon, the link of 
a ch ain — chaine, a chain.] 

CHILBLAIN, chil'blan, n. a hlain or sore 
on hands or feet caused by a chill or cold. 

CHILD, child, n. (pi. Cinii>EEN), an infant 
or very young person : one intimately 
related to one older : a disciple i—pL off- 
spring: descendants: inhabitants. rA.S. 
eild, from the root gan-, to proauce, 
wh ich yields Ger. hind, a child.] 

CHILDBED, child'bed, n. the state of a 
woman brought to bed with child. 

CHILDE, child, n. a title formerly given to 
the eldest son of a noble, till admission 
to knighthood. [Same word as Chud.] 

CHILDERMAS-DAY, chil'der-mas-da, «. 
an anniversary in the Church of England, 
called also Innocents' Day, held Decem- 
ber 28th, to commemorate the slaying of 
the children by Herod. [Child, Mass, 
and Day.] 

CHILDHOOD, childTiood, n., state of being 
a child. 

CHILDISH, chtld'ish, a^., of or like a 
child : silly : trifling. — adv. Child'ishi,t. 
— n. Child'tshkess. 

CHILDKIND, chlld'kind, n. children gen- 
erally. " AH mankind, womankind, and 
chilakind.'" — Carlyle. [Child and kind, 
on tvpe of Tnavkisid, womanMnd.l 

CHILDLESS, child^es, adj., vnthmd chil- 

CHILDLIKE, childlik, adj., Uke a chUd: 
becoming a child : docile : innocent. 

CHILIAD, MH-ad, n. the number 1000 : 
1000 of any thing. [Gr.—chiiioi, 1000.] 

CHILL, chil, n., coldness: a cold that 
causes shivering: anything that damps 
or disheartens.^-ad;, shivering with cold: 
slightly coW : opp. of cordial. — v.t. to 
make chill or cold : to blast with cold : 
to discourage, — u. Chill'nbss. [A.S. 
cyle^ coldness, cdan, to chill. See CoiJ>, 
Coo l.] 

CHILLY, chil'i, adj. somewhat ckQl.^^n, 


CHIME, chim, n. the harmonious sound 
of bells or other musical instruments: 
agreement of sound or of relation : — 
pi. a set of bells. — v.i. to so:ind in har- 
mony : to jingle : to accord or agree. — 
v,t. to strike, or cause to sound in har- 
mony. [M. K chimbe, O. Fr. cpmbaJe — 
L. cymbalum, a cymbal — Gr. Tq/mbalon.] 

CHIMERA, ki-me'ra, n. a fabulous, fira- 
spouting monster, with a lion's head, a 
serpent's tail, and a goat's body: any 
idle or wild fancy. [L. diimxerar—Or. 
chimaira, a she-goat.] 

CHIMERICAL, ki-mferl-kal, adj. at the 
nature of a. chimera: wild: fandfuL — 
adv . C^imer'icaixy. 

CHIMNEY, chim'oi, n, a passage for the 
escape of smoke or heated air, [Fr. 
cheminee — ^L. oaminus — Gr. haminos, a 
furnace, prob. from kaid, to burn.] 

CHIMNEY-PIECE, chim'ni-pes, n. a piece 
or shelf over the tJumttey or fiireplaoe. 

CHIMNEY-SHAFT, chim'ni-shaft, n. tbe 
shaft or stalk of a chimney which rises 
above the building. 

CHIMPANZEE, chim-pan'ze, n. a spe^es 
of monkey found in Africa. [Prob. na^ 
tive name of the animal.] 

CHIN, chin, n. the jutting part of the facet 
below the mouth- 

CHINA, cfain'a, n. a fine kind of earthen* 
ware, originally made in China: porce- 

CHINCHILLA, chin-chil'-la, ». a small ro- 
dent quadruped of South America, valued 
for its soft, gray fur: the fur itself: a 
heavy woollen fabric [Sp.J 

CHINCOUGH, chin'kof, n. a disease at- 
tended with violent Jits of coughing : 
whooping-cough. [EL ; Scot. Miuc-host-, 
Dut. fnnxhoeste. See Chink, the sound.] 

CHINE, chio, n. the spine or backbone, 
from its thorn-like form : a piece of the 
backbone of a beast and adjoining parts 
for cooking. [Fr. echine — O. Ger. dcina^ 
a pin, thorn ; prob. conn, with L. spina, 
a tboru, the spine.] . 

CHINE, she-na, «. colored or dyed in Chi- 
nese fashion, esp. a fabric of mottled ap- 
pearance. [Fr. chiner, to dye threads in 
a way to produce an indistinct design in 
a ifl.oric 1 

CHINESE, chi-ne£', adj. of or belonging to 

CHINK, chingk, n. a rerd or deft ; a nar - 
row opening. — v.i. to split or crack. [A* 
S. cinu, a c^ft, cinan, to split.] 



CHINK, chin^k, n. the clink, as of coins. 

— v.i. to g^ve a sharp sound, as coin. 

[From the sound.] 
CHINKEES, chingk'erz, coin: money. 

(Slang.) ^ ' 

Are men like us to be entrapped and sold 
And see no money down, Sir Hurly-Burly ? . . 
So let us see your chinkers. — Sir H. Taylor. 
CHINOISERIE, she-nwa-ze-re', n. a specie 
men of something Chinese, as decoration, 
art, manners, or conduct. [Fr. Chinois, 
CHINTZ, chints, n. cotton cloth, print^ 
in five or six different colors. [Hind, 
chint, spotted cotton cloth.] 
CHIP, chip, v.t. to chop or cut into small 

Eieces : to diminish by cutting away a 
ttle at a time :—pr.p. chipp'ing ; pa.p. 
chipped'. — n. a small piece of wood or 
other substance chopped off. [Dim. of 

CHIPMUNK, chip-mungk, n. a kind of 
North American squirrel. 

CHIPPENDALE, chip'-pen-dal, adj. said of 
furniture in the light, tasteful, delicate 
designs produced by an English cabinet- 
maker of the Eighteenth Century, Thomas 

CHmoGRAPHER, kl-rog'ra-fer, CHIROGk 
RAPHIST, ki-rog'ra-fist, n. one who pro- 
fesses the art of writing. 

CHIROGRAPHOSOPHIC, kf ro-graf'5-sof - 
ik, n, an expert in chirography : a judge 
of handwriting. Kingsley. (Rare.) [Gr. 
cheir, the hand, grapho, to write, and 
sophos, wise .] 

CHIROGRAPHY, ki-rog'ra-fi, n. the art of 
writing or penmanship. — adj. Chibo 
graph'ic. [Gr. cheir, the hand, graphs, 

OHIROLOGIST, ki-rol'o-jist, n. one who 
converses by signs with the hands. 

CHIROLOGY, ki-rol'o-ji, n. the art of dis- 
coursing with the hands or by signs as 
the deaf and dumb do. [Gr. cheir, the 
h and, logos, a discourse.] 

CHIROPODIST, ki-rop'o-dist, n. a hand 
and foot doctor: one who removes corns, 
bunions, warts, etc. [Gr. cheir, the 
hand, and pons, podos, the foot.] 

CHIROTONY, kl-rot'o-ni, n. imposition of 
hands in ordaining priests. [Gr. eheir^ 
the hand, and teino, to hold out.] 

CHIRP, cherp, CHrRRUP, chir'up, n. the 
sharp, shrill sound of certain birds and 
insects. — v.i. to make such a sound. 
[From the sound.] 

OHIRURGEON, ki-rur'jun, n. old form of 
Surgeon.— w. Chibur'gery, now Sur- 
gery. — adj. Chirur'gical, now Surgi- 
cal. [Fr. ehirurgien—Qr. cheirourgos — 
cheir, the hand, ergon, a work.] 

CHISEL, chiz'el, n. a tool to cut or hollow 
out wood, stone, etc. — v.t, to cut, carve, 
etc. with a chisel :—pr.p. chis'elling ; 
pa.p. chis'elled. [O. Fr. cisel— how L. 
cisdlus — L. sicilicula, dim. of sicilis, a 
sickle, from seco, to cut.] 

OHIT, chit, n. a baby : a lively or per*< 

young child. [A.S. ctf ft, a young tender 


CHITCHAT, chit'chat, n. chatting or idle 
t alk : prattle . [ A reduplication of (M/LT.] 

CHTVALREJSQUE, shival-resk, ac^j. per- 
taining to chivalry : chivalrous. "Some 
warrior in a chivalreaque romance." — Misa 
Bur ney. [Fr. chevaiereaque.] 

shiv'al-rus, adj., pertaining to chivalry: 
bold : gallant. — adv. Chtvalbously. 

CHIYAIlRY, shiv'al-ri, n. the usages and 
qualifications of cihevaliera or kni^ts : 
the system of kni^thood : heroic ad- 
ventures. [EV. chevalerie — cheval — L. ca- 
halliis, a horse. See Cavalby.] 

CHLORAL, klo'raJ, n. a strongly narcotio 
substance obtained by the action of chlo- 
rine on alcohol. [Word formed by com- 
bining chlor- in chlorine, and at- in aUxt- 

CHLORALISM, klo'ral-izm, n. in med. a 
morbid state of the system arising from 
the incautious or habitual use of chloral. 

CHLORIC, klo'rik, adj., of or from chlorine. 

CHLORIDE, klo'rid, n. a compound of c^^o- 
rine with some other substance, as pot- 
ash, soda, etc. 

CHLORINE, klo'rin, to. a pale-green gas, 
with a d isagreeable, simocating odor. 

CHLORITE, kl6'rlt,'w. a fbft mineral of a 
greenish color, with a soapy feeling when 
ha ndled. 

CHLOROFORM, klo'ro-form, n. a colorless 
volatile liquid, much used to induce in- 
sensibility. [Grig, a compound of chlo- 
rine and formic acid ; Gr. chloros, and 
formic sucid, so called because orig. made 
from ants, Li. formica, an ant.l 

CHLOROSIS, klor-o'sis, n. a medical name 
for srreew-sickness. [Gr. chloros, pale- 

^OCOLATE, chok'o-lat, n. a kind of paste 
made of the pounded seeds of the Cacao 
theobroma : a beverage made by dissolv- 
ing this paste in hot water. [Sp. choco^ 
late ; from Mexican kakalviiatl. See 
Cacao, Cocoa.] 

OHCEROGRYL, ke'ro-gril, n. a name of 
the Hyrax syriacus or rock-rabbit. [Gr. 
choiros, a hog, and gryllos, a pig.] 

OHCEROPOTAMUS, ker-6-pot'a-mus, n. a 
genus of fossil ungulate quadrupeds of 
the group Suida), remains of which have 
been found in the gypsum beds of Mont- 
martre, near Paris. [Gr. choiros, a hog, 
and poiamos, a river.] 

CHOICE, chois, n. act or power of choos- 
ing : the thing chosen : preference : the 
preferable or best part.— adj. worthy of 
being chosen : select. [Fr. choix — choisir; 
from root of Choose. J 

CHOIR, kwir, n. a chorus or band of sing- 
ers, especially those belonging to a 
church : the part of a church appropri- 
ated to the singers : the part of a cathe- 
dral separated from the nave by a rail or 
screen. [Fr. chceur — L. chorus — Gr. 



'CHOKEf cb5k, v^t. to'throttie : to stjBo- 
cate : to stop or obstruct. — v.i. to be 
choked or suffocated. {Ety*dab.,:prob. 
'fro m the sound.] 

CHOKE-DAMP, chSk'-damp, n. carbonic 
acid gas, so called by misers from its 
often causing' suffocatioii. 
'CHOKEY, ch&k'i, adj. 1, same as Choky ; 
2, inclined to choke : haTtag- a choking 
sensation in the throat. (Colloq.) '^The 
aUusion to his mother made Tom ' feel 
-rather chokey^" — T.Hu^£s. 

CHOLEB, kol'er, n. the bile : anger or 
•irascibility, once supposed to arise "from 
excess of bile. [O. Pr. cholere—lu, Gr. 
cholera— Qr. chole, bile. Cf. E. GUix.] 
^CHOLEIBA, kol'er-^, n. a disease chaxao- 
terized by bilious vomitiiig and purging. 
[Gr. chokra — choU, bile.] 

iCHOLERAIC, kolrer-filk, ad^j., of the nat- 
ii^eof cholera. 

CHOLERIC, kol'er-ik, a<^*. full of cftoter or 

^aoger : petulant. 

CHOOSE, chooz, v.t. to take onff thhi^ in 

preference to another : to select. — v.x. to 

.will or determine : — pa.t. chose; jxtp. 

chos'en. [A.S. ceoaan ; cog. with Dut. 

'Mesen, Qoth. kiuaan, to choose, and akin 

JtoXb gitstare, to taste.] 

TDHOP, chop, v,t. to cut with a sadden 

blow: to cut into small pieces. — v.i. to 

shift suddenly, as the wind: — pr.p. 

chopp'ing ; pa.p. chopped'. [From a 

Low-Oer. root found m Oat. kappeniy 

also in Ger. happen, to cut ; cf. Gr. 

kopto, from a root tikap, to cut.] 

jCHOP, chop, «. a piece chopped qffy esp. of 

CHOP, chop, v.t, to exchange or barter: 
to put one thing in place of another : — 
pr.p. chopp'ing ; pa.p. chopped'. [M.E. 
copen — O. Dut. koopen, to buy. Bame 
root as Cheap.] 

CHOP, chop, n. the chap or jaw, generally 
used in pZ. [See CteAPS.] 

CHOP-FALLEN, chop'-fawtn, udj. (lit.) 
having the chop or lower jaw fallen 
down : cast-down : dejected. 

CHOPPER, chop'er, w. one who or that 
which chops. 

C H O PS Tl C KS, chop'stiks, n: two small 
sticks of wood, ivory, etc., used by the 
Cliinese instead of a fork and knife. 

CHORAL, ko'ral, adj. belonging to a cho- 
rus or choir. --ChouaJj Seryice, a church 
service of song : said to be partly choral 
when only cantibles, hymns, etc., are 
clianted or sung, and wholly choral 
when, in addition to these, the versicles, 
responses, etc., are chanted or sung. 

CHORD, kord, n. the string of a musical 
instrument : a combination of tones in 
harmony: {geom.) a straight line join- 
ing the extremities of an arc. [L. chorda 
— Gr. chords, an intestine.] 

CHORISTER, kor'ist-er, n. a member of 
a choir. 

CHORUS, ko'rus, n. a band of singers and 
dancers, esp. in the Greek plays : a com- 

pany of Stegers :-that ^Hrieh is song by 
a chorus : the part of a song in which 
"the company join the singer. [L. chorus 
-^r. thoros, orig. a 'dance in a ring,] 

X/HO^SE, choz,_j3a.f. and obs. pa.p. of 

f CHOSENj dl^z'ix,pastparticipleot Choose^ 

CHOUGH, chuf, 11. a kind of jackdaw 

wbich frequents rocky places and the 

'searooast. [A.S. ceo : from the cry of 

the bird— Caw.] 

'<3HOI3SE, chows, v.t. ta defraud, cheat, or 
impose upon. — n. one easily cheated : a 
trick. p*uit. chisaus, a messenger or 
enyoy. A ehiuus sent to England in 
1609 committed gi-oss frauds upon the 
Tarirish merchants resident in Britain ; 
hence chottse, to act as this chiaus did, 
' to defraud.] 

''GHBISM, kriem, n. consecrated or holy 

oil : unction. [O. Fr. chresnie, Fr. chreme 

— Gr. ohrisma, from chrio, chram, to 

ano int.] 

CHRiSMAL, kriz'anal, adj,,.pertadnirvg to 

.GHRIBT, fciist, w. the Anointed, the Mes- 
siah. [A.S. crist — Gr. Christos — chrio, 
xhr ieo, to anoint;] 
■■ CHRISTDOM, kris'dum, w. the ririe or iser^ 
vice of Camst, whose service is perfect 
cfoeedooai. (Rare.) 
■•Ehey know the grief of men <\ratbout its \nsdom; 

They sink in man's despair without its calm; 
. Are slaves, without the liberty in Christdom. 
— E. B. Srovming. 

CHRISTEN, kris^i, tti. to baptize in the 
nam e of Qhrist : ;to give a name tOo 
• CHRISTENDOM, kris'n-idjum, n. that part 
of the world in which Christianity is the 
received region : ' the wiiole Iwidy of 
Cairistians. TA-S. Cristendom — eristen, 
a Christian, «om, rale, sway.] 

CHRISTIAN, krist'yan, n. a follower of 
' Ohrist^—<Bdj. relating to Christ or his 
-religion.— ^Ghktstian name, the name 
given when christened, as distinguished 
from the surname. — adjs. Chkist'ian- 
LIKE, CHMST'iANiiT. [A-S. cristerth — Lo 
Ghristianus-^^r. Christos.^ 

CHRISTIANIZE, krist'yan-iz, v.t. to make 
Christian : to con^vert to Christianity. 

CHRISTIANITY, kris-ti-an'i-ti, n. the relig- 
ion of Christ. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE, a system of heal- 
ing mental or bodily disease, founded by 
Rev. Mary Baker G. Eddy of Concord, 
N. H., 1866, based on an interpretation 
of the Scriptures which implies that 
cause and effect are mental, and that 
sickness, sin, and death can be overcome 
by faith in the principle of healing as 
taught by Christ. — n. Chkistian Scien- 
tist, one who believes in Christian 8ci- 

CHRISTMAS, kris'mas, n. an annual lesti 
val, orig. a. mass, in memory of the birth 
t,t Christ, held on the :25th of December, 
{Christ and Mass.] 

CHRISTMAS-BOX, kris'mas-boks»(«.a box 



containing Christmas presents : a Christ- 
mas gift. 

CHRISTOLOGY, kris-tol'o-ji, n. that 
branch of theology which treats of the 
nature and person of Christ. [Gr. Chris- 
tos, and logos, a discourse.] 

CHROMATIC, krd-mat'ik, ac^: relating to 
colors : colored : (mitsic) proceeding by 
semitones. — n.sing. Cheojla.t'ics, the sci- 
ence of colors. [Gr. chromatiJcos — chroma, 
color. 1 

CHROMATOGRAPH, kro'-mat-o-graf, n. an 
instrument having revolving party-colored 
disks for producing composite color ef- 
fec ts. — v.t. to m ake a c olore d print of. 

CHROME, krom, CHROMIUM, kro'mi-um, 
.%. a metal remarkable for the beautiful 
' enlora of its compounds. — adj. Chhom'IO. 

CHROMO - PHOTOGRAPH, kro-mo-fo'-to- 
graf, n. a picture in colors, made by one 
of the processes of reproducing photo- 
graphs in colors. — adj. Chbomophoto- 
GBAPHic, -graf'-ik. 

tog'ra-fl, n. the art or process of pro- 
ducing colored photographic pictures. 
[Se e Chkomatype.] 

CHROMOTYPOGRAPHY, kro'mo-ti-pog"- 
ra-fi, n. typography in colors : the art of 
printing vfith type in various colors. 

CHROMOXYLOGRAPHY, kro'mo-zi-log'- 
ra-fl, n. the art or process of producing 
wo od engravings in various colors. 

CHRONIC, kron'ik, CHRONICAL, kron'ik- 
al, adj. lasting a long time : of a disease, 
deep-seated or long-continued, as opp. to 
acute. [L. chronicus, Gr. chronikos — 
chronos, time.] 

CHRONICLE, kron'i-kl, n. a record of 
events in the order of ttme : a history. — 
v.t. to record in history. — n. Cheon^icleb, 
a h istorian. 

CHRONOLOGY, kron-ol'o-ji, n. the science 
of dates. — adjs. Chronolog'ic, ChroN' 
OLoa'iCAL. — adv. Chronolog'ically.^ 
ns. Chbonol'ogee, Chbonol'ogist. [Gr. 
chr onos, time, logos, a discourse.] 

CHRONOMETER, kron-om'e-ter, n. an in- 
strument for measuring tim£ : a watch. 
— ac^'s. Cheonomet'eic, Chbonojiet'ri- 
CAii. [Gr. chronos, and metron, a meas- 

CHRYSALIS, kris'a-lis, n. the form, often 
gold-colored, assumed by some insects 
before they become winged :—pl. Chbys- 
Aii'iDES (i-dez). — adj. Chrys'aud. [Gr. 
chrysallis — chrysos, gold.] 

CHRYSANILINE, kris-an'i-Un, n. a beau- 
tiful yellow coloring matter (CjoH„N,) 
obtained as a secondary product in the 
preparation of rosaniline, and considered 
a splendid dye for silk and wool. Called 
also Aniline Yellow. [Gr. chrysos, gold, 
an d E. aniline.'] 

CHRYSANTHEMUM, kris-an'the-mum, n. 
(lit.) gold-flower: a genus of comj)osite 
plants to which belong the corn marigold 
and ox-eye daisy. iGr. chrysos, gold, 
anthemoum flower.] 

CHRYSOLITE, kris'o-Ut, n. a stone of a 
yellowish color. [Gr. chrysos, and Kihos, 
a stone.] 

CHRYSOPHYLL, kris'5-fil, n, the bright 
golden yellow coloring matter of plants : 
xanthophyU. [Gr. chrysos, gold, and 
phyllon, a leaf.] 

CHRYSOPRASE, kris'o-praz, n. a variety 
of chalcedony: (B.) a yellowish-green 
stone, nature unknown. [Gr. chrysos, 
and jrrason, a leek.] 

CHTHONOPHAGIA, thon-5-fa'ji-a, 
CHTHONOPHAGY, tho-nof arji, n. dirt- 
eating : cachexia Africana. [Gr. chthon, 
chthonos, earth, and phago, to eat. See 


CHUB, chub, n. a small fat river-flsh. 

CHUBBY, chub'i, adj. shorty and thick : 
plump. — n. Chubb'iness. 

CHUCK, chuk, n. the call of a hen : a 
word of endearment. — v.i. to call as a 
hen. [From the sound — a variety of 
C l u ck.] 

CHUCK, chuk, v.t. to strike gently, to 
toss. — n. a slight blow. [Fr. choquer, to 
jolt ; allied to E. Shake.]" 

CHUCKLE, chuk'l, v.t. to call, as a hen 
doe s her chickens : to caress. 

CHUCEILE, chuk'l, v.i. to laugh in a quiet, 
suppressed manner, indicating derision 

^orenjoyment. [See Choke.] 

CHUM, chum, n. a chamber-fellow. [Perh. 
a mutilation of Comrade, or Chambebc 
fe llow.] 

CHURCH, church, n. a house set apart for 
Christian worship : the whole body of 
Christians : the clergy : any particular 
sect or denomination of Christians. — v.t, 
to perform with any one the giving of 
thanks in church. [A.S. circe; Scot. 
kirk ; Gter. kirche ; all from Gr. kyria^ 
kon, belonging to the Lord — Kyrios, the 

CHURCHMAN, church'man, n. a clergy- 
man or ecclesiastic : a member of the 
Church of England. 

CHURCHWARDEN, church-wawr'den, n, 
sua. officer who represents the interests of 
a parish or. church : a long clay-pipe. 
[Church and Warden.] 

CHURCHYARD, churchVSrd, n. the yard 
round the church, where the dead are 

CHURL, churl, n. an ill-bred, surly fellow. 
[A.S. ceorl. a countrjmian ; Ice. karl, G«r. 
Kerl, a man ; Scot. carl.\ 

CHURLISH, churl'ish, adj. rude : surly : 
ill-bred. — adv. CEnjRL'iSHLY.— n. Chubl'- 

CHURN, churn, v.t. to shake violently, as 
cream when making butter. — n. a vessel 
in which cream is churned. [Ice. kirma, 
a churn, Dut. and G«r. kemen, to churn ; 
akin to KjiRN-el ; as if to extract the es- 
sence or best part.] 

CHUSE. chooz. v.t. a form of Choose. 

CHUTNEY, ohut'-ne, n. an East Indian con- 
diment, a compound of mangoes, chillies, 
lime-juice, etc. [Hind, chutni.'] 



CSYLE, kxl, n. a white fluid drawn from 

the food while in the intestines. — acb's. 

Chyla'ceous, Chtl'ous. [Fv.—Gr.chy- 

los, juice — ched, to pour. J 
CHYLIFACTIVE, kil-i-fakaiv, adj. having 

the power to make chyle. — n. Chyufact- 

TioN, or Chylifica'tion. [L. chyhis, and 

fado, to make.] 
CHYME, kirn, n. the pulp to which the 

food is reduced in the stomach.— o^/. 

Chym'ous. [Gr. chymos, from ched.] 
CHYMIFICATION, Mm-i-fl-ka'shun, n. the 

act of being formed into chyme, [L. 

chymus, and facio, to make.] 

CICADA, si-ka'da, CICALA, si-kaia, n. an 
insect remarkable for the sound it pro- 

CICATRICE, sik'a-tris [Fr.], CICATRIX, 
si-ka'triks [L.1, n. the scar over a woimd 
ftftd* it is }i6£l16(i, 

CICATRIZE, sik'a-trlz, v.t. to help the foi> 
mation of a skin or cicatrix on a wound 
or ulcer by medicines. — v.i. to heaL [Fr. 

CICERONE, sis-e-ro'ne, n. one who shows 
strangers the curiosities of a place : a 
guide. [It. — ^L. Cicero, the Roman ora- 

CICERONIAN, sis-e-r5'ni-an, adj. relating 
to or like Cicero. 

CIDER, si'der, n. a drink made from apple- 
juice. — n. Ci'derkin, an inferior cider. 
[Fr. cidre — L. sicera — Gr. sikera, strong 
drink — Heb. shakar, to be intoxicated.] 

CIEL, sel. See Ceil. 

CIELING, sel'ing, n. same as Ceilino, used 
by Milton with allusion to its derivation. 

CIGAR, si-gar', n. a small roll of tobacco for 
smoking. [Sp. cigarro, a kind of tobacco 
in Cuba.] 

CIGARETTE, sig-ar-et', n. a little cigar : a 
little finely-cut tobacco rolled in paper 
for smoking. 

CILIA, sil'i-a, hair-like appendages on 
the edge of a vegetable body, or on an 
animal organ or animalcule.— -acys. ClL'- 
lAEY, Cil'iated, having ciUa. [L. cUivaUf 
pi. ctlia, ej^elids, eyelashes.] 

CmBRIC, sim'brik, adj. relating to the 
Cimbri, a tribe originally from the north 
of Germany. 

CIMETER, sim'e-ter. See Scimitab, 

CIMMERIAN, sim-e'ri-an, adj. relating to 
tne Cimmerii, a tribe fabled to have lived 
in perpetual darfcness; extremely dark. 

CINCHONA, sin-ko'na, n, the bark of a 
tree that grows in Peru, from which 
Quinine is extracted, a valuable medi- 
ciue for ague : also called Peruvian bark. 
[Said to be so named from the Countess 
del Cinchon, but prob. from kinakina, the 
native word for bark.] 

CINCTURE, singk'tur, n. a girdZe or belt : 
a moulding round a column. — adj. ClNC'- 
TDRED, having a cincture. [L. cinctura — 
cinpo, cinctus, to gird.] 

CINDER, sin'der, 71. *^e refuse of burned 

coals : anything charred by fire. [wA^S. 
sinder, scoriaa, slag. The e instead of s 
is owing to Fr. cendref a wholly uncon- 
nected word, which comes from L. dniSf 
cineris, ashes.] 

CINDERY, sin'der-i, a<^*., like or composed 
of (jtTid&irs* 

CINEMATOGRAPH, sin-e-maf -6-graf, n. a 
machine for taking photographs of mov- 
ing objects, reproducing them in colors, 
and throwing them upon a screen in such 
rapid succession as to produce the effect 
of an animated scene. 

CINERARY, sin'er-ar-i, adj. pertaining to 

CINERATION, sin-er-a'tion, n. the act ol 
reducing to ashes. [L. cinis, dneris.] 

CINNABAR, sin'a-bar, n. sulphuret of mer' 
cury, called vermilion when used as a 
pigment. [L. einnabairis, Gr. Mnnabari, 
a dye, known as dragon's blood, from 

CINNAMON, sin'a-mon, Wc the spicy barif 
of a laurel in Ceylon. [It einnamomum 
— Heb. kinnamon.] 

CINQUE, singk, n. the number five. [Fr.J 

CINQUE-FOIL, singk'-foil, n. the jive-blac^ 
ed clover. [Fr. cinque, and feuille, L. /o- 
lium,, Gr. phyUon, a leaf.] 

CIPHER, si'fer, n. (arith.) the character : 
any of the nine figures : anything of Ut- 
tle value : an interweaving of the initials 
of a name : a secret kind of writing. — 
v.i. to work at arithmetic. [O. Fr. o/re, 
Fr. chiffre — Ar. sifr, empty.] 

CIRCASSIAN, ser-kash'yan, adj. belonging 
to Circassia, a country on the north of 
Mount Caucasus. 

CIRCEAN, ser-se'an, adj. relating to the 
fabled Circe, who by magic potions 
changed her guests into animals : poi- 
sonous, delusive, fatal. 

CIRCLE, serk'l, n. a plane figure bounded 
by a line every point of which is equally 
distant from a point in the middle called 
the centre : the hne which bounds the 
flfirure : a ring : a series ending where it 
began : a company surrounding the prin- 
cipal person. — v.t, to move round : to en- 
compass. — v.i. to move in a circle. [A.S. 
circul, from L. drculiis, dim. of circus^ 
Gr. kirkos or krikos, a circle ; allied to 
A.S. hring, a ring — ^root kar, to move ia 
a circle.] 

CIRCLET, serklet, «. a little circle. 

CIRCUIT, ser'kit, n. the act of moving 
round : that which encircles : a round 
made in the exercise of a calling, esp. 
the round made by the judges for hold 
ing the courts of law. [Fr. — L. circuitus 
— drcueo, to go round — drcum, round> 
eo, ituni, to go.] 

CIRCUITOUS, ser-ku'it-us, adj round 
about. — adv, Cmcu'iTOUSLY. 

CIRCULAR, sei-'ku-lar, adj. round : ending 
in itself : addressed to a circle of persons. 
— CmcnLAR NOTES are a kind of bank- 
note issued for the convenience of trav- 
elers. — n, a note sent round to a circle 



or number of persons.— €tdv. dE'cuLAm^Y. 
—n. Ciecular'ity. 

CIRCULATE, ser'ku-lat, v.t. to make to go 
round as in a circle : to spread. — v.i. to 
move round : to be spread about. [L. 
circulo, drculatusA 

CIRCULATION, ser-ka-la'shun, «, the act 
of mo\ing in a circle, or of going and 
returning' : the money in use at any time 
in a country. 

CIRCULATORY, serTctt-la-tor-i, adj. circu- 
lar: circulating. 

going round about : surrounding. {JLucir- 
cuvi, about, ambio, to go round — ambi, 
Gr. amphi, around, and eo, to go.] 

CIRCUMAMBULATE, ser-kum-am'bul-at, 
v.i. to walk round about. — n. CmcuM- 
ambula'tion. [L. ambulo, arnbulatus, to 

OTRCUMCISE, ser^um-dz, v.t. to cut ofl 
the fore-skin according to the Jewish 
law. [L. circumcido, drcumcisus — ccedo, 
to cut.] 

CIRCUMCISION, ser-kum-sizh'un, to, the 
\ act of circ umcising. 

CIRCUMFERENCE, ser-kum'fer-ens, n. 
the boundary-line of any round body : 
the line surrounding anything. — adj. 
Ctrcumferen'tial. [L. fero, to carry.] 

CIRCUMFLECT, ser'kum-flekt, v.t. to 
mark with a circumflex. 

CIRCUMFLEX, ser'kum-fleks, n. an acceat 
(A) denoting a rising and falling of the 
voice on a vowel or syllable. [L. flecto, 
flexns, to bend.] 

CIRCUMFLUENT, ser-kum'floo-ent, adj, 
flowing round about. [L. fluenSyflv^ntis, 

CmCUMFUSE, ser-kum-fu2i', v.t. to pour 
around. — n. CmcuMFD'siON. [L. fundo, 
fusus, to pour.] 

CIRCUMJACENT, ser-kum-ja'sent, adj., 
lying round : bordering on every side. 
\1j. jacens, lying— jaceo, to lie.] 

CIRCUMLOCUTION, ser-kum-lo-ku'shun, 
n., round-about speaking : a manner of 
expression in which more words are used 
than are necessary. — adj. Circumloc^u- 
TORY. [L. loquor, tocutus, to speak.] 

CIRCUMNAVIGATE, ser-kum-nav'i-gat, 
v.t. to sail round. — n. Circumnaviqa'- 
TiON. [See Navigate.] 

CIRCUMNAVIGATOR, ser-kum-nav'i-gat. 
or, >i., one who sails round. 

CIRCUMNUTATE, ser-kum-nu'tat, v.i. to 
nod or turn round : specifically, in bot. 
to move round in a more or less circular 
or elliptical path : said of the stem and 
other organs of a plant. "It will be 
shown that apparently every groAving 
part of every plant is continually circum- 
nutating, though ofton on a small scale." 
— Darwin. [L. circum, round, and nuto, 
freq. from nuo, to nod. See Circumntj- 


CmCUMNUTATION, serTcum-nu-ta'shon, 
n. a nodding or inclining round about ; 
specifically^ in bot the continuous mo« 

tion of every part or organ of every 

{)lant, in which it describes irregular el- 
iptical or oval figures ; as, for instance, 
the apex of a stem, after pointing in one 
direction commonly moves back to the 
opposite side, not, however, returning 
along the same line. While describing 
such figures, the apex often travels in a 
zigzag line, or makes small subordinate 
loops or triangles. " On the whole, we 
may at present conclude that increased 
growth first on one side, and then on the 
other, is a secondary efifect, and that the 
increased turgescence of the cells, to- 
gether with the extensibility of their 
walls is the primary cause of the move- 
ment of circumnutafion." — Darwin. 

CIRCUMSCRIBE, ser-kum-skrib', v.t. to 
draw a line round : to inclose within cer- 
tain limits. [L. scribo, to write.] 

CIRCUMSCRIPTION, ser-kum-skrip'shun, 
n. limitation : the line that limits. 

CIRCUMSPECT, ser'kum-spekt, adj., look- 
ing round on all sides watchfully : cau- 
tious: prudent. — adv. Cir'cumspectly. — 


CIRCUMSPECTION, ser-kum-spek'shun, n, 

watchfulness : caution. 

CIRCUMSTANCE, ser'kum-stans, n. some- 
thing attendant upon another thing: 
an accident or event :—pl. the state of 
one's affairs. [L. starts, stantis, standing 
— sto, to standr] 

C I R C UM S TANTIAL, ser-kum-stan'shal, 
adj. consisting of details : minute. — adv. 
Cirgumstan'tially. — Circumstantial 
Evidence, evidence not positive or di- 
rect, but which is gathered indirectly 
from tile circumstances of a case. 

CIRCUMSTANTIAXS, ser-kum-stan'shals, incidentals. 

CIRGUMSTANTIATE, ser-kum-stan'shi-at, 
v.t. to prove by circumstances : to describe 

CIRC U MVA L L AT I O N, ser-kum-val-a'- 
shun, n. a sunounding unth a wall: a 
wall or fortification surrounding a town 
or fort. [L. vallum, an earthen rampart 
or wall.]^ 

CIRCUMVTaNT. ser-kum-vent'. v.t. to corr,^ 
round or outwit a person : to deceive or 
cheat. — n. Circumven'tion. [L. venio, 
to come.] 

CIRCUMVENTIVE, ser-kum-vent'iv, adj, 
de ceiving by artifices. 

CIRCUMVOLUTION, ser-kum-vol-u'shun, 
n. a turning or rolling round : anything 
winding or sinuous. [L. volvo, voiutum, 
to roll. J 

CIRCUS, serTcus, n. a circular building for 
the exhibition of games : a place for the 
exhibition of feats of horsemanship. [L. 
circus ; cog. with Gr. kirkos, A.S. Tiring, 
a ring.] 

CIRQUE-COUCHANT, sirk-k5o'shant, adj. 
lying coiled up. (Rare.) [Fr. cirque, a 
circus, and couchant, lying.] 

CIRROUS, sir'us, adj., having a curl or 



GII^US^, sir'us; w. the highest form of 
cloud consisting of curling fibres : (hot.) 
a tendril: (zool,) any curled Qlament. 
[L^ curled hair.] 

dSAXiPINE^ sis-alp'ior or. -alp'io^. oc^,, on 
this side (to the Romans) of the Alps, 
that is, on the south side. [L,.. cis, oik 
this side, and Alpine.] 

CIST, sist, n. a tomb consisting. of a stone 
cliest covered with stone slabs. [See 
Chest, Cyst.] 

CISTERN, sis'tern, ru any receptacle for 
holding, water or other li<j|uid : a resep- 
vo ir. [L. cistema, from msta, a chest.] 

CIT, sit, ru shortened from citizen^ and 
used as a terra of contempt. [See Cm- 

CITADEL, sit'a-del, n. a fortresain or near 
a city. [It. cittadella, dim. of cittdf a 
icity. See City.] 

CITATION, si-ta'snun» , n. aa.ofifeial sum- 
mons to appear: the act of quoting: the 
passage or name quoted. 

CITE, sit, v.t. to call or summon: to sum« 
mon to answer in court : to quote : to 
name. [L'. cito, to call, intensive of cieo, 
d o, to make to go, t o rous e.] 

CITHERN, sith'ern, CITTERN, .sit'ern, n. 
a musical instrument . like the guitar. 
[A.S. eytere — L. cithara — Gr. MthJarou A 
doublet of Guitae.] 

CITIZEN, sit'i-zen, n. an inhabitant of, a 
city : a member of ia state : a townsman : 
a freeman.— 71. Cit'izenship, the rights 
of a citizen. [M.E. citesein—O. PVcCife- 
ain . See CiTY.l 

CITIZENRY, sit'i-zen-ri^n. the inhabitants 
of a city, as opposed to country people, 
or to the mihtary, etc. : townspeopler. 
"No Spanish soldiery nor citizenry, 
showed the least disposition to join 
him ."—Carlyle. 

CITRON, sit'run, n. the fruit of the citron- 
tree, resembling a lemon ; also, same as 
Citron- WATER. " Drinking citron witk 
Hs Grace." — Miscellanies by Svnft, Pime, 
and Arbuthnot. [lY. — L. citints — Gr. Mi- 
ron , a citron.] 

CITY, sit'i, n. a large town : a town with 
a corporation. [Fr. dt^, a city— -JL dvi' 
tas, the state — wins, a citizen ; akin to L. 
quies, quiet, E. HlVE and Home.] 

CIvES, sivz, n. a plant of the leek and 
onion genus growing in tufts. [Fr. dve 
— L. ccepa, an onion.] 

CIVET, siv'et, n. a perfume obtained from 
the civet or civet-cat, a small carnivor- 
ous animal of N. Africa. [Fr. eivette — 
Ar. zabad.^ 

CIVIC, siv*!!?, xidj. pertaining to a dty or a. 
citizen. [L. dvicus — dvis7\ 

CIVlLi, siv*!!, adj. pertaining to the com- 
munity: having the refinement of city- 
bred people : polite : commercial, not 
military : lay, not pr>clesiastical, — Cmi* 
ENGINEER, one who plans railways, dockSj 
etc., as opp. td a military engineer, or to 
a mechanical engineer, who makes ma- 
chines, etc. — CrviL LIST, now embraces 

onJy- ttte expenses ^ of the sovereign's 
house;hold.: — Civil: SKRViOEi the paid ser- 
vice of the State, in so far as it is not 
military or naval. — Civil-suited, suited 
cw^attiried liksB a cmfe'a/i or citizen, ae 
opp. to the gay dresses of courtiers, etc. 
—Civil war, a war between citizens of 
the same state. — adv. Civ'lLLY. [L. ciV' 
His — dvis.] 

CIVILIAN^ siv-il'yan, n, a professor or 
student of civil law (not canon law) : one 
engaged in civil as distinguished from 
military and other pursuits. 

OTVILITY, siv-il'i-ti, n. good-breeding : po* 
1 i^^n (^Rs 

CIVILIZATION, siv-il-i-za'shun,n. thestatt 
of being civilized. 

CIVILIZE, siVil-te, v.t. to reclaim from bar- 
barism : to instruct in arts and refine 

CLAOKv Idakt v.t; to -make a sudden sharp 
noise as by striking.— -w. a sharp sudden 
sound frequently repeated. [From the 

CLAD, klad, pa.t. and pa.p. of Clothe. 

CLAIM, klam, v.t. to call far : to demand 
as a right. — n. a demand for something 
supposed due : right or ground for de- 
manding : the thing claimed. [O. Fr. 
claimer — L. damo^ to call out, from, calo, 
cog. with Gr. kaieo, to call.] 

CLAIMABLE, klam'a-bl, adj. that ma^ be 

CLAIMANT, klam'antj n, oa& who makes 

CLAIRVOYANCE, klar-voi'ans, n. the al- 
leged power of seeing things hot present 
to the senses. [Fr. — clair — L. clarus, 
clear, and Fr. voir — L. video, to see.] 

CLAIRVOYANT, klar-voi'ant, n. one who 
i)rofesses clairvoyance. 

C T'AM, Mam, v.t. to clog with sticky mat« 
ter :—pr.p. clamm'ing ; pa.p. clammed'. 
rA.S. clam, clay ; a variety of Zavjv 
LkD AM.] 

CLAM, klana, n. a common sheU-fish.! — Afl. 
HAPPY AS A CLAM, a common expression 
in those parts of the U. S: coast where 
clams are found. 

CLAM, klam, n. the state or quality of 
having or conveying, a cold, moist, vis- 
cous. feeling : clamminess. . " Corruption, 
and the clam of death." — Carlyle. 

CLAMANT, klam'ant, adj., calling aloud 
or earnestly. 

CLAM-BAKEv klam'-bak, n. an out-door 
feast, customary on exceptionally joy- 
ftil occasions in the New England States, 
at which huge quantities of clams are 
baked in improvised ovens of stone and 

CLAMBER, klam'ber, v.i. to climb with 
difficulty, grasping with the hands and 
feet. [From root of Clump; cf. Ger. 
Mamm,em — klemmen, to squeeze or hold 

CLAMMY, klam'i, adj. sticky: moist and 
adhesive. — n. Clamm'INESS. 

CLAMOR, klam'or, n. a loud contintioua 



outcry : uproar.— ^.t. to cry aloud in de- 
mand : to make a loud continuous out« 
cry. — v.i. io salute with clamor. [L. 

CLAMOROUS, klam'or-us, a4i. noisy*, 
boisterous. — adv. Clam'oeously. — tz, 

CLAMP, klamp, n. a piece of timber, iroiij 
etc., used to fasten tnings together or to 
strengthen any framework. — v.t. to bind 
with clamps. [From a root, seen in A.S. 
clom, a bond, Dut. klamp, a clamp, and 
akin to E. Clip, Climb.] 

CLAM-SHELL, klam'-shel. n. the lips or 
mouth : tne patent lock on a mail bag. 

CLAN, klan, n. a tribe or collection of 
families subject to a single chieftain, 
bearing the same surname, and supposed 
to have a common ancestor : a clique, 
sect, or body of persons, [Gael, dann, 
Ir. dann or dand, oflfspring, tribe.] 

CLANDESTINE, klan-des'tin, adj., con- 
cealed or hidden : private : unlawful : 
sly. — adv. Clandes'tinely. [L. clandes- 
tinus — dam, secretly, from root kal, seen 
also in celo, to conceal.] 

CLANG, klang, v.i. to produce a sharp, 
ringing sound. — v.t. to cause to clang. — n. 
a sharp, ringing sound, like that made 
by metallic substances struck together. 
[L. dango ; Ger. klang : formed from the 

CLANGOR, klang'gur, n. a clang : a sharp, 
shrill, harsh sound. [L. clangor.] 

CLANK, klangk, n. a sharp sound, less 
prolonged than a clang, such as is made 
by a chain. — v.t. or v.i. to make or cause 
a clank. 

CLANNISH, klan'ish, adj. closely united 
like the members of a dan. — adv. Clann'- 
ISHLY. — n. Clann'ishness. 

CIiANSEDP, klan'ship, n. association of 
families under a chieftain. 

CLANSMAN, klanz'man, n. a member of a 

CLAP, klap, n. the noise made by the sud- 
den striking together of two things, as 
the hands : a sudden act or motion : a 
burst of sound. — v.t. to strike together so 
as to make a noise : to thrust or drive 
together suddenly : to applaud with the 
hands. — v.i. to strike the hands together : 
to strike together with noise : — pr.p. 
clapp'ing ; pa.p. clapped'. [Ice. klappa, 
to pat ; Dut. and Ger. klappen : formed 
from the sound.] 

CLAPBOARD, klapT)6rd,n. a narrow, thin, 
planed board used for siding on houses, 
and so placed as to overlap the one below 
it. (Anier.) 

CLAPPER, klap'er, n., one who claps: that 
which daps, as the tongue of a bell. 

CLAP-STICK, klap'stik, n. a kind of 
wooden rattle or clapper used in raising 
an alarm or the like. "He was not dis- 
turbed ... by the watchman's rappers 
or dap-sticks." — Southey. 

CLAP-TRAP, klap'-trap, n. a trick to gain 

CLAQUE, klak, n. a band of persons for se- 
curing the success of a public perform- 
ance by bestowing upon it preconcerted 
applause: hence Claqtjek, klak-ur', a 
member of the claque. [Fr. claquer, to 

CLARE-OBSCURE, klar'-ob-skur', 
CHIARO-OSCURO, ki-ar'6-os-koo'r5, n. 
clear-obscure : light and shade in paint- 
ing. [Fr. dair — L. darus, clear, and Fr. 
obscur — L. obscurus, obscure ; It. chiaro, 
clear, oscuro, obscure.] 

CLARET, klar'et, n. orig. applied to wines 
of a light or clear red color, but now 
used, generally, for the dark-red wines 
of Bordeaux. [Fr. dairet—dair — L. 

CLARIFIER, klar'i-fi-er, n. that which 
darifies or purifies. 

CLARIFY, klar'i-fl, v.t. to make clear. — 
v.i. to become clear -.—pr.p. clar'ifying ; 
pa.p. clar'ified. — n. Clarifica'tion. [L. 
darus, clear, and f ado, to make.] ^^ 

CLARION, klar'i-on, n. a kind of trumpet ^^ 
whose note is dear and shrill. [Fr. 
clairon — dair, clear.] 

CLARIONET, klar^i-on-et, CLARINET, 
klar'i-net, n. a wind instrument of music, 
sounded by means of a reed fixed to the 
mouthpiece. [Fr. clarinette, dim. of 
dair on.] 

CLASH, klash, n. a loud noise, such as is 
caused by the striking together of weap- 
ons : opposition : contradiction. — v.i. to 
dash noisUy together : to meet in op- 
position : to act in a cont» ary direction. 
— v.t. to strike noisily against. HPormed 
from the sound, Like Ger. and Sw. klatsch.] 

CLASP, klasp, n. a hook for fastening : an 
embrace. — v.t. to fasten with a clasp : to 
inclose and hold in the hand or arms : to 
embrace : to twine round. [M.E. dapse, 
from the root of A.S. clyppan, to embrace. 
See Cup.] 

CLASPER, klasp'er, n., that which dasps: 
the tendril of a plant. 

CLASP-KNIFE, klasp'-nif, n. a knife, the 
blade of which is dasped by, or folds into, 

CLASS; klas, n. a rank or order of persons 
or things : a number of students or schol- 
ars who are taught together : a scientific 
division or arrangement. — v.t. to form 
into a class or classes ; to arrange me- 
thodically. [Fr. classe — L. classis, orig. 
a rank or order of the Roman people when 
called together, from a root, kal-, seen 
in L. calare, clamare, to call, Gr. kaleo, 
Iclsszs 1 

CLASSic, klas'ik, CLASSICAL, klas'ik-al, 
adj. of the highest class or rank, esp. in 
literature : originally and chiefly used of 
the best Greek and Roman writers : (as 
opp. to romantic) like in style to the au- 
thors of Greece and Rome : chaste : re- 
fined. — Class'ics, Greek, Roman, 
and modern writers of the first rank, 
or their works. — adv. Class'ically. 

CLASSICALITY. klas-ik-al'i-ti, CLASSIC- 



ALNESS, klas'ik-al-nes, n. the quality 

of being classical. 
CLASSIFICATION, klas-i-fi-ka'shun, n. 
, act of forming into classes. 
CLASSIFY, klas'i-fi, v.t. to make or fonp 

into classes : to arrange :—pr.p. classify-. 

ing; pa.p. class'ifled. [L. classis, and 

facio, to make.] 
CLASSMAN, klas'man, n. one who has 

g lined honors of a certain class at the 
xford examinations : opp. to passman. 

CLASTIC, klas'tik, adj. relating to what 
may be taken to pieces ; as, clastic anat- 
omy, the art of putting together or tak- 
ing apart the pieces of a manikin. [Gr. 
klastos, broken.] 

CLATTER, klat'er, n. a repeated confused 
rattling noise: a repetition of abrupt, 
sharp sounds. — v.i. to make rattling 
sounds : to rattle with the tongue : to 
talk fast and idly. — v.t. to strike so as 
to produce a rattling. [Ace. to Skeat, 
clatter=^lacker, a freq, or Clack.] 

CIjAUSE, klawz, n. a sentence or part of a 
sentence : an article or part of a con- 
.tract, will, etc. [Fr. clause — ^L. clausus 
— claudo, to shut, inclose.] 

CLAVE, klav — did cleave — past tense of 

CLAVICLE, klaVi-kl, n. the collar-bone, 
so called from its resemblance to a Ro- 
man key. [Fr. clavicule — ^L. clavicula, 
dim. of clams, a key.] 

tiLAVICULAR, kla-vik'u-lar, ac^. pertain- 
ing to the clavicle. 

CLAW, klaw, n. the hooked nail of a beast 
or bird : the whole foot of an animal 
with hooked nails : anything like a claw. 
— v.t. to scratch or tear as with the claws 
or nails : to tickle. [A.S. clawu ; cog. 
with Grer. klaue : akin to Cleave, to 
stick or hold on.] 

CLAY, kla, n. a tenacious ductile earth : 
earth in general. — v.t. to purify with 
clay, as sugar. [A.S. clceg ; cog. with 
Dan. kloeg, Dut. klai, Ger. klei; conn, 
with Claq, Clog, Clew, L. gluten, Gr. 
glia, glue ; and Glue.] 

CLAYBANK, kla'bangk, adj. denoting the 
color most common to a bank of clay. 

CLAYEY, kla'i, adj. consisting of or like 

CLAYMORE, kla'mor, n. a la^e sword 
formerty used b^ the Scottish Highland 
ers. [Gael, claidheamh-mor — Gael, and 

- Ir. daidheamh, sword, and mor, gpreat: 
cf. L. gladius, a sword.] 

CLEAN, klen, adj. free from stain or 
whatever defiles : pure : guiltless : neat. 
— adv. quite: entirely: cleverly. — v.t. to 
make clean, or free from dirt. — n. Clean'- 
NESS. [A.S. clcene; W., Gael, glan, shine, 
t)olish ; Qer. klein, small.] 

CLEANLY, klen'h, adj. clean in habits 
or person : pure : neat. — adv. in a clean- 
ly manner. — n. Clean'liness. 

CLEANSE, klenz, v.t. to make clean or 


CLEAR, kler, adj. pure, bright, undimmed : 
free from obstruction or difficulty : plain, 
distinct : without blemish, defect, draw- 
back, or diminution : conspicuous. — adv. 
in a clear manner : plainly : wholly : 
quite. — v.t. to make clear : to free from 
obscurity, obstruction, or guilt : to free, 
acquit, or vindicate : to leap, or pass by 
or over : to make profit. — v.i. to become 
clear : to grow free, bright, or transpar. 
ent. — n. Cleak'ness. [Fr. clair — L. 
clarus, clear, loud.] 

CLEARANCE, kler'ans, n., act of clearing : 
a certificate that a ship has been cleared 
at the custom-house — that is, has satis- 
fled all demands and procured permission 
to sail. 

CLEARING, kler'ing, n. a tract of land 
cleared of wood, etc., for cultivation. 

CLEARING, kler'ing, n. a method by 
which banks and railway companies 
clear or arrange certain affairs which 
mutually concern them. — Cleakincj- 
HOUSE, a place where such clearing busi- 
ness is done. 

CLEARLY, kler'li, adv., in a clear manner : 

CLEAVAGE, kleVaj, n. act or manner of 
cleaving or splitting. 

CLEAVE, klev, v.t. to divide, to split: to 
separate with violence. — v.i. to part 
asunder: to crack: — pr.p. cleav'ing; 
pa.t. clove or cleft ; pa.p. clov'en or 
cleft. [A.S. cleofan ; cog. with Ger. 

CLEAVE, klev, v.i. to stick or adhere : to 
unite '.—pr.p. cleav'ing ; pa.t. cleaved' or 
clave -fpa.p. cleaved'. [A.S. clifian ; cog. 
with Ger. kleben, Dut. kleven. See Clay.] 

CLEAVER, klev'er, n. the person or thing 
that cleaves : a butcher's chopper. 

CLEEK, klek', n. in golf, an iron-headed 
club ; also the act of cleeking, or using 

the cleek. 

CLEF, kief, n. a character in music which 
determines the key or position on the 
scale of the notes that follow it. [BV., 
from L. clavis, the root of which is seen 
also in L. claudere, to shut, Gr. kleis, a 

CLEFT, kleft, in S., CLIFT, n. an opening 
made by cleaving or splitting : a crack, 
fissure, or chink. 

CLEMATIS, klem'a-tis, n. a creeping 
plant, called also virgin's bower and 
traveller's joy. [Low L. — Gr. klematis — 
klema, a twig.] 

CLEMENCY, klem'en-si, n. the quaUty of 
being clement : mildness : readiness to 

CLEMENT, klem'ent, adj. mild : gentle : 
kind : merciful.— adu. Clem'ently. [Fr. 
— L. Clemens.] 

CLENCH, klensh. Same as Clinch. 

CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLE, kle-o-pat-raz, 
either of two obeliskSj the one on the 
Thames Embankment in London and the 
other in Central Park, New York, named 
after Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. 



OLEPSYDRA, klep'si-dra, n. an instm- 
ment used by the Greeks and Romans 
for measuring time by the trickling' of 
water, as if by stealth, through a very 
small orifice. [L.— Gr. klepsydra—klep- 
io, klepso, to steal, hydor, water.] 

CLERGY, kler'ji, n. the body of ministers 
of religion : persons connected with the 
clerical profession or the religious orders. 
"I found the clergy in general persons 
of moderate minds and decorous man- 
ners ; 1 include the seculars and regulars 
of both sexes." — Burke. [Fr. clerge — Low 
L. derieia ; from Late L. dericus, Gr. 
klerikos, from Gr. kleros, a lot, then the 
clergy ; because the Lord was the lot or 
inheritance of the Levites (Deut. xviii. 
2), or because the church was the inherit- 
ance of the Lord (1 Peter v. 8), the name 
being thence applied to the clergy.] 

CLERGYMAN, kler'ji-man, n. one of the 
dergy, a man regularly ordained to preach 
the gospel, and administer its ordinances. 

CLERGYWOMAN, kler'ii-woom'an, n. a 
woman connected with the clergy or 
belonging to a clergyman's family. 
"From the dergywomen of Windham 
down to the charwomen the question 
was discussed." — Mrs. Oliphant. 

CLERIC, kler'ik, CLERICAL, kler'ik-al, 
adj. belonging to the dergy : pertaining 
to a derk or writer. 

CLERK, klerk, n. (orig.) a clergyman or 
priest : a scholar : one who resuds the re- 
sponses in the English Church service : 
in common use, one employed as a writer 
or assistant in an office. — n. Clerk'ship. 
[A.S, derc, a priest — ^Late L. dericus. 
See ClergyJ 

CLERUCHIAL, kle-r65'ki-al, adj. pertain- 
ing to a kind of colonial land settlement 
(called a klerouchia) in ancient Greece, 
by which a number of citizens obtained 
an allotment of land in a foreign country 
while still retaining all the privileges of 
citizens in their own state, where they 
might continue to reside. [Gr. klerouchia 
—kleros, a lot, and echo, to have.] 

CLEVER, klev'er, adj. able or dexterous : 
ingenious : skillfully done ; also, good- 
natured, obliging (Amer.). — adv. Clev'- 
EKLY . — n. Clbv'erkess. [Ety. dub.] 

CLEW, kloo, n. a ball of thread, or the 
thread in it : a thread that guides 
through a labjrrinth : anything that 
solves a mystery : the corner of a sail. 
— V. t. to truss or tie up sails to the yards. 
rA.S. diwe ; prob. akin to L. glomus, a 
ball of thread, and globus, a sphere, from 
root of Cleave, to adhere. See Globe.] 

CLICK, klik, n. a short, sharp dock or 
sound : anything that makes such a 
sound, as a small piece of iron faUing 
into a notched wheel. — v.i. to make a 
light, sharp sound. [Dim. of Clack:.] 

CLDENT, kll'ent, n. one who emploj'B a 
lawyer : a dependent. — n. Cli'entohip. 
[Fr.— L. cliens, for duens, one who hears 
or listens (to advice), from dueo, to hear.] 

CLIFF, klif , n. a high steep rock : the steep 
side of a mountain. [Perh. akin to 

CLIFT. Same as Clept. 

CLIFTY, klif'ti, adj. applied to a river on 
the banks of which limestone cliffs 
abound. (Amer.) 

CLIMACTERIC, klim-ak'ter-ik or klim-ak- 
ter'ik, n. a critical period in human life, 
in which some great bodily change is 
supposed to take place, esp. the grand 
climacteric or sixty-third year. — adja. 
Climac'teric, CLiMAcrraai'ic, Climacter'- 
ICAL. [Gr. klimakter — klitnax, a ladder.] 

CLIMATE, kli'mat, n. the condition of a 
country or place with regard to temper- 
ature, moisture, etc. [Fr. — Li. dima, 
dimaiia — Gr. klima, khmatos, slope — 
Mind, to make to slope, akin toE. Lean.] 

CLIMATIC, kli-mat'ik, CLIMATICAL, kli- 
mat'ik-al, adj. relating to, or Umited by 
fti cLvifthCLtp 

CLIMATIZE, kli'ma-tiz, r.t, or v.i. See 


CLIMATOLOGY, kli-ma-tol'o-ji, n., the 
science of dimates, or an investigation of 
the causes on which the cUmate of a 

Slace depends. [Or. klima, and logos, 
iscours©. 1 

CLIMAX, kirmaks, n. in SfaBffeorio, tha 
arranging of the particulars of a portion 
of discourse so as to rise in strength to 
the last. [Gr. klimax, a ladder or stair- 
case — from klinb, to slope.] 

CLIMB, kllm, v.i. or v.t. to ascend or 
mount up by clutching with the hands 
and feet ; to ascend with difficulty. 
[A.S. dimban ; Gev. klimmen ; conn. 
with Clamber and Cleave, to stick.] 

CLIME, kllm, n. a country, region, tract. 
[A varietv of Climate.] 

CLINCH, klinsh, v.t. to fasten or rivet a 
nail : to grasp tightly : to settle or con- 
firm. [Causal form of klink, to strike 
smartly ; Dut. and Grer. klinken, to rivet 
a boltjf 

CLINCHER, klinsh'er, n. one that dinches ; 
a decisive argument. 

CLING, kling, v.i. to adhere or stick doM 
by winding round : to adhere in interest 
or affection :—pa.t. and pa.p. clung. 
[A.S. clingan, to shrivel up, to draw 

CLINIC, klin'ik, CLINICAL, klin'ik-al, 
ac^. pertaining to a bed : {med.) applied 
to instruction given in hospitals at the 
bedside of the patient. [Gr. Jdinikos — 
kline, a bed, from klino, to recline.] 

CLINK, klingk, n. a ringing sound made 
by the striking together of sounding 
bodies. — v.t. to cause to make a ringing 
sound. — v.i. to ring or jingle. [A form 
of CLiog and Clank.] 

CLINKER, klink'er, n. the cinder or slag 
formed in furnaces : brick burned so 
hard that, when struck, it makes a 
sharp and ringing sound. 

CLIP, klip, v.t. to cut by making the 
blades of shears meet : to cut off : for- 



merly, to debase the coin by cutting off 
the edges : to give a blow to (Amer.) : — 
pr.p. clipp'ing; pa.p. clipped'. [From 
the root of Ice. ktippa, to cut, and allied 
to A.S. clyppem, to embrace, to draw 

CLIP, klip, t>. the thing dipped off, as the 
wool that has been shorn off sbeep : also 
a blow. 

CLIPPER, klip'er, n., one that d^ : a 
sharp-built, fast-sailing vessel. 

CLIPPING, klip'ing, n. the act of cutting, 
esp. debasing coin by cutting off the 
edges : the thing clipped off. 

CLIQUE, klek, n. a group of persons in 
union for a purpose : a party or faction : 
a gang : — ^used generally in a bad sense. 
[^., prob. from root of dick, and so=a 
noisy conclave.] 

CLOAK, CLOKE, kl6k, n. a loose outer 
garment : a covering : that which con- 
ceals : a disguise, pretext. — v.t. to clothe 
with a cloak : to cover : to conceal. [Old 
Fr. clogue — Low L. doca, a bell, also a 
horseman's cape, because bell-shaped, 
from root of Clock.] 

CLOCK, kick, n. a machine for measuring 
time, and which marks the time by the 
position of its "hands" upon the dial- 
plate, or by the striking of a hammer on 
a bell. [Word widely diffused, as A.S. 
ducga, Grael. dog, Qer. glodce, Fr. doche. 
and all=-^ bell ; the root is doubtful.] 

CLOCKMUTCH, klok'mutch, n. a woman's 
cap composed of three pieces — a straight 
centre one from the forehead to the neck, 
with two side-pieces. [D. klapmuts, a 
night-cap. Amer.] 

CLOCKWORK, klok^wurk, n. the toorks or 
machinery of a dock: machinery like 
that of a clock. 

CLOD, klod, n. a thick round mass or 
lump, that deaves or sticks together, es- 
pecially of earth or turf : the ground : a 
stupid fellow : a bait used in fishing for 
eels, and consisting of a bunch of lob- 
worms strung on to stout worsted [see 
Clod-fishing] : — pr.p. clodd'ing ; pa.p. 
clodd'ed. [A later form of Clot.] 

CLOD -FISHING, klod'-fish-ing, n. a 
method of catching eels by means of a 
clod or bait of lobworms strung on 
worsted. The fisher allows this bait to 
sink to the bottom of the stream, and 
when he feels an eel tugging he raises 
the bait without a jerk from the water, 
and if successful he will find the eel has 
its teeth so entangled in the worsted as 
to be unable to let go. 

CLODHOPPER, klodliop-er, n. a country- 
man : a peasant : a dolt. [Clod and 


CLODHOPPING, klod'hop-ing, adj. like a 
clodhopper : loutish : boorish : heavy 
treading, as one accustomed to walking 
on ploughed land. "What a mercy you 
are shod with velvet, Jane I a clodhop' 
fting messenger would never do at this 
juncture."— C^aWoWe Bronte. 

CLODPATE, klod'pat, CLODPOLL, klod'- 
pol, n. one with a head like a clod, a stu- 
i)id fellow. [Clod and Pate, Poll. J 

CLOG, klog, v.l. to accumulate in a mass 
and cause a stoppage : to obstruct : to 
encumber : ^- pr.p. clogg ing ; pa.p. 
clogged'. — n. anything hindering mo- 
tion : an obstruction : a shoe with a 
wooden sole. [Akin to Scot, clag, to 
cover with mud, claggy, sticky ; from 
root of Clay.] 

CLOISONNE, klwa-zo-na', n. enamel inlaid 
between partitions of metal wire. [Fr. 
cloison, a partition.] 

CLOISTER, klois'ter, n. a covered arcade 
forming part of a monastic or collegiate 
establishment : a place of religious re- 
tirement, a monastery or nunnery. — v.t. 
to confine in a cloister : to confine within 
walls. [O. Fr. cloistre, Fr. cloitre (A.S. 
datcster)—h. daustrum — claudo, dau- 
sum, to close, to shut.] 

klois'tral, old form CLAUSTRAL, klaws'- 
tral, adj. pertaining to or confined to a 
cloister; secluded. 

CLOISTERED, klois'terd, adj. dwelUng in 
cloisters : solitary : retired from the 

CLOMB, klom, old past tense of Climb. 

CLOSE, klos, adj., shut up: with no open- 
ing : confined, unventilated : narrow : 
near, in time or place : compact : crowded: 
hidden : reserved : craftv.— -adv. in a close 
manner : nearly : densely. — n. an inclosed 
place : a small inclosed field : a narrow 

gassage of a street. — adv. Close'ly. — n. 
lose'ness. [Fr. dos, shut— ^a.p. of 
clore, from L. daudere, clausus, to shut.] 

CLOSE, kloz, v.t. to make close : to draw 
together and unite : to finish. — v.i. to 
grow together : to come to an end. — n. 
the manner or time of closing : a pause 
or stop : the end. 

CLOSET, kloz'et, n. a small private room : 
a recess off a room. — v.t. to shut up in, 
or take into a closet : to conceal :—pr.p. 
clos'eting ; pa.p. clos'eted. [O. Fr. doset, 
dim. of dos. See Close.] 

CLOSE-TIME, klos'-tim, n. a certain sea- 
son of the year during which it is unlaw- 
ful for any person to catch or kill winged 
game and certain kinds of fish. "He 
had shot . . . some young wild-ducks, as, 
though close-time was then unknown, 
the broods of grouse were yet too young 
for the sportsman." — Sir W. Scott. 
" They came on a wicked old gentleman 
breaking the laws of his country, and 
catching perch in dose-time out of a 
punt." — H. Kingsley. 

CLOSURE, kloz'ur, n. the act of closing : 
that which closes : specifically, the bring, 
ing or putting an end to a debate so as 
to proceed immediately to vote on a ques- 
tion or measure in a deliberative assent- 
bly, as a parliment, by the decision of a 
competent authority, as the president, or 
by a majority of votes of the members 



themselves. [Called also Clotuke, of 
which French word it is a translation.] 

CLOT, klot, n. a mass of soft or fluid mat- 
ter concreted, as blood. — v.i. to form 
into clots : to coagulate : — jw.p. clott'ing ; 
pa.p. clott'ed. [M.E. clot, a clod of earth ; 
cog-, with Ice. klot, a ball, Dan. Mode, a 
globe ; from root of Clew. See Cleave, 
to stick, adhere.] 

CLOTH, kloth, vl. CLOTHS, n. woven ma- 
terial from which garments or coverings 
are made : the clerical profession, from 
their wearing black cloth. [A.S. clath, 
cloth, clathas, clothes, garments ; Gter. 
kleid. Ice. klcedi, a garment.] 

CLOTHE, kloth, v.t. to cover with clothes: 
to provide with clothes : (fig.) to invest, 
as with a garment : — f>r.p. cloth'ing ; 
pad. and pa.p. clothed' or clad. 

CLOTHES, kl5</i2; {colloq. kloz), gar- 
ments or articles of dress. 

CLOTHIER, klo^/i'i-er, n. one who makes 
or sells cloths or clothes. 

CLOTHING, klofA'ing, n., clothes, gar- 

CLOUD, klowd, n. a mass of watery vapor 
floating in the air : (fig.) a great volume 
of dust or smoke. — v.t. to overspread 
with clouds : to darken : to stain with 
dark spots or streaks. — v.i. to become 
clouded or darkened. [A.S. dud, a hill, 
then, a cloud, the root idea being a mass 
or ball. Clod and Clot are from the 
same root.] 

CLOUDLESS, klowd'les, a4j. unclouded, in 
any sense. — adv. Cloud'lessly. 

CLOUDLET, klowd'let, n. a little cloud. 

CLOUDY, klowd'i, adj. darkened with, or 
consisting of clouds : obscure : gloomy : 
stained with dark spots. — adv. Cloud'<- 
ILY. — n. Cloud'iness. 

CLOUGH, kluf, n. a cleft in a rock, or the 
side of a hill. [A doublet of Cleft ; 
Scot, cleugh.] 

CLOUT, klowt, n. a small piece of cloth : 
a piece of cloth sewed on clumsily ; a rag. 
— v.t. to mend with a patch : to mend 
clumsily. [A.S. dut, from W. chot, a 

CLOVE, klov, pa.t. of Cleave, to split. 

CLOVE, klov, n. a pungent, aromatic 
spice, the unexpanded flower-bud (so 
called from its resemblance to a 7iait) of 
the clove-tree, a native of the Moluccas. 

CLOVEN, klov'n, pa.p. of Cleave, to 
divide, or adj. divided : parted. — adjs. 
Cloven-footed, Cloven-hoofed, having 
the foot parted or divided. 

CLOVE-PINK, kloV-pingk, n. the clove 
gillyflower or carnation pink, which has 
an odor like that of cloves. 

CLOVER, klov'er, n. a species of grass in 
which the leaf is divided into three lobes. 
[A.S. clcefer, perh. from cleofan, to 

CLOWN, klown, n. a rustic or country- 
fellow : one with the rough manners of 
a country-man : a fool or buffoon. [Ety. 

CLOWNISH, klown'ish, ac^'. at or like a 
clown : coarse and awkward : rustic. — 
adv. Clown^ishly.— 71. Clown'ishness. 

CLOY, kloi, V. t. to fill to loathing : to glut 
or satiate •.—pr.p. cloy'ing ; pa.p. cloyed'. 
[O. Fr. cloyer, Fr. clouer, to drive a nail 
mto, to spike or stop, as a gun, from L. 
davus, a nail.] 

CLUB, klub, n. an association of persons 
for the promotion of a common object, 
as literature, politics, pleasure, etc. — v.i. 
to Join together for some common end : 
to share m a common expense : — pr.p. 
clubb'ing ; pa.p. clubbed'. [From root 
of Clump, a club being a clump of peo- 

CLUB, klub, n. a heavy tajjcring stick, 
knoboy or massy at one end, used to 
strike with : a cudgel : one of the four 
suits of cards (called in Sp. bastos, cud- 
gels or clubs). [Ice. and Sw. klubbaj 
same root as CLUMP.] 

CLUB-FOOT, klub'-foot, n. a short, de- 
formed foot, like a club.— adj. Club'- 

CLUB-LAW, klub'-law, n. government by 

CLUB-MOSS, klub'-mos, n. a moss with 
scaly leaves and stems like a club. 

CLUCK, kluck, n. the call of a hen to her 
chickens. — v.i. to make the sound of a 
hen when calling on her chickens. [From 
the sound, like Dut. klokken, Qer. glvxik- 
en, to cluck.] 

CLUE. See Clew. 

CLUMP, klump, n. a thick, short, shape- 
less piece of anything : a cluster of trees 
or shrubs. [Prob. E., but cog. with Ger. 
and Dan. kliimp, a lump ; from root of 
O. Ger. klimpfen, to press together, conn, 
with Clamp, Club.] 

CLUMSY, klum'zi, adj. shapeless : ill- 
made : awkward : ungainly. — adv. Cixns'- 
SILY. — w. Clum'siness. [M.E. clumsen, 
to be stiff or benumbed ; akin to Clam.] 

CLUNG, klung — did cling— pa. #. and 
Of Cling. 

CLUSTER, klus'ter, n. a nvm[iber of things 
of the same kind growing or joined to- 
gether : a bunch : a mass. — v.i. to g^ow 
or gather into clusters. — v.t. to collect 
into clusters. [A.S. cluster; Ice. klastr, 
from the root lelib, seen in A.S. cliflan, 
to adhere.] 

CLUTCH, kluch, v.t. to seize or grasp. — n. 
a grasp or grip : seizure :—pl. ChV'iva'ES, 
the hands or paws : cruelty : rapacity. 
[M.E. cloche, cloke, claw, grasp ; Scot. 
cleik ; from root of A.S. gelceccan, to 
catch, whence Latch.] 

CLUTTER, klut'er, a form of Clatter. 

CLYFAKING, kli'fak-ing, n. pocket-pick- 
ing. H. Kingsley. (English slang.) 

CLYSTER, klis'ter, n. a liquid injected into 
the intestines to vsash them out. [Gr.— 
klyzo, to wash out.] 

COACH, koch, n. a large, close, four-wheeled 
carriage. — v.t. to carry in a coach: in 
Aonerican sports, to train before or direct 



during a contest. [Fr. coche — L. concha, 
a shell, a boat, a carriage— Gr. kogke, a 
shell : or from Hung, kotschi.] 

COADJACENT, ko-ad-ja'-sent, adj. contigu- 
ous: lying immediately next to each 

COADJUST, ko-ad-just', v.t. to adjust mu- 
tually or reciprocally : to fit to each other. 


COADJUTOR, ko-ad-joot'or, n. a fellotv- 
helper or assistant : an associate:— /em. 
Coadjut'rix. — n. Coadjut'orship. [L. 
CO, with, adjutor, a helper — ad, to, juvo, 
to help.] 

COAGUjLABLE, ko-ag'u-Ia-bl, adj. capable 
of being coagulated. 

Coagulant, ko-ag'O-lant, n. a substance 
which causes coagulation, as rennet. 

COAGULATE, ko-a^u-lat, v.t. to make to 
curdle or congeal. — v.i. to curdle or con- 
geal. — n. Coagula'tion. — adj. Coaq'ula- 
TTVE. [L. coagulo — co, together, ago, to 

COAGULUM, ko-ag'u-lum, n. what is co- 
agulated. [L.] 

COAL, kol, n. a solid, black, combustible 
substance used for fuel, dug out of the 
earth. — v.i. to take in coal. [A.S. col, 
cog. with Ice. kol, Ger. kohle; conn, with 
Sw. kylla, to kindle.] 

COALESCE, ko-al-es', v.i. to grow together 
or unite into one body : to associate. — 
adj. Coalesc'ent, uniting. [L. coalesco — 
CO, together, and alesco, to grow up, from 
alo, to nourish.] 

COALESCENCE, ko-al-es'ens, n. act of 
coal escin g : union. 

COALFIELD, kol'feld, n. a field or district 
containino; coal strata. 

COALITION, ko-al-ish'un, n. act of coalesc- 
ing, or uniting into one body : a union 
or combination of persons, states, etc., 
into one : alliance. 

COALITIONIST, ko-al-ish'un-ist, n. one of 
a coalition. 

COALIZED, ko-al-Izd', p. and adj. joined 
by a coalition : allied. " Rash coalized 
kmgs." — Carlyle. (Rare.) 

COAL-OIL, kol'oil, n. same as Petroleum. 

COAI^SCUTTLE, kol-skut'tl, n. a bucket 
used for carrying coal, and so shaped as 
to let the coal slide out of it into the 
stove without scattering. — Coal-SCUTTLE 
BONNET, a woman's bonnet shaped like 
a coal-scuttle, and usually projecting far 
before the face. " Miss Snevellici .... 
glancing from the depths of her coal- 
scuttle bonnet." — Dickens. 

COALY, kol'i, adj. of or like coal. 

COARSE, kors, adj. rough : roide : uncivil : 
gross. — adv. Coarsexy. — n. Coarse'- 
NESS. [Orig. written Course ; from being 
used in the phrase, " in course," it came 
to mean ordinary, commonplace.] 

COAST, kost, n., side or border of land 
next the sea : the sea-shore : limit or 
border of a country. — v.i. to sail along or 
near a coast. — v.t. to saiJ by or near to. 
[Fr. cote for coste — L. casta, a rib, side.] 

COASTAL, kost'al, adj. of or pertaining 
to a coast or shore. 

COASTER, kost'er, n. a vessel that sails 
along the coast. 

COASTGUARD, kost'gard, n. a body of 
men organized to act as a guard along 
the coast, orig. intended to prevent smug- 

COASTWISE, kost'wiz, adv. along the 
coast. [Coast and Wise.] 

COAT, kot, n. a kind of outer garment: 
the hair or wool of a beast : vesture or 
habit : any covering : a membrane or 
layer : the ground on which ensigns 
armorial are portrayed, usually called 
a coat of arms : an exaction levied by 
Charles I. on the pretext of providing 
clothing for the army : more usually 
called CoAT-MONEY [see Conduct, last 
meaning]. — v.t. to cover with a coat or 
layer. [Fr. cotte — Low L. cottus, cotta, a 
tunic ; from root of Grer. kotze, a matted 
covering: akin to E. cot, a hut.] 

COATEE, kot-e', n. a little coat: a coat 
with short flaps. 

COATING, kot'ing, n. a covering: cloth 
for coats. 

COAX, koks, v.t. to persuade by fondUng 
or flattery : to humor or soothe. — adv. 
CoAx'iNGLY. [M.E. cokes, a simpleton: 

grob. from W. coeg, empty, foolish. See 

COB, kob, n. a head of maize : a thick 
strong pony. [W. co6 ; cf . Dut. kop, Ger. 
kopf, the top, head.] 

COBALT, ko'bawlt, n. a brittle, reddish- 
gray metal, usually found combined with 
arsenic and other minerals. [Ger. kobalt, 
from kobold, a demon, a nickname given 
by the German miners, because they sup- 
posed it to be a mischievous and hurtful 
metal ; from Low L. gobelinus — Gr, 
kobalos, a goblin.] 

COBBLE, kob'l, v.t. to patch up or mend 
coarsely, as shoes. [O, Fr. cobler, to 
join together, to tie together ; from L. 
copulo, to join.] 

COBBLER, kob'ler, n. one who cobbles or 
mends shoes. 

COB-HOUSE, kob'-hous, n. in England a 
house built of cob, that is of a compost 
of puddled clay and straw, or of straw, 
lime, and earth. *' A narrow street of 
cob-houses whitewashed and thatched." — 
H. Kinqsley. 

COBLE, kob'l, n. a small fishing-boat. [W. 
keubal, a hollow trunk, a boat.] 

COBRA DA CAPELLO, ko'bra da ka-pel'o, 
n. a poisonous snake, native of the East 
Indies, which dilates the back and sides 
of the neck so as to resemble a hood. 

COB- WALL, kob'-wawl, n. a wall built up 
solid of cob. [See Cob-house above.] 

COBWEB, kob'web, n. the spider's web or 
net : any snare or device intended to 
entrap. [A.S. attorcoppa, a spider, ht. 
poison-head or tuft, from A.S. ator, 
poison, and coppa =• W. cop, a head, 



COCAGNE, kok-an', n. the land of cookery 
or good living : an imaginary country of 
luxury and delight. [Fr. cocagne ; from 
L, eoquo, to cook.] 

COCCIFEROUS, kok-sif'er-us, ac^'., berrp- 
bearing. [L. coccus ( — Gr. kokleos), a 
bprry, and yero, to bear.] 

COCHINEAL, koch'i-nel, n. a scarlet dye- 
stuff consisting of the dried bodies of cer^ 
tain insects gathered from the cactus 
plant in Mexico, the W. Indies, etc. [Sp. 
cochiniUa, dim. of L. coccinus — Gr. kok- 
kos, a berry, as the cochineal was for- 
merly supposed to be the berry or seed 
of the plant.] 

kok'le-at, COCHLEATED, kok'le-at-ed, 
adj., tivisted like a snail-shell: spiraL 
[L. cochlea, snail - shell, screw — Gr. 
Kochlos, a shell-fish with a spiral shell.] 

COCK, kok, n. the male of birds, particular- 
ly of the domestic fowl : a weathercock : 
a strutting chief or leader : anything set 
erect : a tap for liquor : a familiar form 
of address or appellation, preceded usual- 
ly hy old, and used much in the same way 
as chap, fellow, boy, etc. " He has drawn 
blood of him yet ; well done, old cock ! " 
—Massinger. " He was an honest old 
cock, and loved his pipe and a tankard of 
eider, as well as the best of us." — Oraves. 
— That cock won't fight, that plan will 
not do, that story will not tell (Eng. col- 
loquial). " I tried to see the arms on the 
carriage, but there were none ; so that 
cock vxnUdri't fight." — Kingsley. — v.t. to 
set erect or upright : to set up, as the 
bat. — v.i. to strut : to hold up the head. 
[A.S. coc, an imitative word.J 

COCK, kok, n. a small pile of hay. [Swed. 
koka, a lump of earth ; Dut. koget, Ger. 
kugel, a ball.] 

COCK, kok, n. part of the lock of a gun. 
[Ital. cocca, a notch, coccare, to put the 
string of a bow into the notch of the ar- 
row ; this expression was transferred to 
firearms — hence, to put a gun on cock."] 

COCKADE, kok-ad', n. a knot of ribbons or 
something similar worn on the hat as a 
badge. [Fr. cocarde — coq, perh. from ita 
likeness to the comb of the cock.] 

COCKATOO, kok-a-too', n. a kind of par- 
rot with a crest.. [Malay kakatua, 
formed from its cry.] 
COCKATRICE, kok'a-tris, n. a lizard or 
serpent imagined to be produced from a 
cock's egg. [The word has nothing to 
do with cock ; the O. Fr. cocatrice meant 
a crocodile — Low L. cocatrix, a corr. of 
Low L. cocodrillus, a crocodile. See 
COCKBOAT, kok'bot, n. a small boat. [O. 
Fr. coque, Fr. coche, a small boat — ^L. 
concha, a shell ; the word boat is super- 
COCK-BREAD, kok'-bred, w. a kind of 
stimulating food given to game-cocks. 
" You feed us with cock-bread, and arm 
UB with steel spurs that we may mangle 

and kill each other for your sport."— 

COCKCHAFER, kok'chaf-er, n. the May- 
bug, an insect of a pitchy-black color, 

most destructive to vegetation. 
COCKER, kok'er, v.t. (obs.) to pamper, to 

indulge. [Etv. dub.] 
COCKLE, kok'l, n. a troublesome weed 

among wheat, with a purple flower. [A. 

8. coccel—Qtsuel. cogal, from cog, a husk, 

a bowl.] 
COCKLE, kok'l, n. a shell-fish, having two 

wrinkled shells, of a heart-shape. [W. 

cocs, cockles, and Gael, cuach, a drink- 

ing-bowl, dim. cogan, a small bowl ; 

compare Fr. coquUle—Gr. kongchyliorit 

kongche, a cockle.] 
COCKLOFT, kok'loft, n. the room in a 

house next the roof. [The loft where 

the cocks roost.] 
COCKNEY, kok'ne, n. byname for a native 

of the city of London.— ^Z. Cock'neys. 
COCKNEYDOM, kok'ne-dvun, n. the region 

or home of Cockneys. 
COCKNEYISM, kok'ne-izm, n. the dialect 

or manners of a Cockney. 
COCKPIT, kok'pit, n. a pit or inclosed 

space where game-cocfcs fought : a room 

in a shipKjf-war for the wounded during 

a n act ion. 
COCKROACH, kok'rSch, n. the common 

COCKSCOMB^ koks'kSm, n. the comb or 
crest on a cock's head : the name of three 

{colloq. kok'sn), n. a seaman who steers 
a boat, and under the superior officer 
takes charge of it. [Cock, a boat, and 

COCOA, k5'k6, n. a beverage made from 
the ground beans of the cacao or choco- 
late tree. [A corr. of cacao.] 

COCOA, ko'ko, n. a palm-tree growing in 
tropical countries, and producing the 
cocoa-nut. [Port, and Sp. coco, a bug- 
bear ; applied to the nut from the three 
marks at the end of it, which form a 
grotesque face.] 

COCOA-NUT, or COCO-NUT, k6'k6-nut, 
71. the well-known fruit of the cocoa- 

COCOON, k6-k66n', n. the egg-shaped sJieU 
or covering which the larvae of silkworms 
and some other insects spin. [Fr. cocon, 
from coque, a shell — L. concha, a shell.] 

COCOONERY, ko-koon'er-i, n. a place for 
keeping silkworms when feeding and 
spinning cocoons. 

COCTION, kok'shun, n. the act of boUing. 
[L. coctio — coquo, to boil, to cook.] 

COD, kod, CODFISH, kod'flsh, n. a species 
of fish much used as food, found in the 
northern seas. — CoD-uvEK OlL, a medici- 
nal oil extracted from the fresh liver of 
the common cod. [Ety. dub.] 

COD, kod, n. a htisk, shefl, or pod, contain- 
ing seeds. [A.S. codd, a small bag ; loec 
koddi, acushion-j 



CODDLE, kod'l, v.t. to pamper : to fondle : 
to parboil. [Ety. dub.] 

CODE, kod, n. a collection or digest of 
laws. [Fr. code — L. codex or caudex, 
the trunk of a tree, a tablet foK writing, 
a set of tablets, a book.] 

CODICIL, kod'i-sil, n. a short writing or 
note added as a supplement to a wfll. — 
adj. Codicill'ary, [L. codicillus, dim. 

of COdBCCt"} 

CODIFY, kod'i-fi, v.t. to put into the form 
of a code :^pr.p. cod'ifying ; pa.p. cod'- 
ified. — n. Codifica'tion. [L. codex, a 
code, and facto, to make.] 

CODLING, kod'ling, n. a young cod-fish. 

CODLING, kod'ling, CODLIN, kod'lin, n. a 
hard kind of apple. [Dim. of cod, a pod.] 

COEFFICIEl>rT, ko-ef-fish'ent, n. that 
which acts together with another thing : 
(math.) the number of known quantity 
prefixed as a multiplier to a variable or 
unknown quantity. — n. Coeffi'ciency. 
— adv. CoEFFi'dENTLY. [L. CO, together, 
and Efficient.] 

COENOGAMY, sti-nog'a-mi, n. the state of 
having husbands or wives in common : 
a community of husbands or wives, such 
as exists among certain primitive tribes. 
[Gr. koinos, common, and gamos, mar- 

COERCE, ko-ers', v.t. to restrain by force : 
to compel. [L. coerceo — co, together, 
arceo, to shut in, conn, with area, a 
chest 1 

COERCIBLE, ko-ers'i-bl, adj. that may be 
restrained or compelled. — adv. COBKO'- 


COERCION, ko-er'shun, n. the act or proc- 
ess of coercing : restraint. 

COERCIVE, ko-ers'iv, adj. having power 
to coerce : compelling. — adv. COERC'- 


COEVAL, ko-e'val, adj., of the same age. 
— n. one of the same age. [L. co, to- 

§ ether, and cevum, age, Gr. aion.] 
-EXTENSIVE, ko-eks-ten'siv, adj. 
equally extensive. 

COFFEE, kof'e, n. a drink made from the 
seeds of the coffee-tree, a native of Ara- 
bia. [Turk. Jcahveh — ^Ar. qahweh.} 

COFFER, kof'er, n. a ctiest for holding 
money or treasure. [O. Fr. cofre or 
cofin^ a chest — L. cophinus, a basket — Gr. 

COFFERDAM, kof'er-dam, n. a water-tight 
barrier or box of timber, placed in the 
bed of a river, etc., to exclude the water 
during the progress of some work. [Cof- 
fer and Dam.] 

COFFIN, kofin, n. the coffer or chest in 
which a dead body is inclosed. — v.t. to 
place within a coflHn. [The earlier form 
of Coffer.] 

COG, kog, v.t. to cheat or deceive : to cog 
dice is to load them so that they may 
fall in a given way. [W. coegio, to make 
void, to trick — coeg, empty.] 

COG, kog, n. a catch or tooth on a wheel. 
— v.t. to fix teeth in the rim of a wheel : 

—pr.p. cogg'ing ; pa.p. cogged'. [Ace. to 
Skeat from Gael, and Ir. cogr, a mul-cog.] 

COGENCY, ko'j en-si, n. power of convinc- 

COGENT, ko'jent, adj., driving or pressing 
on the mind : powerful : convincing.— 
adv. Co'gently. [L. cage — co, together, 
and ago, to drive.] 

COGITATE, koj'i-tat, v.i. to agitate or turn 
a thing over in one's mind : to meditate : 
to ponder. [L. cogito, to think deeply — 
CO, together, and agito, to put a thing in 

COGITATION, koj-i-ta'shun, n. deep 
thought : meditation. 

COGITATIVE, koj'i-ta-tiv, adj. having the 
power of cogitating or thinking : given 
to cogitating. 

COGNAC, COGNIAC, kon'yak, n. the best 
kind of French brandy, so called because 
much of it is made near the town Cognac. 

COGNATE, kog'nat, adj., horn of the same 
family : related to : of the same kind. 
[L. cognatus — co, together, and gnascor, 
gnatus, to be born.] 

COGNITION, kog-nish'un, n. certain knowl- 
edge. [L., from cognosco, cognitum — co, 
together, and nosco, gnosco, to know.] 

COGNIZABLE, kog'niz-abl or kon'-, adj.^ 
that may he knovm or understood : that 
may be judicially investigated. [O. Fr, 

COGNIZANCE, kog'ni-zans or kon'-, n., 
knowledge or notice, judicial or private : 
observation : jurisdiction : that by which 
one is known, a badge. [O. Fr. — L. cog* 

COGNIZANT, kog'ni-zant or kon'-, ad^f.y 
having cognizance or knowledge of. 

COGNOMEN, kog-no'men, n. a surname : 
the last of the three names of an indi- 
vidual among the Romans, indicating the 
house or family to which he belonged. 
[L. — CO, together, nomen, gnomen, a name 
•^nosco, gnosco, to know.] 

COHABIT, ko-hab'it, v.i. to dwell together 
as husband and wife. — n. Cohabita'tion. 
[L. cohahito — co, together, and hahito, to 

COHERE, ko-her', v.i. to stick together : to 
remain in contact : to follow in proper 
connection. [L. cohcereo — co, together, 
and hcereo, to stick.] 

ko-her'en-si, n. a sticking together : a con- 
sistent connection between several parts. 

COHERENT, ko-her'ent, adj., sticking to- 
gether : connected : consistent. — adv. Co- 

COHERER, ko-her'-er, n. an essential part 
of the receiving apparatus in wireless 
telegraphy, used for detecting the pres- 
ence of electric waves. 

COHESION, ko-he'zhun, n. the act of stick- 
ing together : a form of attraction by 
which particles of bodies of the same 
nature stick together : logical connec- 
tion. fL. cohcesus, pa.p. of cohcereo.] 

COHESTVE, ko-he'siv, adj. havin ,' the 



power oi cohering : tending to unite into 
a mass. — adv. Cohe'sively. — ti. Cohe'- 


COHORT, ko'hort, n. among the Romans, 
a body of soldiers about 600 in number, 
forming about a tenth part of a l^on : 
any band of armed men. [Fr. — L. eohars, 
an inclosed place, a multitude inclosed, 
a company of soldiers. 

COIF, koif, n. a cap or covering for the 
head. [Fr. coiffe — Low L. eofia, a cap, 
from O. Ger. chujrpha, a cap, another 
from of O. Ger. chuph, a cup (Ger. kopf, 
the head) : so that coif is a doublet of 

OOIFl'EUR, kwa-fer', n. a hairdresser: a 
barber. [Fr.] 

COIFFURE, koif ur, n. a head-dress. [Fr.] 

COIGN, koin, n. a corner or external angle: 
a corner-stone : a wedge. [See Coin.] 

COIL, koil, v.t. to gather together, or wind 
in rings as a rope, a serpent. — n, one of 
the rings into which a rope is gathered. 
fO. Fr. coillir, Fr. cueillir — L. colligere — 
col, together, legere, to gather.] 

COIN, koin, n. a piece of metal legally 
stamped and current as money. — v.t. to 
convert a piece of metal into money : to 
f<H-m, as a medal, by stamping : to make, 
invent, fabricate. [Fr. coin, coin, also 
the die to stamp money — L. euneus, a 
wedge. Coign is a doublet.] 

COINAGE, koin'aj, n. the act or art of 
coining : the pieces of metal coined : in- 
vention, fabrication. 

COINCIDE, ko-in-sid', v.i. to faU in with, 
or agree, in opinion : to correspond : to 
be identical. [L. co, together, inddere— 
in, in, eado, to fall.] 

tXDINCIDENCE, ko-m'si-dens, COINCI- 
DENCY, ko in'si-den-si, n. act or condi- 
tion of coinciding : the occurrence of an 
event at the same time as another event. 
— adj. Coin'cident. — adv. Coin'cidently. 

COINLESS, koin'les, adj. having no coin or 
money : moneyless : penniless. " Coin- 
less bards." — Wm. Combe, 

com, koir, n. cocoa-nut fibre for ropes or 

COKE, kok, n. coal charred and deprived 
of its volatile matters, for use in fur- 
naces. [Perh. conn, with Cake.] 

kul'end-er, n. a strainer : a vessel having 
small holes in the bottom. [L. colons, 
colantis, pr.p. of cotore, to strain — -colum, 
a strainer.] 

COLD, kold, adj. the opposite of hot ? shiv- 
ering : without passion or zeal : spirits 
less : unfriendly : indifferent : reserved. 
— n. absence of heat : the feeling or sen- 
sation caused by the absence of heat : a 
disease caused by cold : catarrh : chill-, 
ness. — adv. Cold'ly. — n. Cold'nbss. 
[A.S. ceald ; Scot, eauld, Ger. kalt ; cog. 
also with E. cool. Ice. kala, to freeze, L. 
gelidus — gelu, frost.] 

COLDISH, kdld'ish, adj., somewhat coldi 

COLE, kol, n. a general name for all sorts 
of cabbage. [A.S. ca^pel ; Ger. kohl, 
Scot, kail; all from L. colis, caulis, a 
stem, especially of cabbage ; cf . Gr. kau- 

COLEOPTERA, kol-e-op'ter-a, an 
order of insects having two pair of wings, 
the outer pair being hard or homy, serv- 
ing as wing-cases for the true wings, as 
the beetle. [Gr. koleos, a sheath, and 
pteron, pi. ptera, a wing.] 

COLEOPTEROUS, kol-e-op'ter-us, adj., 

COLEWORT, kol'wurt, n. a species of cole 
or cabbage. [A.S. icyrt, a plant.] 

COLLBRI, ko-leTare, n. a name given to 
various species of humming-birds. [Said 
to be the Carib name.] 

COLIC, kol'ik, n. a disorder of the colon: 
acute pain in the stomach or bowels. 

COLISEUM. See Colosseum. 

COLLABORATE, kol-iab'6-rat, v.«. to woi* 

3'ointly or together. 
LLABORATOR, kol-ab'5-ra-tor, n. an 
associsCte or assistant in labor, particu- 
larly literary or scientific. [Coined from 
L. col, with, and laboro, laboratum, to 

COLLAPSE, kol-aps', n, a falling away or 
breaking down : any sudden or complete 
breakdown or prostration. — v.i. to fall 
CHP break down : to go to ruin. [L. col- 
lapsus — col, together, and labor, lapsus, 
to slide or fall.] 

COLLAR, kol'ar, n. something worn round 
the neck : the part of a gannent at the 
neck: a ring: a band. — v.t. to seize by 
the collar : to put on a collar. [Fr. collier 
— L. collare — collum, the neck ; akin to 
A.S. heals, Gfer. hols, the neck.] 

COLLAR-BONE, kol'ar-bon, n. a bone of 
the neck between the breastbone and the 
shoulder-blade ; also called the clavicle. 

COLLARET, kol-ler-et', n. a small collar 
of lace, fur, or other material worn by 
women. Written also Coixabette, kol- 
la-ret'. [Fr. collerette, dim. of collier. 1 

COLLATE, kol-af , v.t. (lit.) to bring or lap 
together for comparison : to examine and 
compare, as books, and esp. old manu- 
scripts : to place in or confer a benefice : 
to place in order, as the sheets of a book 
for binding. [L. coUatus, pa. p. of confero 
— con, together, and fero, to bring.] 

COLLATERAL, kol-at'er^al, adj., side by 
side : running parallel or together : not 
direct : descended from the same ances- 
tor, but not directly, as the children of 
brothers. — n. a collateral relation. — adv. 
Collat'eiuxly. [L. coL, and latus, la- 
teris, aside.] 

COLLATION, kol-5'shun, n., aci of collat- 
ing : a bringing together, for examina- 
tion and comparison : presentation to a 
benefice : a repast between meals. 

COLLATOR, kol-a'tor, w., one who collates 
or compares : one who bestows or pre- 

CX)LLE1AGUB, kol'^ n. a partus, asso* 



ciate, or coadjutor. [Ftj coU^gue — L. 

collega — col, together, and lego, to send 

on an embassy/] 
COLLEAGUE, kol-eg', v.i. to join or unite 

with in the same oflSce : — pr.p. colleagu-. 

ing (kol-eg'ing) ; pa.p, colleagued (kol- 

COLLECT, kol-ekt', v.t. to assemble or 

bring together : to infer : to compile.— r 

v.i. to run together : to accumulate. [L. 

coUigo, collectus, from col, together, and 

lego, Gr. lego, to gather, to choose.] 
COLLECT, kol'ekt, n. a short and compre* 

hensive prayer in the service of the R. 

Catholic and Anglican Churches. [Origin 

of the name dub.] 
COLLECTED, kol-ekt'ed, adj., gathered 

together: having one's senses gathered 

together : cool : firm. — adv. Collkct'- 

EDLT. — n. Collect'ednbss. 
COLLECTION, kol-ek'shim, n., act of coU 

lecting : that which is collected : an as^ 

semblage : a heap or mass : a book of 

COLLECTIVE, kol-ekt'iv, adj. considered 
as forming one mass or siun : congre- 
gated : (gram.) expressing a number or 
multitude. — Cot.t.ective note, in dipUmi- 
acy, a note or official communication 
signed by the representatives of several 
governments.^-adt;. COLLECT'rvELY. — n. 

COLLECTIVITY, kol-lek-tiVi-ti, n. same 
as CoLLEcnvENESS. John Morley. 

COLLECTOR, kol-ekt'or, n., one who col- 
lects or gathers. — ns, Oollbc'torate, 

COLLEEN, kol-len', n. Anglo-Irish name 
for maiden, or girl. [Ir. eailin.] 

COLLEGE, kol'ej, n. (orig.) any collection 

. or community of men with certain privi- 
leges or a common pursuit, as a college 
of heralds or the college of cardinals : a 
seminary of learning : a literary, politi- 
cal, or religious institution : the edifice 
appropriated to a college. — ^^Colleqian, 
kol-e'ji-an, n. a member or inhabitant of 
a college : in England, an inmate of a 
debtor's prison. "It became a not un- 
usual circumstance for letters to be put 
under his door at night inclosing half-a- 
crown . . . for the Father of the 
Marshalsea, * with the compliments of a 
ooZZegrian taking leave.'" — Dickens. [Fr. 
college — L. collegium, from col, and lego.] 

COLLEGIATE, kol-e'ji-at, adj. pertaining 
to or resembling a coUege : containing a 
college, as a town : instituted like * 

COLLET, kol'et, n. the collar of a ring or 
the part which contains the stone. [fV. 
— L. collum.] 

COLLIDE, kol-Id', v.i. to strike or dash 
together. [L. coUido, collisus — col, to- 
gether, texo, to strike.] 

COLLIE, COLLY, kol'i, n. a shepherd's 
dog. [Ety. dub., prob. Celt.] 

COTJJER, kol'yer, n. one who works in a 

- cooj-mine : a ship that carries coal. 

COLLIERY, kol'yer-i, n. a ooai-mine. 

COLLISION, kol-izh'un, n. a striking to- 
gether : state of being struck together : 
conflict : opposition. 

COLLOCATE, kol'o-kat, v.t. to place to- 
gether : to place, set, or station. [L. col- 
loco, collocatus, from col, together, and 
loco, to place.] 

COLLOCATION, kol-o-ka'shun, n., act of 
collocating: disposition in place : arrange- 
ment. [L. collocatio.] 

COLLOCUTORY, kol-lok'u-to-ri, adj. per- 
taining to or having the form of a collo- 
quy or conversation : colloquial. "We 
proceed to give our imitation, which is 
of the Amoebean or collocutory kind." 
— Antyacobin. 

COLLODION, kol-6'di-on, n. a gluey solu- 
tion of gun cotton in alcohol and ether, 
used in surgery and photography. [Gr. 
kollodes, from kolla, glue, and etdos, form, 

OOLLUGKAFH, kol'-o-graf, ». a machine 
for making many copies of pictures. 
Hence n. Coixogbaphy, kol-log'-ra-fe, <uij. 
CoLLOGBAPHic, kol-o-graf'-ik. [See CoL- 

CCjLLuP, kol'up, n. a slice of meat. [From 
dop or colp, the sound of a soft lump 
thrown on a flat surface ; Dut. Mop, It. 
colpo, a blow.] 

COLiiOQUIAL, kol-6'kwi-al, adj'. pertain.^ 
ing to or used in common conversation. 
— adv. Collo'quiaixy. 

COLLOQUIALISM, kol-6'kwi-al-izm, n. a 
form of expression, used in familiar talk. 

COLLOQUY, kol'o-kwi, n. a ^peaking to* 
gether : mutual discourse : conversatioiv 
VL. colloquium, from col, together, and 
toquor. to speak.,1 

COLLOTYPE, kol'-lo-tip, n. a print made 
from prepared gelatin, instead of from 
metal or stone. Hence Collotype proc- 
Bss, a modem photo-engraving process 
producing the collograph, albertype, auto- 
type, and phototype. Used for book il- 
lustrations and advertising .purposes. 
[Gr. Tcolla, glue, and type.] 

COLLUDE, kol-ud', v.i. to play into eadli 
other's hand : to act in concert, especially 
in a fraud. [L. coUudo, edUusus, from 
col, and ludo, to play.] 

COLLUSION, kol-u'zhun, n., act of collud- 
ing : a secret agreement to deceive. [L. 
oollusi o.] 

COLLUSIVE, kol-ii'ziv, adj. fraudulently 
concerted : deceitful. — adv. COLLU'siVB- 


COLOCOLA, kol-o-ko'la, n. a ferocious 
tiger-cat of Central America (Felis or 
Leopardus ferox). It equals or surpasses 
the ocelots in size, and is a terrible ene- 
my to the animals among which it lives, 
especially the monkeys. 

COLOCYNTH.kol'o-sinth, n. the dried and 
powdered pulp of a kind of cucumber, 
much used as a purgative. [Gr. kolokyn- 

COLON, ko'lon, w. the mark if :) used to in- 



dicate a distinct member or clause of a 
sentence. [Gr. kolon, a limb, member.] 

COLON, ko'lon, n. the lower division of tiie 
intestinal canal or large intestine. [Gr. 
kolon, conn, with koilos, hoUow.J 

COLON, ko-lon', n. in Uosta Rica, the mone- 
tary unit, a ten-colon gold coin being 
worth about $4.60: also a gold coin of 
Chile. rSn.-Amer.] 

COLONEL, kur'nel, n. an oflScerwho has 
command of a regiment. — n. Colonelcy, 
kur'nel-si, his office or rank. [Fr. (Sp. 
and O. E. coronet) ; a corr. of It. colonello, 
the leader of a colonna, or column — L. 

COLONLAJLi, kol-o'ni-al, adj. pertaining to 
a colony. 

COLONIST, kol'on-ist, n. an inhabitant of 

COLONIZATION, kol-on-i-za'shun, n. act 
or practice of colonizing: state of being 

COLONIZE, kol'on-Iz, v.t. to plant or es- 
tablish a colony in : to form into a colony. 

COLONNADE, kol-on-ad', n. a range of 
columns placed at reg^ar intervals. 

COLONY, kol'on-i, n. a body of persons 
who form a fixed settlement in another 
country : the settlement so formed. [TL 
colonia—colonuSf a husbandman — colo, 
to tiUJ 

COLOPHON, kol'o-fon, n. in early printing, 
the inscription at the end of a book con- 
taining the name or date, etc. [L. colo- 
phon—Gr. kolophon, the top, the finish.] 

COLOPHONY, kol-ofo-ni, n. the dark- 
colored resin got from the distillation of 
oil of turpentine. [Gr., from Colophon, 
a city of Asia Minor.] 

COLORIFIC, kul-ur-if ik, ad4. containing 
or producing colors. [L. color, and facia, 
to make.] 

COLOR, kul'ur, n. a property of light 
which causes bodies to have different ap- 
pearances to the eye : the hue or appear- 
ance which bodies present to the eye : 
appearance of blood in the face : tint : 
paint : false show : kind :—pl. a flag, 
ensign, or standard : paints. — v.t. to put 
color on : to stain : to paint : to set in a 
fair light : to exaggerate. — v.i. to show 
color : to blush. [Fr.— L. color ; akin to 
celo, to cover, conceal.] 
A COLORABLE, kul'ur-a-bl, adj. having a 
fair appearance : designed to conceal. — 


COLOR-BLINDNESS, kul'ur-bllnd'nes, n. 

a defect of the ej^esight by which one is 

unable to distinguish between colors. 
COLORING, kul'ur-ing, n. any substance 

used to give color : manner of applying 

colors : specious appearance. 
COLORIST, kul'ur-ist, n., one who colors 

or paints : one who excels in coloring. 
COLORLESS, kul'ur-les, adj., without 

color : transparent. 
COLOR-SERGEANT, kul'ur-sar'jent, n. 

the sergeant who guards the colors of a 


COLOSSAL, kol-os'al, adj., like a colossus: 

COLOSSEUM, kol-os-g'um, COLISEUM, 
kol-i-se'um, n. Vespasian's amphitheatre 
at Rome, which was the largest in the 
world. [L. ; from adj. of Gr. kolossos.\ 

COLOSSUS, kol-os'us, n. a gigantic statue, 
particularly that of Apollo which stood 
at the entrance of the harbor of Rhodes. 

COLPORTAGE, kol'port-aj, n. the distri- 
bution of books, etc., by colporteurs. 

kol'port-er, n. a pedler, particularly one 
who travels for the sale of tracts and 
religious books. [Fr. colporteur, from 
col — L. collum, the neck, und porter — ^L. 
portare, to carry.] 

COLT, k5lt, n. a young horse : a foolish 
young fellow : (B.) a young camel or ass. 
[A.S. colt; Sw. kulit, a young boar, a 
stout boy.] 

COLTER, COULTER, kol'ter, n. the fore- 
iron of a plough, that cuts through the 
f round. [A.S. cutter; from L. cw/^er, a 
nife ; Sans, krit, to cut.] 

COLTISH, kolt'ish, adj., like a colt : frisky : 

COLT'S-FOOT, koltz'-foot, n. a plant with 
large soft leaves once used in medicine. 

COLUMBARY, kol'um-ba-ri, n. a pigeon' 
house or dovecot. [L. columbarium — 
columba, a dove.] 

COLUMBIAN, ko-Ium'bi-an, adj. pertain- 
ing to Columbia, a name of Ajnerica. 
[Columbia, America, from Columbus, its 

COLUMBINE, kol'um-bin, adj, of or tike 
a dove: dove-colored. — re. a genus of 
plants : a kind of violet or dove color : 
the heroine in a pantomime. [Fr. — ^L. 
columba, a dove.] 

COLUMN, kol'um, n. a long, round body, 
used to support or adorn a building : any 
upright body or mass like a column : a 
body of troops drawn up in deep files : 
a perpendicular row of lines in a book. 
[L. columen, columna, akin to cd-sus, 
high, collis, a hill, and Gr. koldne, a hill.] 

COLUMN AL, kol-iuu'nal, adj. same as Coii- 


Crsug overhanging', nor edumnal rock 
Cast Its dark outline there. — Southey. 

COLUMNAR, kol-um'nar, adj- formed in 
columns : having the form of a column. 

COLURE, kol'ur, n. (astron.) one of two 
great circles supposed to intersect each 
other at right angles in the poles of the 
equator, so called because a part is al- 
ways beneath the horizon. [Gr. kolou- 
ros, dock-tailed — kolos, docked, oura, 

COLZA, kol'za, n. a kind of cabbage from 
the seeds of which is obtained an oil 
used in lamps. [Dut. koolzaad, the 
" seed of cabbage."] 

COMA, ko'ma, n., deep sleep : stupor. [Gr. 
— koimao, to hush to sleep.] 

COMATOSE, ko'ma-tos or kom'-, COMA- 



TOUS, k5'ma-tus, adj., affected vrith 
coma : in a state of stupor from drowsi- 
ness : drowsy. 

COMB, kom, n. a toothed instrument for 
separating and cleaning hair, wool, flax, 
etc.; the crest of a cock : the top or 
crest of a wave or of a hill : a cell for 
honey. — v.t. to separate, arrange, or 
clean by means of a comb. [A.S. camb ; 
Ice. kambr, comb, crest.] 

COMB, COMBE, kom, n. a hollow among 
hills : a narrow valley. [W. ctom, a 

COMB, kom, n. a dry measure of four 
bushels. [Ety. dub.] 

COMBAT, komT)at or kumTbat, v.i. to con- 
tend or struggle with. — v.t. to beat 
against : to act in opposition to : to 
contest. — n. a struggle : a battle or fight. 
[Fr. combattre, to fight — com, with, and 
oattre, to beat. See Beat.] 

COMBATANT, komTbat-ant, adj. disposed 
or inclined to combat. — n. one who fights 
or combats. 

COMBATIVE, komTjat-iv, ac(j. inclined tc 
quarrel or fight. — n. Com'bativeness. 

COMBER, k5nv er, n., one who combs wool, 

COMBINATION, kom-bi-na'shun, n. the 
act of combining : union : a number of 
persons united for a purpose. 

COMBINE, kom-bin'j v.t. to Join two to- 
gether : to unite intimately. — v.i. to come 
mto close union : (cTiem.) to unite and 
form a new compound. [L. combinare, 
to join — com, together, and bini, two and 

COMBUSTIBLE, kom-bust'i-bl, ac(J. that 
may take Jire and bum : Uable to take 
fire and burn. — n. anything that will 
take fire and burn. [L. comburo, com- 
bustus, to consume — com, intensive, and 
buro, uro, to burn.] 

COMBUSTIBLENESS, kom-bust'i-bl-nes, 
COMBUSTIBILITY, kom-bust-i-bil'i-ti, n. 
capability of being burned. 

COMBUSTION, kom-bust'yun,n. a burning: 
the action of fire on combustible sub- 

COME, kum, v.t. to move toward this 
place (the opp. of go) : to draw near : to 
arrive at a certain state or condition : to 
issue : to happen :—^pr.p. com'ing ; pa.t, 
came ; pa.p. come. [A.S. cuman ; Qer, 
Teommen, to come.] 

COMEDIAN, kom-e'di-an, n. one who acts 
or writes comedies : an actor. 

COMEDIETTA, kom-e'di-et'ta, n. a dr* 
matic composition of the comedy class, 
but not so much elaborated as a regular 
comedy, and generally consisting of one 
or at most two acts. 

COMEDY, kom'e-di, n. a dramatic piece of 
a pleasant or humorous character, orig. 
accomp. with dancing' and singing. [L. 
comoedia — Gr. komodta, a ludicrous spec- 
tacle, from komos, a revel, and odS, a 

COMELY, kumli, adj. pleasing : graceful : 

handsome. — adv. In a comely manner. 

n. Come'liness. [A.S. cymlic — cyme, suit- 
able '*rom Come), and lie, like.] 

COMESTIBLES, kom-est'i-blz, n. eatables, 
JTFr. — L. comedo^ I eat up.] 

COMET, kom'et, n. a heavenly body with 
an eccentric orbit and a luminous tail- — 
adj. COM'ETARY. [Gr. kometes, long= 
haired — kome, the hair.] 

COMFIT, kum'fit, COMFITURE, kum'flt- 
ur, n. a sweetmeat. [A doublet of CoN= 
FECT ; from Fr. eonflt, confiture— L. con- 
fido, to make up.] 

COMFOET, kum'furt, v.t. to relieve from 
pain or distress : to cheer, revive.- n, 
Com'forteb. [O. Fr. conforter—L. con, 
and fortis, strong.] 

COMFORT, kum'furt, n. relief : encourage- 
ment : ease : quiet enjoyment : freedom 
from annoyance : whatever gives ease, 
enjoyment, etc. 

COMFORTABLE, kum'furt-a-bl, acfj. im- 
parting or enjoying comfort. — adv. Com' 


COMFORTATIVE, kum'furt-&t-iv, adj. 

tending to promote comfort : capable 

of making comfortable. " ComfoHative 

and wholesome, too." — Udall. 
COMFORTATIVE, kum'furt-at-iv, n. thaft 

which gives or ministers to comfort. 

" The two hundred crowns in gold . . » 

as a cordial and comfortativel csny nextt 

mv heart." — Jarvis. 
COMFORTLESfcj, kum'furt-les, adj. without 

COMIC, kom'ik, COMICAL, kom'ik-al, adj. 

relating to comedy : raising mirth : droll. 

— adv.' Com'ically. — ns. Comical'ity, 


C O M I T I A , ko-mish'i-a, n. among the 
Romans, the assemblies of the people for 
elec ting: magnstrates, passing laws, etc. 

COMITY7 komi-ti, n., courteousness : civ- 
ility. [L. comitas, -atis — comis, courte- 

COMMA, kom'a, n. in punctuation, the 

Soint ( , ) which marks the smallest 
ivision of a sentence. [L. comma — Gr. 
kommu, a section of a sentence, from 
kopto, to cut off.] 

COMMAND, kom-and', v.t. to order : to 
bid: to exercise supreme authority over: 
to have within sight, influence, or con- 
trol. — v.i. to have chief authority : to 
govern. — n. an order : authority : mes- 
sage: the ability to overlook or influence: 
the thing commanded. [Fr. commander 
— ^L. commendare, to commit to one's 
charge, to order — cow, and mandare, to 
intrust. A doublet of Commend.] 

COMMANDANT, kom-and-ant% n. an 
officer who has the command of a place 
or of a bodv of troops. 

COMMANDEER, kom-man-der', v.t. to seize 
for military purposes, or to compel to 
serve as a soldier: applied esp. to this 
custom as practiced by the Boers in South 
Africa. [Dut. kommandeeren, to com- 
mand — Fr. commander, to command.] 



CXDMMANDER, kom-and'er, n., one who 
commands: an oflScer in the navy next 
in rank under a captain. — n. Command'- 

COMMANDING, kom-and'ing, adj. fitted 
to impress or control. — adv. C!ommand'- 


COMMANDMENT, kom-and'ment, n. a 
command : a precept : one of the ten 
moral laws. 

CO:m:MAXDO, kom-nian'-do, n. a body of 
soldiers, military expedition, or raid in 
South Africa. 

COMMEMORATE, kom-em'o-rat, v.t. to 
call to remembrance by a solemn or pub- 
lic act. — n. Commemora'tion. [L. corri' 
memoratus, pa. p. of commemorare, to 
remember — com, intensive, and m£mor, 

COMMEMORATIVE, kom-em'o-ra-tiv, adj. 
tending or serving to commemorate. 

COMMENCE, kom-ens', v.i. to begin: to 
originate : to take rise. — v.t. to beg^in : 
to originate : to enter upon. [Fr. cow- 
mencer — L. com, and initiare, to begin — 
in, into, and eo, to go.] 

COMMENCEMENT, kom-ens'ment, n. the 
beginning : the thing begun. 

COMMEND, kom-end', v.t. to give into the 
charge of : to recommend as worthy : to 
praise. [L. commendare, to intrust. See 

COMMENDABLE, kom-end'a-bl, adj. wor- 
thy of being commended or praised. — 
adv. Commend' ABLY. — n. Commend' able- 


COMMENDATION, kom-en-da'shun, n. the 
act of commending : praise : declaration 

COMIVIENDATORY, kom-end'a-to-ri, adj., 
commending: containing praise or com- 
mendation : presenting to favorable no- 
tice or reception.]^ 

COMMENSURABLE, kom-en'su-ra-bl, adj., 
having a common measure. — adv. COM- 
men'surably. — ns. Commensurabil'ity, 
Commen'surableness. [L. com, with, 
and mensura, a measure — metior, mensus, 
to measure.] 

COMMENSURATE, kom-en'su-rat, adj., of 
ths same measure with : equal in measure 
or extent : in proportion with. — adv. 
Commen'surately. — ns. Commen'surate- 
ness, Commensura'tion. 

COMMENT, kom'ent, n. a note conveying 
an illustration or explanation : a remark, 
observation, criticism. — v.i. (or kom-ent') 
to make critical or explanatory notes. — 
ns. Com'mentator, Com'mentor, |Fr. — 
L. commentor, to reflect upon — com, and 
the root ment-, L. mens, the Mind.] 

COMMENTARY, kom'ent-a-ri, n. a com- 
ment, or a book or body of comments. 

COMMERCE, kom'ers, n. interchange of 
m,erchandise on a large scale betioeen 
nations or individuals : extended trade 
or traffic : intercourse: fellowship. [Fr. 
commerce — L. commercium — com, with, 
and TJierar, mercis, goods, merchandise.] 

COMMERCIAL, kom-er'shal, adj. pertain- 
ing to commerce : mercantile. — adv. 

COMMERCIALISM, kom-mer'shal-izm, 71. 
the doctrines, tenets, or practices of 
commerce or of commercial men. " The 
buy-cheap-and-sell-dear commercialism 
in which he had been brought up." 
— Kingsley. 

COMMERCING, kom-mers'ing, pr.p. of 
Commerce, v.i. to hold intercourse 

COMMINATION, kom-in-a'shun, n. a 
threat : a recital of God's threatenings 
made on Ash- Wednesday in the Episco- 
pal Church. [L. — com, intensive, and 
minor, to threaten. See Menace.] % 

COMMINATORY, kom-in'a-tor-i, adj., ' 
threatening or denouncing punishment. 

COMMINGLE, kom-ing'gl, v.t. to mingle 
or mix icith. [L. com, together, and 

COMMINUTE, kom'in-ut, v.t. to reduce to 
minute or small particles. — n. Comminu'- 
TION. [L. comminux), -utum, to break 
into pieces — com, and minuo, to make 
small — root minv^, less.] 

COMMISERATE, kom-iz'er-at, v.t. to feel 
for the miseries of another : to pity. [L. 
com, with, and miseror, to deplore, from 
miser, wretched.] 

COMMISERATION, kom-iz-er-a'shun, n. 
concern for the sufferings of others : 

C0M3IISSARIAL, kom-is-a'ri-al, adj. per- 
taining to a commissary. 

COMMISSARIAT, kom-is-a'ri-at, n. the de- 
partment which is charged with the fur- 
nishing of provisions, as for an army : 
the body of officers in that department : 
the office of a commissary. 

COMMISSARY, kom'is-ar-i, n. one to 
whom any charge is committed : an of- 
ficer who has the charge of furnishing 
provisions, etc. to an army. — n. Comm'is- 
saryship. [Low L. commissarius — L. 
committo, commissus.] 

COMMISSION, kom-ish'un, n., act of com- 
mitting : that which is committed : a 
writing conferring certain powers : au- 
thority : charge or fee to an agent, etc. 
for transacting business : one or more 
persons appointed to perform certain 
duties. — v.t. to give a commission to : to 

COMMISSIONER, kom-ish'un-er, n. one 
who holds a commission to perform some 

COMMIT, kom-it', v.t. to give in charge or 
trust : to do : to endanger : to pledge : — 
pr.p. committ'ing; jxi.p. committ'ed. [L. 
committo — com, with, and mitto, to send.] 

COMMITMENT, kom-it'ment, n., act of 
committing : an order for sending to 
prison : imprisonment. 

COMMITTAL, kom-it'al, n. commitment : 
a pledge, actual or implied. 

COMMITTEE, kom-it'e, n. one or more 
persons to whom sonae special business 



I« committed by a court or assembly or 
other body of men. 

COMMIX, kom-iks', v.t. to mix together. — 
v.i. t o mix . [L. com, together, and Mix.] 

CXDMMIXTURE, kom-iks^tur, n., act of 
mixing together: the state of being 
mixed : the mass formed by mixing'. 

COMMODE, kom-od', n. a small sideboard : 
a head-dress formerly worn by ladies. 
[Fr. — L. conim,odus, convenient.] 

COMMODE, kom-moid', adj. accommodat- 
ing : obliging. "Am I not very comm4xie 
to you." — dwber. [Fr. commode, com- 
modious, accommodating, kind.] 

COMMODELY, kom-mod'h, adv. conven- 
iently. " It will fall in very comm,odely 
between my parties." — H. Walpole. 

COMMODIOUS, kom-o'di-us, adj. suitable 
or convenient : comfortable. — adv. COM- 
mo'diously. — n, Commo'diousness. [L. 
commodvLS {lit., having the same meas- 
ure, fitting) — com, with, modus, meas- 

COMMODITY, kom-od'it-i, n. a conven- 
ience, or that which affords it : an 
article of traflSic. [L. commoditas, from 

COMMODOEE, kom'o-d6r, n. the com- 
mander of a squadron or detachment 
of ships : the Imding ship of a fleet of 
merchantmen. [Corr. of Sp. comendador 
— L. com,m£ndo, in late L. to command.] 

COMMON, kom'un, adj. belonging equally 
to more than one : public : general : 
usual : frequent : easy to be nad : of 
little value : vulgar. — n. a tract of open 
land, used in common by the inhabitants 
of a town, parish, etc. — COMMON Pleas, 
one of the high courts of justice in 
Eng.: in some of the United States a 
county court. — BooK OF Common Prayer, 
the liturgy of the Episcopal Church.— r 
adv. Comm'only. — n. Comm'onness. [Ft. 
commun — L. communis — com,, together, 
and munis, serving, obliging.] 

COMMONAGE, kom'un-a,], n. right of 
pasturing on a common : the right of 
using anything in common. 

COMMONALTY, kom'un-al-ti, n. the body 
of common people below the rank of 

CO MM ONER, kom'un-er, n. a member of 
the House of Commons : a student of 
the second rank in the university of 

COMMONPLACE, kom'un-plas, n. a com- 
mon topic or subject : a memorandum : 
a note. — adj. common : hackneyed. — n. 
Comm'onplace-book, a note or memo- 
randum book. [Common, and Place, a 
translation of L. locus, a place, a topic 
of discourse.] 

COMMONS, kom'unz, the lower House 
of Parliament or House of Commons : 
common land : food at a common table. 

COMMON-SENSE, kom'un-sens, adj. 
marked by sound, plain good sense. 

COMMONWEAL, kom'un-wel, COMMON- 
WEALTH, kom'utt-welth. n. (jlU.) the 

common or public well-being or good: 
the government in a free state : the pub- 
lic or whole body of the people : a form 
of government in which the power rests 
with the people, (hist.) that in England 
after the overthrow of Charles I. [See 

COMMORANT, kom'mo-rant, n. a resident. 
" All my time that I was a commorant 
in Cambridge." — Bp. Hacket. 

COMMOTE, kom-mot', v.t. to commove : 
to disturb : to stir up. Hawthorne. [See 

COMMOTION, kom-5'shun, n. a uiolmt 
motion or moving : excited or tumultuous 
action, physical or mental : agitation .* 
tumult. [L. commotio — com, intensive, 
and moveo, motus, to move. I 

COMMUNAL, kom-lin'al, ac0. of a com>- 

COMMUNE, kom'Qn, n. in France, a terri- 
torial division governed by a mayor. 
The Commune at Paris in 1871 was a re- 
volt against the national government, 
the principle of the revolt being thai 
each city or district should be ruled inde* 
pendently by its own commune or local 
government. [Fr. commune — root <rf 

COMittUNE, kom-tin', v.t. to converse or 
talk together : to have intercourse. [Fr. 
communier — L. communico, from com^ 
munis. See Common.] 

COMMUNICABLE, kom-un'i-ka-bl, adj. 
that may be communicated. — adv. Coil- 


COMMUNICANT, kom-un'i-kant, n. one 
who partakes of The Communion. 

COMMUNICATE, kom-un'i-kat, v.t. to give 
a share of, impart : to reveal : to bestow. 
— v.i. to have something in common with 
another : to have the means of passing 
from one to another : to have intercourse : 
to partake of The Conamunion. [L. comr 
munico, communicatu^s, from communis.} 

COMMUNICATION, kom-un-i-ka'shun, «. 
act of communicating : that which is 
communicated : intercourse : correspond- 

COMMTJNICATl V E, kom-un'i-ka-tiv, adj. 
inclined to communicate or give informa- 
tion : unreserved. — n. Commun'icativk- 


COMMXJNICATORY,kom-un'i-ka-tor-i, adj. 
imparting knowledge. 

COMMUNION, kom-un'yun, n. act of coro- 
muning : mutual intercourse t fellow- 
ship : common possession : interchange 
of transactions : union in religious ser- 
vice ; the body of people who so unite. — 
The Communion, the celebration of the 
Lord's Supper : the act of receiving Holy 
Eucharist in R. C. Church. 

COMMUNISM, kom'u-nizm, n. a theory or 
condition of things, according to which 
private property should be abolished, 
and all things held in common. 

COMMUNIST, kom'u-nist, n. one who holds 
the principles of communism. 



OOMMUNTTY, kom-un'i-ti, n., common 
possession or enjoyment : people having' 
common rights, etc. ; the public or peo- 
ple in ge»eral. 

COMMUTABLE, kom-ut'a-bl, adj. that 
may be commuted or exchanged. — n. 

COMMUTATION, kom-u-ta'shun, n. the 
act of com,muting : change or exchange 
of one thing for another : the change of 
a penalty or rate from a greater to a 

COMMUTATIVE, kom-ut'a-tiv, adj. relat- 
ing to exchange : interchangeable. — adv. 


COMMUTE, kom-ut', v.<. to exchange: to 
exchange a punishment for one less 
severe. [L. commuto, from com, with, 
and muto, to change.] 

COM]MUTUAL, kom-uf u-al, adj. mutual. 

COMPACT, kom-pakt', adj., fastened or 
packed together : firm : close : brief : in 
Milton, composed or made of. — v.t. to 
press closely together : to consolidate. — 
advs. Compact'ly, Compact'edly. — n. 
Compact'edness. [Fr. — L. compactus, 
pa. p. of compingo — com, together, and 
pango, to fasten, fix : akin to E. Fang.] 

COMPACT, kom'pakt, n. a m,utual bar- 
gain or agreement : a league, treaty, or 
union. [L. com,pactum — compaciscor, 
from com, with, and ^aciscor, to make a 
bargain ; from root pango.] 

COMPACTNESS, kom-pakt'nes, n, state of 
being compact : closeness. 

COMPANION, kom-pan'yun, n. one who 
keeps company or frequently associates 
with another : an associate or partner. — 
n. CoMPAN'iONSHip. [Fr. compagnon, 
from Low L. compamum, a mess — L. 
com, wiih, and panis, bread.] 

COMPANIONABLE, kom - pan'yun - a - bl, 
adj.. Jit to he a companion: agreeable. — 


COMPANIONLESS, kom-pan'yun-les, adj., 
without a companion. 

COMPANY, kum'pa-ni, n. an assembly of 
persons : a number of persons associated 
together for trade, etc.: a society: a 
subdivision of a regiment : the crew of a 
ship : state of being a companion : fel- 
lowship : society. — v.i. to associate with. 
[Fr. compagnie. See Companion.] 

COMPAEABLE, kom'par-a-bl, adj. that 
may be compared : being of ^qual re- 
gard. — adv. Com'parably. 

COMPARATIVE, kom-par'a-tiv, adj. esti- 
mated by comparing with something 
else : not positive or absolute : (gram.) 
expressing more. — adv. Compae'attvely. 

COMPARE, kom-par*, v.t. to set things to- 
gether, to ascertain how far they agree 
or disagree i to liken or represent as 
similar : {gram.) to inflect an adjective. 
— v.i. to hold comparison. [Fr.— L. com- 
paro, to match, from com, together, 
and paro, to make or esteem equal-^par, 

COMPAKEi kom-par', n. comparison* 

COMPARISON, kom-par'i-sun, n. the act 
of comparing : comparative estimate : a 
simile, or figure by which two things are 
compared : (gram.) the inflection of an 

COMPARTMENT, kom-part'ment, n. a 
separate part or division of any inclosed 
space : a subdivision of a carriage. [Fr., 
from compartir, to divide — ^Lat. com, and 
partire, to part.] 

COMPASS, kum'pas, n. a circuit or circle : 
space : limit : range : an instrmnent 
consisting of a magnetized needle, used 
to steer ships by, etc. — ^To fetch a Com- 
pass, to make a circuit, to go round : — 
pi. Com'passes, an instrument consisting 
of two movable legs, for describing cir- 
cles, etc. [Fr. compos, a circle — Low L. 
compassus — L. com, together, and pass- 
us, a step, a way, a route ; the mariner's 
compass goes round in a circle.] 

COMPASS, kvun'pas, v.t. to pass or go 
round : to surround or inclose : to be- 
siege : to bring about or obtain : to con- 
trive or plot. 

COMPASSION, kom-pash'un, n. fellow- 
feeling, or sorrow for the sufferings of 
another: pity. [Fr. — L. compassio — com, 
with, and patior, passus, to suffer.] 

COMPASSIONATE, kom-pash'un-at, adj. 
inclined to pity or to have mercy upon : 
merciful. — v.t. to have compassion for: 
to have pity or mercy upon. — adv. CoM- 


COMPATIBILITY, kom-pat-i-bil'it-i, n. the 
bei7ig compatible : suitability. 

COMPATIBLE, kom-pat'i-bl, adj., that can 
bear with: that suits or agrees with. — 
adv. COMPAT'IBLY. [Fr. — L. com, with, 
potior, to bear.] 

COMPATRIOT, kom-pa'tri-ot, adj., of the 
same fatherland or country. — n. one of 
the same country. [Fr. — L. com, with, 
and Patriot.] 

COMPEER, kom-per*, n., one who is equal 
to another : a companion : an associate. 
[L. compar — com, with, and Peer, from 
par, equal.] 

COMPEL, kom-pel', v.t. to drive or urge 
on forcibly : to oblige : — pr.p. compell'- 
ing ; pa.p. compelled'. — ac^'. Compell'- 
ABLE. [L. com, intensive, and pello, 
pulsum, to drive.] 

COMPENDIOUS, kom-pen'di-us, adj. short: 
comprehensive. — adv. Compen'diously. 

COMPENDIUM, kora-pen'di-um, n. a 
shortening or abridgment : a book or 
treatise containing the substance of a 
larger one. [L. compendium,, what is 
weighed together, or saved (opposed to 
dispendium) — com, together, and pendo, 
to weigh.] 

COMPENSATE, kom-pen'sat, or kom'pen- 
sat, v.t. to reward suitably for service 
rendered : to make amends for loss sus- 
tained : to recompense : to counterbal- 
ance. [L. com, intensive, and penso, to 
weigh, freq. of pendo, to weigh.] 

COMPENSATION, kom-pen-sa'shun, n. act 



rOf compensating .* reward for service : 
amends for loss sustained. 

COMPENSATORY, kom-pen'sa-tor-i, ac^. 
serving for compensation: making 

COMPESCE, kom-pes ,v.t. to hold in check : 
to restrain : to curb. Carlyle. [L. com- 
pesco, to fasten together, to confine.] 

COMPETE, kom-pet', v.t. to seek or strive 
■with others for something : to contend 
for a prize. 

C0MPIS:ENGE, kom'iJe-teiKi, COMPE- 
TENCY, kom'pe-ten-si, n. fitness: suffi- 
ciency : legal power or capacity. 

COMPETENT, kom'pe-tent, adj., suitable: 
sufficient : fit : belonging. — adv. Com'pe- 
JENTLY. [Fr. — ^L. eompeto, to strive after 
together, to agree — com, with, and peto, 

to SPGK I 

COMPETITION, kom-pe-tish'un, n. the act 
of competing: common strife for the 
same object. • 

COMPETITIVE, kom-pet'i-tiv, adj. per- 
taining to or producing competition. 

COMPETITOR, kom-pet'i-tor, n. one who 
competes : a rival or opponent. 

COMPILA.TION, kom>pil-a'shun, n. the act 
of compiling, or the thing compiled : a 
literary work composed by gathering the 
materials from various authors. 

COMPILE, kom-pir, v.t. to write or com- 
pose by collecting the materials from 
other books : to draw up or collect. — n. 
Compil'ee. [Fr. — L. compUo — com, to- 
gether, and pilo, to plunder.] 

COMPLACENCE, kom-pla'sens, COMPLA- 
CENCY, kom-pla'sen-si, n. pleasure : sat- 
isfaction : civility. 

COMPLACENT, kom-pla'sent, adj. showing 
satisfaction : pleased : gratified. — adv. 
Compla'centIiY. [L. complacens — com, 
intensive, and pZaceo, to please.] 

COMPLAIN, kom-plan', v.i. to express 
grief, pain, censure : to murmur or ex- 
press a sense of injury : to accuse. [Fr. 
complaindre — Low L. complangere — com, 
intensive, and plango, to bewail : (lit.) to 
beat (the breast), Gr. plesso, to strike. J 

COMPLAINANT, kom-plan'ant, n. one who 
complains: {law) one who raises a suit, 
a plaintiff. 

COMPLAINT, kom-plant', w., a complain^ 
ing : an expression of grief : a repre. 
sentation of pains or injuries : a finding 
fault : the thing complained of. 

COMPLAISANCE, kom'pla-zans or kom- 
pla-zans', n. care or desire to please : an 
obliging civility. [Fr.] 

COMPLAISANT, kom'pla-zant or kom-pla- 
zant', adj. desirous of pleasing : obliging. 
— adv. CoM'PLAiSANTLY or Complaisant'^ 
LY. [Fr. — complaire — L. complaceo.] 

COMPLEMENT, kom'ple-ment, n. that 
which completes or fills up : full num^ 
ber or quantity. [L. complementumr^ 
com, and pleo.l 

COMPLEMENTAL, kom-ple-ment'al, COM< 
PLEMENTARY, kom-ple-ment'ar-i, ac^"., 
filling up : supplying a deficiency. 

COMPLETE, kom-idet', v.t. to flil up, 
finish, or perfect: to accomplish. [L. 
eompleo, completum, to fill up — com, m- 
tensive, and plea, to fill.] 

COMPLETE, Hom-plet', ac^*., filled uv: 
free from deficiency : perfect : finished. 
— adv. Complete'ly. — n. Complete'ness. 

COMPLETION, kom-ple'shun, n. the act 
or state of being complete : fulfillment. 

COMPLEX, kom'pleks, adj. composed of 
more than one, or of many parts ; not 
simple : intricate : difficult. — adv. Com'- 
PLEXLY, — n. Com'plexness. [L. complex 
— com, together, and root of plico, to 
fold. See Complicate.] 

COMPLEXION, kom-plelrshun, n. color or 
look of the skin, esp. of the face : gen- 
eral appearance, temperament, or text- 
ure. [Fr. — ^L. complexio, a combination, 
physical structure of body — complector, 
complexus, to embrace — plectere, to plait.] 

COMPLEXIONAL, kom-plek'shun-al, adj. 
depending on or pertaining to com- 

COMPLEXIONED, kom-plek^shund, adj. 
having a complexion, or a certain tem- 
perament or state. 

COMPLEXITY, kom-pl^si-ti, n. state of 
being conmlex. 

COMPLIANCE, kom-pll'ans, n. a yielding : 

COMPLIANT, kom-pli'ant, oc^'. yielding: 
civil. — adv. Compli'antly. 

COMPLICACY, kom'pli-ka-si, n. state of 
being complicated. 

COMPLICATE, kom'pU-kat, v.t. to twist 
or plait together : to render complex : 
to entangle. [L. cow, together, and 
plico, plicatum, to fold. See Complex.] 

COMPLICATION, kom-pli-ka'shun, n. an 
intricate blending or entanglement. 

COMPLICITY, kom-plis'i-ti, n. state or 
condition of being an accom,pliee. 

COMPLIMENT, kom'pU-ment, w. an ex- 
pression of regard : delicate flattery. 
[Ft. complimeid, from root of Comply. 
Complement is etymologically the same 
word, but direct from the Lat.] 

COMPLIMENT, kom'pli-ment, v.t. to pay a 
compliment to : to express respect for : 
to praise : to flatter. 

COMPLIMENT ARY,kom-pli-ment'ar-i,a<^*. 
conveying civility or praise. 

OOMPLOT, kom-plot', v.t. to plot together, 
to conspire : — vr.p. complott'ing ; pa,p. 

COMPLY, kom-pH', v.i. to yield to the 
wishes of another : to agree: — pr.p. com- 

S lying ; pa.t. and pa.p. complied'. [O. 
t. comptir. It. eomplire, to fulfill, to suit, 
to oflfer courtesies — ^L. complere, to ful- 
fill or complete.] 

COMPONENT, kom-po'nent, adj. making 
up or composing: forming one of the 
e^ments of a compound. — n. one of the 
elements of a compound. [L. com, to- 
gether, and pono, to place.] 

COMPORT, kom-port', v.?. to agree, accord, 
«uit. — v.t. to bear one's seK, to behave. 



COMPORTMENT, kom-port'ment, n. de- 
portment, behavior. 

COMPOSE, kom-poz', v.t. to form by put- 
ting two or more parts or things togeth- 
er : to place in order : to set at rest : to 
soothe : to place tjrpes in order for print- 
ing: to originate or become the author 
of, as a book. [Fr. composer, from L. 
cum, and Fr. poser, which is from L. 
pausare, to cease, to rest.J 

COMPOSED, kom-pozd', adj. settled, quiet, 
calm. — adv. Compos'edly. — n. CoMPOS'- 


COMPOSER, kom-poz'er, n. one who com- 
poses or adjusts a thing : a writer, an 
author, esp. of a piece of music. 

COMPOSITE, kom'poz-it, adj., composed 
of two or more distinct parts : (arch.) a 
blending of the Ionic and the Corinthian 
orders. [L. composiitis, pa. p. of compo- 
nere, to put together.] 

COMPOSITION, kom-p6-zish'un, n. the act 
of putting together : the thing composed, 
as a work in literature, music, or paint- 
ing : a coming together or agreement : 
an agreement whereby payment of part 
of a debt is taken for the whole. 

COMPOSITOR, kom-poz^-tor, n. one who 
puts together or sets up types for print- 

COMPOSITOUS, kom-poz'i-tus, adj. in lx)t. 
belonging to the order Compositae : com- 
posite. Darwin. 

COMPOS MENTIS, kom'-pos men'-tis, a law 
term, meaning of sound mind, memory 
and understanding: otherwise used to de- 
note a sane person, one who is respon- 
sible for his acts. [L.] 

COMPOST, kom'post, n. a mixture for 
manure : a kind of plaster : in Milton, 
composition, agreement. 

COMPOSURE, kom-po'zhur, n. calmness, 
self-possession, tranquillity. 

COMPOUND, kom--pownd', v.t. to mix or 
combine : to set'tle or adjust by agree- 
ment. — v.i. to agree, or come to terms : 
to bargain in the lump. [L. compono. 
See Composite.] 

COMPOUND, kom'pownd, adj. mixed or 
composed of a number of parts : not 
simple. — n. a mass made up of a number 
of parts. 

COMPREHEND, kom-pre-hend', v.t. to 
seize or take up with the mind, to 
understand : to comprise or include. [L. 
com, with, and prehendo, from pros, be- 
fore, and an old word hendo = Gr. chan- 
dano, to hold, comprise ; akin to E. Get.] 

COMPREHENSIBLE, kom-pre-hen'si-bl, 
adj. capable of being understood. — adv. 
Comprehen'sibly. — ns. Comprehensibil'- 
ITY. Comprehen'sibleness. 

COMPREHENSION, kom-pre-hen'shun, n. 
the act or quality of comprehending : 
power of the mind to understand : {logic) 
the intension of a term or the sum of the 
qualities implied in the term. 

COMPREHENSIVE, kom-pre-hen'siv, adj. 
having the quality or power of compre- 

hending much : extensive : full. — achy. 
Comprehen'sively. — n. Comprehen'sive- 


COMPRESS, kom-pres', v.t. to press to- 
gether : to force into a narrower space : 
to condense. [L. com, together, and 
pressare, to press— ^emo, pressu^, to 

COMPRESS, kom'pres, n. folds of linen, 
used in surgery to make due pressure on 
any part. 

COiyiPRESSIBILITY, kom-pres'i-bil-i-ti, n. 
the property that bodies have of being 
reduced in bulk by pressure. 

COMPRESSIBLE, kom-pres'i-bl, adj. that 
may be compressed. 

COMPRESSION, kom-presh'un, n. act of 
compressing : state of being compressed. 

COMPRESSIVE, kom-pres'iv, adj. able to 

COMPRISAL, kom-priz'al, n. the act o^ 

COMPRISE, kom-priz*, v.t. to contain, in- 
clude. [Fr. compris, pa. p. of comjyrendre 
— L, comprehendere. See Comprehend.] 

COMPROMISE, kom'pro-miz, n. a settle- 
ment of differences by mutual promise or 
concession. — v.t. to settle by mutual 
agreement and concession : to pledge : to 
involve or bring into question. [Fr. com- 
promis — L. com, together, and promitto, 
to promise.] 

COMPTOGRAPH, kount'-&-graf, n. an add- 
ing machine, or device for adding num- 
bers and recording the total. [Fr. 
compter, to coiuit, and sfx. graph."] 

COMPTOMETER, kom- tom'-e-ter, n. a de- 
vice for figuring, or making calculations 
in figures. [Fr. compte, count, account, 
and meter 1 


COMPULSION, kom-pul'shun, n. the act 
of compelling : force : necessity: violence. 
[See Compel.] 

COMPULSE, kom-puls', v.t. to compel : to 
constrain : to oblige. " Some are beaten 
and compulsed." — Latimer. "She rends 
her woes, shivers them in compulsed ab- 
horrence." — Charlotte Bronte. 

COMPULSIVE, kom-pul'siv, COMPUL- 
SORY, kom-pul'sor-i, adj. having power 
to compel : forcing. — advs. Compul'- 


COMPUNCTION, kom-pungk'shun, n. un- 
easiness of conscience : remorse. [O.Fr. 
— L. compunctio — com, intensive, and 
pungo, punctus, to prick.] 

COMPUNCTIOUS, kom-pungk'shus, adj. 
feeling or causing compunction : repent- 
ant : remorseful. 

COMPUTABLE, kora-put'a-bl, adj. that 
may be comjnited or calculated. 

COMPUTATION, kom-put-a'shun, n. act 
of computing : the sum or quantity oom- 
puted : estimate. 

COMPUTE, kom-pftt', v.t. to calculate : to 
number. [L, computo, from com, to- 
gether. ii,naj)uto> to reckon.] 



COMRADE, kom'rad, n. a companion. [Sp. 
camarada, a room-MU, a chamber-mate 
— L. camera, a chamber.] 

COMRADERY, kom'rad-ri, n. the state or 
feeling of being a comrade : companion- 
ship : fellowship. 

COMTISM, kongt izm, n. the philosophical 
system founded by Auguste Comte : posi- 
tivism. [See Positive Philosophy, under 

COMTIST, kongt'ist, n. a disciple of Comte: 
a positivist. [Also used as an adjective.] 

CON, kon, a contraction of L. contra, 
against, as in Pko and Con, for and 

CON, kon, v.t. to study carefully : to com- 
mit to memory :—pr.p. conn ing ; pa.p, 
conned'. [A.S. cunnian, to test, to try 
to know — from cunnan, to know.] 

CONCATENATE, kon-kat'e-nat, v.t. to 
chain or link together: to connect in a 
series. [L. con, together, and catena, a 

CONCATENATION, kon-kat-e-na'shun, n. 
a series of links united : a series of things 
depending on each other. 

CONCAVE, kon'kav, adj. curved, vaulted, 
or arched, applied to the inner side of 
any curved line or rounded body, and op>- 
posed to convex, which is applied to the 
outside. — n. a hollow: an arch or vault. 
[L. concavus, from con, intensive, and 
cavus, hollow. See Cave.] 

CONCAVITY, kon-kaVi-ti, n. the inner 
surface of a concave or hollow body. 

CONCEAL, kon-sel', v.t. to hide completely 
or carefully: to keep secret : to disguise : 
to keep from telling. [L. concelo, from 
con, intens., and celo, to hide; akin to 
A.S. helan, to hide.] 

CONCEALABLE, kon-sel'a-bl, adj. that 
may be concealed. 

CONCEALMENT, kon-sel'raent, n. act of 
concealing : secrecy : disguise : hiding- 

CONCEDE, kon-sed', v.t. to cede or give 
up : to quit : to surrender • to admit : to 
grant. — v.i. to admit or grant. [L. con- 
cedo, from con, sig. completeness, and 
cedo, to go, to yield.] 

CONCEDENCE, kon-sed'ens, n. the act of 
conceding: concession. " A mutual con- 
cedence." — Richardson. 

CONCEIT, kon-set', n. over-estimate of 
one's self : too favorable opinion of one's 
own good qualities : a pleasant, fantas- 
tical, or affected notion.— Out of cX)n- 
ceit with, no longer fond of. [Through 
a Fr. form conceit, from L. concepiiis, 
pa.p. of concipio.] 

CONCEITED, kon-set'ed, adj. having a 
high opinion of one's self ; egotistical. 
—adv. Conceit'edly. — n. Conceit'ed- 


CONCEIVABLE, kon-sev'a-bl, adj. that 
may be conceived, understood, or be- 
lieved. — adv. Conceiv'ably. — n. Con- 

CONCEIVE, kon-seV, v.t. to receive into, 


and form in the womb : to form in the 
mind : to imagine or think : to under- 
stand. — v.i. to become pregnant : to 
think. [O. Fr. concever — L. concipio, 
conceptum, from con, and capio, to take.] 

CONCENT, kon-sent', n. a singing to- 
gether : concert : harmony, f L. con- 
census — con, together, and carta, cantum, 
to sing.l 

CONCENTRATE, kon-sen'trat, v.t. to bring 
into a closer union, or a narrower com- 
pass : to condense. [A lengthened form 
of Concentre,] 

CONCENTRATION, kon-sen-tra'shun, n. 
act of concentrating : condensation. 

CONCENTRATIVE, kon-sen'tra-tiv, adj 
tending to concentrate. 

CONCENTRE, kon-sent'er, v.i. to tend to 
or meet in a common centre. — v.t. to 
bring or direct to a common centre or 
point :—pr.p. concent'ring ; pa.p. con- 
cent'red or concent'ered. [Fr. concentrer 
— L. con, with, and centrum, the Centre.] 

CONCENTRIC, kon-sen'trik, CONCEN- 
TRICAL, kon-sen'trik-al, adj. having a 
common centre. 

CONCEPT, kon'sept, n. a thing conceived, 
a notion. 

CONCEPTION, kon-sep'shun, n. the act of 
conceiving : the thing conceived : the 
formation in the mind of an image or 
idea : a notion. 

CONCEPTUALISM, kon-sep'tu-al-izm, n. 
the doctrine in philosophy that general 
properties can be conceived in the mind 
apart from any concrete embodiment. 

CONCERN, kon-sern', v.t. to relate or be- 
long to : to affect or interest : to make 
uneasy. — n. that which concerns or be- 
longs to one : interest : regard : anxiety : 
a business or those connected with it. — 
n. Concern'ment. [Fr. — L. concemo, 
from con, together, and cerno, to sift, to 

CONCERNED, kon-sernd', adj. having con- 
nection with : interested : anxious ; also 
confused with drink : slightly intoxicated. 
" Not that I know his Reverence was ever 
concerned to my knowledge." — Svnft. " A 
little as you see concerned with liquor." 
— Sir H. Taylor.— adv. Concern'edly. — 
n. Concern'edness. 

CONCERNING, kon-sern'ing, prep, regard- 
ing : pertaining to. [Pr.p. of Concern.] 

CONCERNMENT, koa-sem'ment, n. that 
which concerns one. 

CONCERT, kon-sert', v.t. to frame or de- 
vise together : to arrange, adjust. [Fr. 
concerter — con, together, certare, to con- 
tend, vie with : ace. to Skeat, from L. 
consertus, joined together.] 

CONCERT, kon'sert, n. union or agreement 
in any undertaking : harmony : musical 
harmony : a musical entertainment. [Fr.l 

CONCERTINA, kon-ser-te'na, n. a musical 
instrument, on the principle of the ac- 

CONCERTO, kon-ser'to, n. a piece of music 
for a concert. [It.] 



CX3NCES81BLE, kon-ses'i-W, adj. capable 
erf being conceded or granted. "One of 
the most ooncessible postuiations in nat- 
ure." — St erne. 

CJONCESSION, koB-sesh'ua, n. act of con- 
cedin/g : the thing conceded : a grant. 

CX)SCESSrVE, kon-BBs'iv, adj, implying 

CONCESSORY, kon-ses'or-i, adj. yielding. 
CJONCH, kongk, n. a marine slim. [L. 

concha — Gr. Icongche ; Sans, oankha, a 

shell ; conn, with COCXX.E.] 
CONCHIFEROUS, kong - kifer - us, adj^ , 

having a sheU. [L. concha, and /«ro, to 

CONCHOIDAL, kong-koid'al, adj., shell- 
like, applied to the fracture of a mineraL 
• *jrr. Jmrtgche, and eidos, form.] 

C50NCHOLOGIST, kong-koro-jist, «. oae 
versed in corrvehology. 

CONCHOLOGY, kong-kol'o-ji, ». the 
science of shells and of the animals in- 
habiting them. [Gr. kongcKe, aad logoSj 
m discourse.] 

OOKCILIATE, koBHsill-at. v.t. to gaaa or 
win over : to gain the love or good-will 
of such as have been indifferent or hostile. 
[L. condlio, canciliatus, to bring t<^«ther 
— coneUiHitt. See Council.] 

CONCILIATION, kon-sil-i-a'shun, n. act of 
conciliating. — n. Conchjatok, kon-^'i- 
a-tor. — adj. Conciliatory, kon-sil'i-a- 

CONCISE, kon-sas', adj., citt short : brief. — 
odf. Concise'ly. — n. Concise'niss. [Fr. 
^L. concido, wncistts, from coHj and 
fvedo, to cut.] 

COxVCISION, kon-sizh'un, n. (B.) circum- 
cision : a f action. 

CONCLAVE, kon'klav, n. the room in 
which cardinals meet to elect a pope : 
the body of cardinals : any close assem- 
bly. [L. conclave, from con, together, 
and clavis, a key.] 

CONCLUDE, kon-klood', v.t. to close : to 
end. — t'.i. to end : to infer : to form a 
final judgment. [L. condudo, condusus 
— con, tc^ether, and elaudo, to shut.] 

CONCLUSION, kon-kloo'zhun, n. act of 
conduding : the end, close, or last part ; 
inference : judgment. [L. conclnsio.'\ 

CONCLUSIVE, kon-kloos'iv, adj. final: 
convincing. — adv. Conclus'ivkly. — n. 


CONCOCT, kon-kokf , v.t. (lit.) to cook or 
boil together : to" digest : to prepare or 
mature. [L. coneoquo, concoctus — con, 
together, and ooqtu), to cook, to boil.] 

CONCOCTION, kon-kok'shun, n. act ol 
concocting : ripening : preparation. 

CONCOCTIVE, kon-koktlv, adj. having 
the power of digesting or ripening. MU- 

CONCOMITANCE, kon-kom'i-tans, CON- 
COMITANCY, kon-kom'i- tan-si, n. state 
of beiner concomitant. 

CONCOMITANT, kon-kom'i-tant, adj., ac- 
companying or going along with : con- 
joined with. — c he or that which accom- 

panies. — adv. CONOOM'ITANTLY. [L. COH, 
with, and comitans, pr.p. of comitor, to 
accompany — comes, a compreinion.] 

CONCORD, KongTvord or kon'-, n. ^^e of 
being of the same heart or mind : union : 
harmony. [Fr. Concorde — L. concordia 
— eoncors, of the same heart, from con, 
together, and cor, cordis, the heart.] 

CONCORDANCE, kon-kord'ans, w. agree- 
ment : an index or dictionary of the lead- 
ing words or passages of the Bible, or ot 
any author. 

CONCORDANT, kon-kord'ant, adj harmo- 
nious : united. — adv. Concord' astly. 
[L. concordans, pr.p. of concordo — eon- 
cors, agreeing.] 

CONCORDAT, kon-kord*at, n. an agree- 
ment or compact, especially between a 
temporal sovereign and the pope. [Fr. — 
It. concordato — ^L. cxyiicordo, to agree.] 

CONCOURSE, kong'kors, n. an assembly 
of persons running or drawn together. 

CONCRESCENCE, kon-kres'ens, ». a groto- 
ing together. 

CONCRETE, kong'kret, or kon'-, adj 
formed into one mass : the opposite of 
abstmct, and denoting a particular 
thing. — n. a mass formed by parts 
growing or sticking together : a mixt- 
ure of lime, sand, pebbles, etc., used in 
building. — adv. Concrete'ly. — n. CoN- 
crete'nkss. [L. eoncretus—con, togethe*, 
cresco, cretum, to grow.] 

CONCRETE, kon-kret', v.t. to unite into a 
solid mass. 

OONCRETIANISM, kon-kre'shan-izm, n. 
the belief that the soul was generated 
at the same time as, and grows along 
with, the body. [L. con, together, and 
cresco, cretum, to grow.] 

CONCRETION, kon-kre'shun, n. a mass 
concreted : a lump or growth which 
forms in certain parts of the body, as 

CONCRETIVE, kon-kret'iv, adj, causing 
or having power to concrete. 

CONCUBINAGE, kon-kS'bm-aj, to. state of 
living together as man and wife without 
being married. 

CONCUBINE, kong'ku-bln, n. a woman 
who cohabits or lives with a man with- 
out being married. [Fr. — L. eoncubina-^ 
con, together, cu6o, to he down.] 

CONCUPISCENCE, kon-ku'pis-ens, n., ex- 
cessive or irregrilar desire for unlawful 
{(leasure : lust. — adj. Concu'pkcent. 
Fr. — L. concupiseentia — concupisco — 
con, intensive, ciipio, to desire.] 

CONCUR, kon-kur', v.i. to run together : 
to meet in one point : to act together : 
to agree : to assent to :—pr.p. concurr'- 
ing ; pa.p. concurred'. [L. concurro, 
from eon, together, and cuirro, cursum, 
to run.] 

CONCURRENCE, kon-kur'ens, n. union : 
joint action : assent. 

CONCURRENT, kon-kur'ent, adj. coming, 
acting, or existing together: united: 
aocomxranying. — adv. Ooncuhr'ently. 

coi^cussioiT— co:N^DmT 

■ 147 

CONCUSSION, kon-kush'un, n. state of 
beinff shaken : a violent shock caused 
by the sudden contact of two bodies : 
any undue pressure or force exerted 
upon any one, [L. concussio — concutio 
— con, intensive, and guatio, to shake.] 

CONCUSSIVE, kon-kus^iv, adj. having the 
power or quality of shaking or com- 

CONCUTIENT, kon-ku'shi-ent, adj. coming 
suddenly into collision : meeting togeth- 
er with violence. " Meet in combat like 
two concMtient cannon-balls." — Thack- 
eray. [See Concussion.] 

CONDEMN, kon-dem', v.t. to pronounce 
guilty : to censure or blame : to sentence 
to punishment : to pronounce unfit for 
use. [L. condemno, from con, intensive, 
and damno, to damn. See Damn.] 

CONDEMNABLE, kon-dem'na-bl, ac^'. 

CONDEMNATION, kon-dem-na'shun, n. 
state of being condemned : blame : pun- 

CONDEMNATORY, kon-dem'na-tor-i, adj., 
containing or implying condemnation. 

CONDENSABLE, kon-dens'a-bl, adj. capa- 
ble of being compressed. 

CONDENSATION, kon-den-sa'shun, n. act 
of condensing. 

CONDENSE, kon-dens', v.t. to compress, 
or reduce by pressure into smaller com- 
pass. — v.i. to grow dense. [L. condense 
— con, intensive, denso, to make dense. 
See Dense.] 

CONDENSE, kon-dens', adj., dense: com-, 

gact : close in texture. Milton. [See 

CONDENSER, kon-dens'er, n. an apparatus 
for reducing vapors to a liquid form : an 
appliance for collecting or condensing 

CONDESCEND, kon-de-send', v.i. to de- 
scend willingly from a superior position : 
to act kindly to inferiors : to deign : to 
lower one's self. [L. con, intensive, and 
descendo, to descend.] 

CONDESCENDING, kon-de-send'ing, aclj. 
yielding to inferiors : courteous : oblig- 
mg. — adv. Condescend'ingly. 

CONDESCENSION, kon-de-sen'shun, ». 
kindness to inferiors : courtesy. 

CONDIGN, kon-dln', adj. well merited: 
adequate (generally said of punishment). 
— adv. CoNDiGN'iiY. — n. Condign'ness. 
[L. condignus — con, wholly, dignus, 

CONDIMENT, kon'di-ment, n. that which 
is put along with something else to jyre- 
serve or pickle it : seasoning : sauce 

(L. eondimentunv—condio, to preserve, to 

CONDITION, kon-dish'un, n. state in which 
things exist : a particular manner of be- 
ing : quality : rank : temper : a term of 
a contract : proposal : arrangement. — 
v.t. to make terms. — v.t. to agree upon. 
FL. conditio — condere, to put together.] 

CXJNDITIONAL, kon-dish'un-al, adj. d& 

pending on stipulations or conditions: 
not absolute. — adv. Condi'tionaixy. 

CJONDITIONED, kon-dish'und, adj. having 
a certain condition, state, or quality : 
subject to limitations — the opp. of abso- 

CONDOLE, kon-dor, v.i. to grieve vsith 
another : to sympathize in sorrow. [L. 
con, with, and doleo, to grieve.] 

CONDOLEMENT, kon-d5l'ment, CONDOL- 
ENCE, kon-dol'ens, n. expression of grief 
for another's sorrow. 

CONDONATION, kon-don-a'shun, w., ftyr- 
giveness. [L. condonatio.l 

CONDONE, kon-don', v.t. to forgive. [L. 
con, dono, to give. See Donation.] 

CONDOR, kon'dor, n. a large vulture round 
among the Andes of S. America. [Sp. 
condor, from Peruvian cuntur.'] 

CONDOTTIERE, kon-dot'i-a'ra, n. pi. CON- 
DOTTIERI, kon-dot'i-a're, one of the 
leaders of certain bands of Italian mili- 
tary adventurers who, during the four- 
teenth century, were ready to serve any 
party, and often practiced warfare on 
their own account, purely for the sake 
of plunder : a mercenary soldier ; also, a 
brigand. Hallam. [It.] 

CONDUCE, kon-dlis', v.i. to lead or tend 
to some end : to contribute. [L. con^ to- 
gether, and duco. ducttts, to lead.] 

kon-dus'iv, adj., leading or tending : hav- 
ing power to promote. — advs. Conduc'- 


CONDUCT, kon-dukt', v.t. to lead or guide : 
to direct : to manage : to behave : {eleo- 
tricity) to carry or transmit. [See Con- 
duce 1 

CONDTJCT, kon'dukt, n. act or method of 
leading or managing : guidance : manage- 
ment : behavior : the leading of an 
army : also a tax levied by Charles I. of 
England for the purpose of paying the 
travelling expenses of his soldiers. " He 
who takes up armes for cote and conduct 
and his four nobles of Danegelt." — Milton. 
[Called also Conduct-money. See Coat.] 

OONDUCTIBLE, kon-dukt'i-bl, adj. capable 
of being conducted or transmitted. — n. 


CONDUCTION, kon-duk'shun, n. act or 
property of conducting or transmitting : 
transmission by a conductor, as heat. 

CONDUCTIVE, kon-dukt'iv, adj. having 
the quality or power of conducting or 

CONDUCTIVITY, kon-duk-tiv'i-ti, n. a 

Eower that bodies have of transmitting 
eat and electricity. 
CONDUCTOR, kon-dukt'or, n. the person 
or thing that conducts : a leader : a man- 
ager": that which has the property of 
transmitting electricity, heat, etc.— /em. 


CX)NDUIT, kon'dit orkun'-, n. a channel or 
pipe to lead or convey water, etc. [Fr. 
conduit — L. conducive - - conduco, to 

148 • 


CJONE, k5n, n. a solid pointed figure with 
a circular base, as a sugar-loaf : fruit 
shaped like a cone, as that of the pine, 
fir, etc. [Fr. cone — ^L. conua — Gr. kOnoSf 
a peak, a peg ; from a root Jca, to sharpen ; 
al lied to E. hone.] 


CONFAB, kon-fab', v.i, to confabulate : to 
chat. " Mrs. Thrale and I were dressuigv 
and as usual confabbing." — Miss Burnett. 

CONFABULATE, kon-fab'u-lat, v.i. to tcUk 
familiarly together: to chat. — n. CSON- 
FABDIA'TION. [L. con, together, and /a&- 
tUor, fdbuUUus, to talk— /afruto, the thing 
spoken about— /art, akin to Gr. phaOf and 
ph&nt, to speak.] 

OONFECT, kon'fekt, CONFECTION, kon- 
fek'shun, n. fruit, etc., prepared with 
sugar : a sweetmeat : a comfit % also the 
art of confecttng or compounding differ- 
ent substances into one preparation ; as, 
the confection of sweetmeats. [L. confU 
do, confectus, to make up together— cow, 
together, facio, to make.] 

OONFECnONARY, kon-fek'shon-a-ri. w. a 
room in which confections are kept. 
*• The keys of the stores, of the confeo- 
tionary, of the wine vaults." — ^iZtc^rd- 
9 on. 

X)NFECTIONER, kon-fek'shun-^r, {B.) 
Contec'tionaby, n. one who maJces or 
sells c onfe ctions. 

CONFECTIONERY, kon-fek'shun-er-i, n. 
sweetmeats in general : a place for mak- 
ing or selling' sweetmeats. 

CONFEDERACY, kon-fed'er-aHsi, n. a 
league or mutual engagement: persons 
or states united by a league. 

CONFEDERATE, kon-fed'er-at, a^., 
leagued together: alhed.— »i. one united 
in a league : an ally : an accomplice.^ 
v.i. and v.t. to league together or join in 
a league. [L. confcederatus, pa.p. of con- 
foedero — con, together, foedus, foederis, a 

CONFEDERATION, kon-fed-er^'shun, n, 
a league : aUiance, especially of princes, 
states, etc. 

CONFER, kon-fer', v.t. to give or bestow. 
— v.i. to talk or consult together :—pr.p, 
conferr'ing; pa.p. conferred'. [Fr. — L. 
confer o — con, together, and jero, to 
b ring.] 

CONFERENCE, kon'fer-ens, n. an ap- 
pointed meeting for instruction or dis- 

CONFESS, kon-fes', v.t. to acknowledge 
fully, especially something wrong: to 
own or admit : to make known, as sins 
to a priest : to hear a confession, as a 
priest. — v.i. to make confession. — adv. 
Confess'edly. [Fr. confesser — L. con- 
fiteor, confessu»--con, sig. completeness, 
and fateor—fari, to speak, akm to Gr. 
p hemi , to speak.] 

CONFESSION, kon-fesh'un, n. acknowl- 
edgement of a crime or fault : avowal : a 
statement of one's religious belief: ac- 
knowledgment of sin to a Driest. 

CONFESSIONAL, kon-fesh'un-al, «. the 
seat or inclosed recess where a priest 
hears confessions, 

CONFESSOR, kon-fes'or, n. one who pro- 
fesses the Christian faith : in the R. C. 
Church, a priest who hears confessiona 
a nd gr ants absolution. 

CONFIDANT, kon'fi-dant or kon-fi-dant', 
w. one confided in or intrusted with se- 
cretSi a bosom-friend. 

CONFIDE, kon-fid', v.i. to trust whoUy or 
have faith in: to rely. — v.t. to intrust, 
or commit to the charge of. [L. confido 
— con, sig. completeness, and fido, to 

CONFIDENCE, kon'fl-dens, n. firm trust or 
belief : self-reliance : firmness : boldness. 

CONFIDENT, kon'fi-dent, adj. trusting 
firmly : having full belief : positive : 

bold. — adv. COITFIDENTLY. 

CONFIDENTIAL, kon-fi-den'shal, adj. 
(given) in confidence: admitted to con- 
fidence : private. — adv. Confiden'tially. 

CONFIGURATION, kon-fig-u-ra'shun, n. 
external figure or shape : relative poei- 
doi or aspect, as of planets. [L. ooiu 
flguratio — con, together, and figure, to 
form. See Figure.] 

CONFINABLE, kon-fln'a-bl, adj. that may 
be confined. 

CONFINE, kon-fin', v.t. to Umit, inclose, 
imprison. [Fr. confiner, to border on, to 
confine ; also, in Milton, to have the same 
boundary width : to border on — ^L cati'^ 
finis, having a common boundary, bor« 
dering upon — con, with, finis, the end or 

CONFINE, kon'fin, n. border, boundary, or 
limit— generally used in pliu^. 

CONFINEMENT, kon-ffn'ment, n. state of 
being shut up : restraint from goii^ 
abroad by sickness, and esp. of women 
in childbu'th : seclusion. 

CONFIRM, kon-ferm', v.t. to strengthen: 
to fix or establish : to assure : to admit 
to full communion in the Episcopal 
Church. — adj. Confirm'able. ^V. — ^L. 
conjirmo — con, intensive, and root of 

CONFIRMATION, kon-fer-m&'shun, n. a 
making firm or sure : convincing proof • 
the right by which persons are admitted 
to full communion in the Episcopsd 

CONFIRMATIVE, kon-ferm'srtiv, cu^ 
tending to confirm. 

CONFIR^LITORY, kon-ferm'a-tor-i, ad(j. 
giving additional strength to. 

CONFISCATE, kon-fls'kat or kon'-, v.t. to 
appropriate to the state, as a penalty. 
[L. confisco—con, and fiscus, a basket, the 
public treasury.] 

CONFISCATE, kon-fis^St or kon'ils-kat, 
adj. forfeited to the public treasury. — adj, 
CoNFis'CABLE. — n. Confisca'tion. 

CONFISCATOR, kon'fls-ka-tor, n. one who 
confisc Sites 

CONFISCATORY, kon-fls^a-tor^, adj. co». 
signing to confiscation. 



C50NFLAGRANT, kon-fla'grant, adj., burrv^ 
ing together. [L. con, together, and 

CX)NrLAGRATE, kon-fla'grat, vJ. to bum 
up : to consume with fire. " Conflagrat- 
ing the poor man himself into ashes and 
caput mortuumJ" — Carlyle. 

CONFLAGRATION, kon-fla-gra'shun, n. a 
great burning or fire. [L. conilagratio — 
con, intensive, and flagro, to- burn. 

£X)NFLICT, "kon-flikt', v.i. to be in op- 
position : to fight : to contest. [L. con- 
Jligo, conflictus, from con, together, and 
fligo, to dash.] 

CONFLICT, kon'flikt, n. violent collision % 
a struggle or contest : agony. 

CONFLUENCE, kon'floo-ens, n. a flmcing 
together: the place of meeting, as of 
rivers : a concourse. 

CONFLUENT, kon'floo-ent, adj., flawing 
together: uniting. [L. confluens, pr.p, 
of confluo, conflvncus, from con, together, 
and fluo, to flow.] 

CONFLUX, kon'fluks, n. a flowing to 

CONFORM, kon-form% v.t. to make like or 
of the same forin with: to adapt. — v.i, 
to be of the same form : to comply with : 
to obey. [L. conformo — con, with, and 
formo— forma, form.] 

CONFORM, kon-form', adj. made like in 
form : assuming the same shape : simi- 
lar. Milton. [Late L. conformis — ^L. con, 
and forma, form.] 

CONFORMABLE, kon-form'a4)l, adj. cor- 
responding in form: suitable : compliant. 
— adv. Conform' ABLY. 

CONFORMATION, kon-for-mft'shun, n. the 
manner in which a body is formed: 
shape or structure. 

CONFORMER, kon-form'er, CONFORM- 
IST, kon-form'ist, n. one who conforms 
especially with the worship of the Es- 
tablished Church in England. 

CONFORMITY, kon-form'i-ti, n. likeness : 
compliance with : consistency. 

CONFOUND, kon-fownd', v.t. to mingle so 
as to make the parts indistinguishable : 
to throw into disorder : to perplex : to 
astonish. [Fr. confondre — L. confundo, 
confusus — con, together, and fundo, to 
p our. ] 

CONFRATERNITY, kon-fra-ter'ni-ti, w. 
same as Fraternity. [L. con, inten- 
sive, and Fraternity.] 

CONFRONT, kon-frunt', v.t. to stand front 
to front: to face: to oppose: to compare. 

JFr. confronter — Low L. confrontare, 
rora L. con, together, and frons, the 
front. See Front.] 

CONFUCIAN, kon-fu'shyan, adj. of or be- 
longing to Confucius, the Chinese phi- 

CONFUSE, kon-fuz*, v.t. to pcmr or mix 
together so that things cannot be dis- 
tinguished : to throw into disorder : to 
perplex. [A doublet of Confound.] 

CONFUSEDLY, kon-fOz'ed-U, adv. in a 
confused manner. 

CONFUSION, kon-fu'zhun, n. disorder: 
shame : overthrow. 

CONFUTE, kon-fut', v.t. to prove to be 
false : to repress : to disprove. — adj. 
Confut'able. — n. Confuta'tion. [L. 
confuto, to cool boiling water by pour- 
ing in cold — con, intensive, and futis, a 
water-vessel, from fundo, to pour. See 

CONG]E, kon'je (formerly written Congie), 
n. leave of absence : farewell : parting 
ceremony. — v.i. to take leave : to bow or 
courtesy. [Fr. (Pro v. comjat), from L. 
commeatus, a going back and fortli, leave 
of absence — com, intensive, and meo, to 

CIONGEAL, kon-jel', v.t. to cause to freeze: 
to change from fluid to solid by cold : to 
fix, as by cold. — v.i. to pass from fluid to 
solid as by cold. — adj. Congeal' able. 

CONGEALMENT, kon-jel'ment, CON- 
GELATION, kon-jel-a'shun, n. act or 
process of congealing. 

CONGENER, kon'je-ner or kon-je'ner, n. 
a person or thing of the same kind or 
nature. [L. — con, with, and genus, gen- 
eris, Gr. genos, kind.] 

CONGENIAL, kon-je^ni-al, adj. of the 
same genius, spirit, or tastes : kindred, 
sympathetic : suitable. — adv. Conge'ni- 

ALLY.— W. CONGENIAL'ITY. [L.— COn,with, 

genialis, genial. See Genial.] 

CONGENITAL, kon-jen'i-tal, adj., begotten 
or bom unth, said of diseases or deformi- 
ties dating from birth. [L. congenitus, 
from con, together, gigno, genitus, to 

CONGER, kong'ger, n. a large sea-eel. 
[L.; Gr. gonggros.] 

CONGERIES, kon-je'ri-gz, n. a collection 
of particles or small bodies in one mass. 
[L. — con, together, gero, gestus, to bring.] 

CONGESTED, kon-jest'ed, adj. affected 
with an unnatural accumulation of 

CONGESTION, kon-jest'yun, n. an accu- 
mulation of blood in any part of the body : 
fullness. [L. congestio.J 

SONGESTIVE, kon-jest'iv, adj. indicating 
or tending to congestion. 

CONGLOBATE, kon-glob'at, adj. formed 
together into a globe or ball. — v.t. to form 
into a globe or ball. — n. Congloba'tion. 
[L. con, together, and globo, globatus-^ 
globus, a ball, globe. See Globe.] 

CONGLOBULATE, kon-glob'u-lat, v.i. to 
gather into a globule or small globe. [L. 
Km. and globulus, dim of glolms.] 

CONGLOMERATE, kon-glom'er-at. adj. 
gathered into a clew or mass.—- v.f. to 
gather into a ball. — n. a rock composed 
of pebbles cemented together. fL. con- 
glomeratus, pa. p. of conglomero — con, 
together, and glomus, glomeris, a clew, 
akin to globus.'] 

CONGLOMERATION, kon-glom-er-a'shun, 
n. state of being conglomerated. 

CONGLUTINANT, kon-gloo'tin-ant, adj. 
serving to glue or unite : heaUng. 



CONGLtmNATE^ kon-gloo'tin-at, vJ. to 
glue together : to heal by uniting. — v^L to 
unite or grow together. [L. congivHno, 
conglutinatus — con, together, aod glutent 
glue. See GLUE.] 

CONGLUTINATION, koa-gl5o-tin-a'sbiun, 
n. a joining by means of soxae sticky sub^ 

CONGLUTINAt!vE, kon-gl55'tiBrarti.yi 
cuh'. having power to conglutinate. 

COlfGOU", kong'goo, n, a kind of black tea. 

CONGEATtJLATE, kon-grat'u-lat, vJ. to 
wish much joy to on any fortunate event. 
PJ. congratulor, congrattUatus — coii, in- 
tensive, and gratulor — gratus, pleasing.] 

CONGRATULATION, kon-grat-u-la'shun, 
ru expression of sympathy or joy on ac- 
count of good fortune. — adj. Congbat'i^ 


CONGREDIENT, kon-gre'di-ent, n. a com- 
ponent part : an element which, along 
with others, forms a compound. Sterne, 

CONGREGATE, kong'gre-gat, v.t. to gather 
together : to assemble. — v.i. to flock to- 
gether. PL congrego — con^ together, and 
grex, gregis, a flock.] 

CONGREGATION, kong-gre-ga'shun, n. an 

CONGREGATIONAL, kong-gre-ga'shun-al, 
adj. pertaining to a congregation. 

CONGREGATIONALISM, kong - gre - ga'- 
shun-al-izm, n. a form of church govern- 
ment in which each congregation is inde- 
pendent in the management of its own 
af^irs : also called Independency. 

shun-al-ist, tu an adherent of CongregO' 

CONGRESS, kong'gres, n. a meeting to- 
gether or assembly, as of ambassadors, 
etc., for political purposes : the federal 
legislature of the United States. — adj. 
CoNGRESS'lONAL. [L. con, together, and 
gradior, gressus, to step, to go.] 

CONGRUENCE, kong'groS^ns, CONGRU- 
ENCJY, kong-groo'en-si, n., agreement: 


CONGRUENT, kong'grSo-ent, adj., agree- 

ing: suitable. [L. congruo, to run or 

meet together, to agree.] 
CONGRUITY, kong-gr56'i-tl, n. agreement 

between things : consistency. 
CONGRUOUS, kong'groo-us, adj. suitable : 

fit : consistent. — adv. Cong'RUOUSLY. — n, 

CONIC, kon'ik, CONICAL, kon'ik-al, acfj. 

having the form of or pertaining to a 

cone. — adv. Con'ically. 
CONICS, kon'iks, n. the part of geometry 

w hich treats of the cone and its sections. 
CONIFEROUS, kon-ifer-us, adj., cone- 
bearing, as the fir, etc. [Cone, and L. 

fero, to carry.] 
CONIFORM, kon'I-form, adj. in the form 

of a cone. 
CONJECTURE, kon-jekt'ur, n. an opinion 

formed on slight or defective evidence : 

an opinion without proof : a guess : an 

Idea. — adj. CONJECrr'xjiiAii. — adv. Coir- 
jbct'ukally. [L. conjicio, conjectum, to 
throw together — con, together, jacio, to 
thro w.] 

CONJECTURE, kon-jekf iir, v.t. to make 
conjectturea regarding : to infer on slight 
e\idence : to guess. 

CONJOIN, kon-joln', v.t. to join together. 
[Fi. conjoindre — L. con, together, and 
jungo, junctus, to join. See Join.] 

CONJOINT, kon-joint', adj. joined to- 
gether : united.— adu. Conjoint'ly. 

CONJUGAL, kon'joo-gal, adj. pertaining 
to the marriage-tie or to marriage. — adv. 
Con'jugally. — n. Conjugal'ity. [L. 
conjugalis — conjiuc, one united to an- 
other, a husband or Mnfe — con, and jugumf 
a yoke.] 

CONJUGATE, kon'joo-gat, v.t. (gram.) to 
give the various inflections or parts of a 
verb. — n. a word agreeing in derivation 
with another word. [L. conjugo — con, 
together, and jugum, that which joins, a 

CONJUGATION, kon-joo-ga'shun, n. a 
joining together: the inflection of the^ 
verb : a class of verbs inflected, in the 
same manner. 

CONJUNCTION, kon-junk'shun, n., conr 
nection, union : (gram.) a word that con- 
nects sentences, clauses, and words. [I^ 
co njun c tio — c on, aadjungo.] 

CONJUNCTIVE, kon-junk'tiv, adj. closely 
united : serving to unite : (gram.) intro- 
duced by a conjunction.— adr. Conjunc'- 
nv w.T.v . 

OONJUCTURE, kon-junk'tur, n. combinar 
tion of circumstances : important occar 
sion, crisis. 

CONJURATION, kon-joo-ra'shun, n. act 
of summoning by a sacred name or sol- 
emnly : enchantment. 

CONJURE, kon-joor', v.t. to call oa o» 
summon by a sacred name or in a solemn 
manner: to Implore earnestly. — n. CON- 
jub'er. [Orig. v.i. to unite under oath, 
Fr. — L. con, together, and juro, to 
sw ear.] 

CONJURE, kun'jer, v.t. to compel (a spirit) 
by incantations : to enchant : to raiaa 
up or frame needlessly. — v.i. to practice, 
magical arts '.—jpr.p. conjuring (kun'jer- 
ing) ; pa.p. conjured (kun'jerd). [Same 
word as the preceding.] 

CONJURER, kun'jer-er, n. one who prac- 
tices magic : an enchanter. 

CONJUROR, kon-joor'or, n. one bound bjf 
oath with others. 

OONJURY, kon'ju-ri, n. the acts or art of 
a conjurer : magic : legerdemain. Mot- 

CONNATE, kon'at or kon-at', adj., horn 
with one's self. [L. con, with, and was- 
cor, natns, to be born.] 

CONNATURAL, kon-at*u-ral, adj. of the 
same nature with another. 

CONNECT, kon-ekf , v.t. to tie or fasten 
together : to establish a relation between. 
JTi. con, together, and necto, to tie.] 



CONNECTEDLY, kon-ekf ed-li, adv. in a 
connected manner. 

CONNECTION, kon-ek'shun, n. act of con- 
necting : that which connects : a body or 
society held together by a bond : coher- 
ence : intercourse. 

CONNECTIVE, kon-ekt'iv, adj. binding 
together. — n. a word that connects sen- 
tences or words. — adv. Connect'ively. 

CONNEXION, kon-ek'shun, n. same as 

CONNIVANCE, kou-iv'ans, n. voluntary 
oversight of a fault. 

CONNIVE, kon-iv', v.i. to vnnle at a faults 
to fail by intention to see a fault. [Fr.— j 
L. conniveo, to wink.] 

CONNOISSEUR, kon-is-sar', n. one whO 
knows well about a subject : a critical 
judge. [Fr., from connoitre — It. cog- 
nosco, to know — co, intensive, and nosco, 
old form gnosco, to acquire knowledge.] 

CONNOISSEURSHIP, kon-is-ar'ship, n. the 
skill of a connoisseur. 

CONNOTE, kon-ot', v.t. to note or Imply 
along tinth an object something inher- 
ent therein: to include. — n. Connota' 
•novi.—adj. Connot'ative. [L. con, with, 
and Note.] 

CONNUBIAL, kon-u'bi-al, adj. pertaining 
to marriage or to the married state : nup- 
tial. [L. con, and nubo, to marry. 

CONOID, kon'oid, n. anything like a cone 
inform. — ad/s.CoN'om, Conoid' al. [Gr. 
konos, eidos, form.] 

CONQUER, kong'ker, v.t. to gain by force : 
to overcome or vanquish. — v.i. to be 
victor. [Fr. congu4rir — L. conquiro, to 
seek after earnestly — con, intensive, and 
qucero, to seek.] 

CONQUERABLE, kong'ker-a-bl, adj. that 
may be conquered. 

CONQUEROR, kong'ker-or, n. one who 

CONQUEST, kong'kwest, n. the act of 
conquering : that which is conquered or 
acquired by physical or moral force. ^O. 
Fr. conqueste, Fr. conquete — L. conquiro, 

CONSANGUI^JEOUS, kon-sang-gwin'e-us, 
adj. related by blood : of the same family 
or descent. [L. eonsanguineus — con, with, 
and sanguis, blood.] 

CONSANGUINITY, kon-sang-gwin'i-ti, n. 
relationship by blood : opposed to affinity 
or relationship by marriage. 

CONSCIENCE, kon'shens, n. the knowl- 
edge of our own acts and feelings as right 
or wrong : sense of duty : the faculty or 
principle by which we distinguish right 
from wrong. [L. conscientia, from con- 
scio, to know with one's self — con, with, 
and scio, to know.] 

CONSCIENTIOUS, kon-shi-en'shus, adj. 
regulated by a regard to conscience : 
faithful : just. — adv. Conscien'tiously. 
—n. Conscien'tiousness. 

CONSCIONABLE, kon'shun-a-bl, adj. gov- 
erned or regulated by conscience. — adv. 

CONSCIOUS, kon'shus, a^'. having the 
feeling or knowledge : aware. — adv. CoN*- 


CONSCIOUSNESS, kon'shus-nes, n. the 
knowledge which the mind has of its 
own acts and feelings. 

CONSCRIPT, kon'skript, adj., written down, 
enrolled, registered. — n. one whose name 
has been enrolled and who is liable to 
serve as a soldier or sailor. [L. con- 
scribo, conscriptum, to write together in 
a list, to enlist.] 

CONSCRIPTION, kon-skrip'shun, n. an 
enrolment of individuals held liable for 
naval or military service. — adj. CoN- 


CONSECRATE, kon'se-krat, v.t. to set 
apart for a holy use : to render holy or 
venerable. — n. Con'secrater or Con'- 
Secrator. [L. consecro, to make wholly 
sacred — cow, 'and sacro, to set apart as 
sacred — sacer, sacred.] 

CONSECRATION, kon-se-kra'shun, n. the 
act of devoting to a sacred use. 

consecution; kon-se-ku'shun, n. a train 
of consequences or deductions : a series 
of things that follow one another. 

consecutive, kon-sek'u-tiv, adj., fol- 
lowing in regular order : succeeding. — 
adv. Consec'utively. — n. Consec'utive- 
NESS. [Fr. consecutif — L. con, and sequor, 
secutus, to follow.] 

CONSENSUS, kon-sen'sus, n. unanimity: 

CONSENT, kon-sent', v.i. to feel or think 
along with another : to be of the same 
mind : to agree : to give assent : to yield. 
— n. agreement : accordance with the 
actions or opinions of another : concur- 
rence. [L. consentio, to agree — con, with, 
and sentio, to feel, to think.] 

CONSENTANEOUS, kon-sen-ta'ne-us, adj., 
agreeable or accordant to : consistent 
with. — adv. Consenta'neously. — ns. 
Consenta'neotjsness, Consentane'ity. 

CONSENTIENT, kon-sen'shi-ent, adj., 
agreeing in mind or in opinion. 

CONSEQUENCE, kon'se-kwens, n. that 
which follows or comes after : effect : in- 
• fluence : importance. [L, conseguentia 
— con, with, and sequor, to followT] 

CONSEQUENT, kon'se-kwent, adj., follow- 
ing as a natural effect or deduction. — n. 
that which follows : the natural effect of 
a cause. — Consequent Points, in mag- 
netism, intermediate poles, caused wh^i 
either from some peculiarity in the 
structure of a bar, or from some irregu- 
larity in the magnetizing process, a re- 
versal of the direction of magnetization 
occurs in some part or parts of the 
length, whereby the magnet will have 
not only a pole at each end, but also a 
pole at each point where the reversal 
occurs. — adv. Con'sequently. 

CONSEQUENTIAL, kon-se-kwen'shal, n. 
an inference: a deduction: a conclusion. 
" Observations out of the Lord Claren- 
don's History, and some consequentials." 



CONSEQUENTIAL, kon-se-kwen'shal, adj. 
following as a result : pretendiDg to im- 
portance: pompous.— «u2v. Gobbeqvkn'- 


CX)NSERVANT, k<m-serv'ant, adj. having 
the power of conaerving. 

CONSERVATION, kon-ser-va'shun, n. the 
act of conserving : the keeping entire. 

CONSEEVATISSI, kon-seiVa-tizm, n. the 
opinions and principles of a Conserva- 
tive : avers k>n t o change. 

CONSERVATIVE, koo-serVa-tiv, adj, 
tending, or having power to conserve. 
— ». (politics) one who desires to pre- 
serve the institutions of his country until 
they can be changed with certainty for 
the better : one averse to change. 

CONSERVATOR, kon'ser-va-tor or kon- 
ser-va'tor, n. one who presenxs from 
iniu^ or violation. 

CONSERVATORY, konnserv'a-tor-i, n. a 
place in which things are put for pres- 
ervation : a greenhouse or place in which 
exotic plants are kept. 

CONSERVE, kon-serv', v.t. to keep entire: 
to retain : to preserve : to preserve in 
sugar: to pickle. — «. Conserv'ee. [L. 
eon, together, and servo, to keep.] 

CONSERVE, kon'serv, n. something pre- 
served, as fruits in sugar. — adj. Conserv'- 


CONSIDER, kon-sid'er, v.t. to look at 
closely or carefully : to think or delib- 
erate on : to take into account : to at- 
tend to : to reward- — v.i. to think seri- 
ously or carefully : to deliberate. [Fr. — 
L. considero, prob. a word borrowed froax 
augury, meaning to mark out the bound- 
aries of a templum (see Contemplatb) by 
the stars — sidus, sideris, a star.] 

CONSIDERABLE, kon-sid'er-a-bl, adj 
worthy of being considered : important : 
more than a little. — adv. Consid'erably. 
— n. Consh/erableness. 

CONSIDERATE, kon-sid'er-at, ad/, 
thoughtful : serious : prudent. — a(w. 


CONSIDERATION, kon-sid-er-a'shun, n. 
deliberation : importance : motive or 
reason : compensation : the reason or 
basis of a compact. 

CONSIGN, kon-sin', v.t. to give to another 
formally or under sign or seal : to trans- 
fer: to intrust. — n. Consign^eb. [Fr. 
consigner — L. consigno — con, with, and 
signum, a sign or seal. See Sign.] 

CONSIGNEE, kon-si-ne', n. one to whom 
anything is consigned or intrusted. [Fr. 
consign^, pa. p. oi consigner, to consiffn.1 

CONSIGNMENT, kon-sln'ment. n. act of 
consigning • the thing consigned : th^ 
writing by which anything is made over. 

CONSIST, kon-sist', v.i. to be composed: 
to co-exist, i.e. to agree. [Fr. — L. con- 
sisto — con, sig. completeness, and sisto — 
sto, to standj 

CONSISTENCE, kon-sist'ens, CONSIST- 
ENCY, kon-sist'en-si, n. a degree of dens- 
ity : substance : agreement. 

CONSISTENT, kon-sisf ent, adj. fixed : not 
fluid : agreeing together : uniform. — adv. 
Consist' ENTLY 

CONSISTORY, kon-sist'or-i, n. an assembly 
or council : a spiritual or ecclesiastical 
court. — adi. Consisto'rial. 

CONSOCIATION, kon-so-shi-a'shun, tk, 
companionship with : association : alli- 
ance. [L. consociatio — con, with, socius, 
a companion.] 

CONSOLABLE, kon-s6l'a-bl, adj. that may 
be comforted. 

CONSOLATION, kon-sol-a'shun, n., solace: 
alleviation of misery. — adj. (^nsola.- 
TOBY, kon-sol'a-tor-L 

CONSOLE, kon-sol', v.t. to give solace or 
comfort: to cheer in distress. — n. Cop- 
SOL ER. [L. con, intensive, and solor, to 
comfort. See Solacb.] 

CONSOLIDATE, kon-sol'i-dat, v.t. to make 
solid : to form into a compact mass : to 
unite into one. — v.i. to grow solid or firm : 
to unite. [L. consolido, eonsolidatus — 
con, intensive, and solidus, solid.] 

CONSOLIDATION, kon-sol-i-da'shun, n. 
act of making or of becoming solid. 

CONSOLS, kon'solz, (short for CON- 
SOLIDATED Annuities) that part of the 
British national debt which consists of 
the 3 per cent annuities consolidated 
into one fund. 

CONSONANCE, kon'son-ans, n. a state ot 
agreement : agreement or unison of 

CONSONANT, kon'son-ant, adj consist- 
ent : suitable. — n. an articulation which 
can be sounded only with a vowel : a let- 
ter representing such a sound.— ad;. 
Consonant' AL. — adv. Con'sonantly. 
[L. consonans, pr.p. of consono, to sound 
with, to harmonize — con, with, and sono, 
to sound.] 

CONSORT, kon'sort, n. one that shares the 
same lot with another : a partner : a 
companion : a wife or husband : an ac- 
companying ship. [L consors, from 
con, with, and sors, sortis, a lot.] 

CONSORT, kon-sort', v.i. to associate or 
keep company. 

CONSPICUOUS, kon-spik'u-us, adj, elear^ 
ly seen : visible to the eye or mind ; 
prominent. — adv. Conspic'uously. — n. 
CONSPKyuouSNESS. [L. conspicuus — <X)n- 
spicio — con, intensive, and spedo, to 

CONSPIRACY, kon-spir'a-si, n. a banding 
together for an evil purpose : a plot : 

CONSPIRATOR, kon-spir'a-tor, n. a plotter 
(along with others). 

CONSPIRE, kon-spir', v.i. to plot or scheme 
together : to agree : to concur to one end. 
[L. eonspiro — con, together, and spiro, to 

CONSTABLE, kun'sta^bl, n. formerly a 
state-officer of the highest rank : a peace- 
officer : a policeman. — n. Con'STABLESHIP. 
[O. Fr. conestable, Fr. connetable, L, comet 
stdbuli, count of the staindum, stable.] 



CONSTABULARY, kon-stab'u-lar-i, adj. 
pertaining to constables or peace-officerg. 
— n. the body of constables. 

CONSTANCY, kon'stan-si, n. fixedness, un- 

CONSTANT, kon'stant, adj. fixed, un- 
changeable : continual : faithful. — n. that 
which remains unchanged. [L. eonstans, 
from eonsto, to stand firm — eon, inten- 
sive, sto, to stand.] 

CONSTANTLY, kon'stant-U, adv. firmly: 

CONSTATE, kon'stat, t?.*. to verify: to 
prove : to establish. (Recent and rare.) 
[Fr. eonstater, to verify ; L. constcere, 
constatum, to be established or evident 
—con, together, and stare, to stand.] 

CONSTELLATION, kon-stel-a-shun, n. a 
givup of stars : an assemblage of beauties 
or excellencies : (astral.) a particular dis- 
position of the planets. [L. constellatio 
— con, together, stella, a star.] 

CONSTERNATION, kon-ster-na'shun, n. 
terror which throws into confusion : as- 
tonishment : horror. [L. connstematio — 
eonstemo, consiematua, from eon, sig. 
completeness, and stemo, to strew, to 
throw down ] 

CONSTIPATE, kon'stip-at, v.t. to press 
doady together : to stop up : to make 
costive. [L. eon, together, and stipo, 
stijoatus, to pack.} 

CONSTIPATION, kon-stip-a'shun, n. cos- 

CONSTITUENCY, kon-stit'u-en-si, n. the 
whole body of voters for a member of 

CONSTITUENT, kon-stit'u-ent, adj., con- 
stituting or forming : essential : elemen- 
tal. — n. an essential or elemental part : 
one of those who elect a representative, 
esp. in Congress. 

CONSTITUTE, kon'stit-ut, v.t. to set up : 
to establish : to form or compose : to ap- 
point. [L eonstituo, eonst%tutus, from 
con, together, and statuo, to make to 
stand, to place — sto, to stand.] 

CONSTITUTION, kon-stit-u'shun, n. the 
natural condition of bod,7 or mind : a 
system of laws and customs : the estab- 
lished form of government : in U. S. the 
highest, fundamental law. 

CONSTITUTIONAL, kon- stit -u'shun - al, 
adj. inherent in the natural frame : nat- 
ural : agreeable to the constitution or 
frame of government ; legal : a Consti- 
tutional GrOVERNMENT is one where the 
ruler is subject to fixed laws. See Abso- 
lute. — n. a walk for the sake of one's 
health. — adv. Constitu'tionally. 

CONSTITUTIONALIST, kon-stit-u'shun- 
al-ist, CONSTITUTIONIST, kon-sti-tu'- 
shun-ist, n. one who favors a constitu- 
tional government. 

CONSTITUTIVE, kon'stit-ut-iv, adj., that 
constitutes or establishes : having power 
to pn3jf*ij ptf 

CONSTRAIN, icon-stran', v.t. to urge with 
irresistible power: to force. — adj. CoN- 

STRAiNABLE, kon-strSn'a-bl. — adv. Con- 
strainedly, kon-stran'ed-li. [O. Fr. 
constraindre — ^L. constringo, constrictv^ 
— eon, together, stringo, to press. See 

CONSTRAINT, kon-strant', n. irresistible 
force : compulsion : confinement. 

CONSTRICT, kon-strikt', v.t. to bind or 
press together : to contract : to cramp. 

CONSTRICTION, koa-strik'shun, n. apress- 
ing together. 

CONSTRICTOR, kon-strikt'or,n. that which 
draros together : a serpent which crushes 
its prey in its folds. 

CONSTRINGE, kon-strini', v.t. to draw to- 
gether : to contract. [L. constringo.y 

CONSTRINGENT, kon-strinj'ent, adj. hav- 
ing the quality of contracting. 

CONSTRUCT, kon-strukt', v.t. to build up : 
to compile : to put together the parts of 
a thing : to make : to compose. [L. 
construo, constructus, to pUe together.] 

CONSTRUCTION, kon-struk'shun, n. any- 
thing piled together, building : manner 
of forming : (flfrawt-i the arrangement of 
words in a sentence : interpretation ; 
mean in g. 

CONSTRtrCl'lVE, kon-strukf iv, adj. not 
direct or expressed, but inferred. — adv. 


CONSTRUCTIVENESS, kon-strukt'iv-nes, 
71. the faculty of constructing. 

CONSTRUE, kon'stroo, v.t. to set in order: 
to exhibit the order or arrangement in 
another language : to translate : to ex- 
plain. [L. consFrwo, constriictus, to pile 

CONSUBSTANTIAL, kon - sub - stan'shal, 
adj. of the same substance, nature, or es- 
sence. — n. Consubstantial'ity. [L. coUf 
with, and Substantial.] 

CONSUBST ANTI ALIST, kon - sub - stan'- 
shal-ist, n. one who believes in consiib- 

CONSUBSTANTIATE, kon-sub-stan'shi-at, 
v.t. to unite in one common substance or 

CONSUBSTANTIATION, kon-sub-stan-shi- 
a'shun, n. state of being of the same st^ 
stance : (theol.) the Lutheran doctrine of 
the actual, substantial presence of the 
body and blood of Christ unth the bread 
and wine used at the^Lord's Supper. [See 
Tr ansttbstantiation' ] 

CONSUETUDE, kon'swe-tud, n. custom.— 
adj. Con'suetudinary, also n. a ritual of 
customary devotions. [L. eonsuetudo, 

CONSUL, "kon'sul, n. amon^ the Romans, 
one of the two chief magistrates of the 
state ; one commissioned to reside in a 
foreign country as an agent for, or repre- 
sentative of, a government. [L.] 

CONSULAR, kon'sul-ar, adj. pertaming to 
a consul. 

CONSULATE, kon'sul-at, n. the office, 
residence, or jurisdiction of a consul. 

CONSULSHIP, kon'sul-ship, n. the office, 
or term of office, of a consuL 



CONSULT, kon-sult', v.t to ask advice of: 
to apply to for instruction : to decide or 
act in favor of. — v.i. to consider in com- 
pany : to take counsel. QL. consulto, 
inten. of constUo, to consult. J 

CONSULTATION, kon-sult-a'shun, n. the 
act of consulting : a meeting for the pur- 
pose of consulting. 

CONSUMABLE, kon-sum'arbl, adj. that 
can be consumed. 

CONSUME, kon-sum', v.t. to destroy by 
wasting, fire, etc. : to devour : to waste 
or spend : to exhaust. — v.i. to waste 
away. — n. Consum'er. [L. consumo, to 
destroy — con, sig. completeness, and 
sumo, sumptus, to take.] 

CONSUMIVIATE, kon-sum'at or kon'-, v.t. 
to raise to the summit or highest point : 
to perfect or finish. [L. consummo, to 
perfect — con, with, and summus, highest, 

CONSUMMATE, kon-sum'at, ad/, in the 
highest degree : perfect. — adv. Consuaqi'- 


CONSUMMATION, kon-sum-a'shun, n. act 
of completing : perfection : close. 

CONSUMPTION, kon-sum'shun, n. the 
. jt of using up : a disease in the lungs, 
which gradually ivastes away the frame 
=PHTrasis. [See Consume.] 

CONSUMPTIVE, kon-sum'tiv, a4). having 
the quality of wasting away: inchned to 
the disease consumption. — adv. CON- 
sump'tive ly. 

CONSUMPTIVENESS, kon-sum'tiv-nes, n. 
a tendency to consumption. 

CONTABESCENCE, kon-tab-es'sens, n. in 
bot. a peculiar condition of the anthers 
of certain plants, in which they are 
shrivelled up or become brown and 
tough, and contain no good pollen, thus 
resembling the anthers of the most 
sterile hybrids. Darwin. 

CONTACT, kon'takt, n. a dose touching : 
close union : meeting. [L. contingo, 
contactum, to touch — con, sig. complete- 
ness, and tango, to touch — ^root tag-] 

CONTAGION, kon-ta'jun, n. transmission 
of a disease by contact. 

CONTAGIOUS, kon-ta'jus, adj. that may 
be communicated by contact.— adv. CON- 
ta'giously. — n. Conta'giousness. 

CONTAGIUM, kon-ta'ji-um, n. in med. 
that which carries the infectious element 
in diseases from one person to another. 
" Supposing the contagium of every com- 
municable disease to consist of minute 
organized particles susceptible of under- 
going almost unlimited multiplication 
when introduced into a suitable medium, 
etc." — Academy. [See Contagion.] 

CONTAIN, kon-tan', v.t. to hold together: 
to comprise, to include : to restrain. — 
adj. Contain' ABLE,that maybe contained. 
[Fr. contenir — L. contineo — con, together, 
and teneo, to hold.] 

CONTAMINATE, kon-tam'i-nat, v.t. to de- 
file by touching or mixing with : to pol- 
lute : to corrupt : to infect. [L. con- 

tamino — contamen — contagmen. See 

CONTAJVIINATION, kon-tam-i-na'shun, n. 

CONTEMN, kon-tem', v.t. to despise: to 
neglect. — n. Contem'neb. [L. contemno, 
contemptus, to value little — con, inten- 
sive, and temno, to slight.] 

CONTEMPLANT, kon-tem'plant,ady. given 
to contemplation : meditative. " Con- 
templant spirits." — Coleridge. 

CONTEMPLATE, kon-tem'plat, v.t. to con- 
sider or look at attentively : to meditate 
oji or study : to intend. — v.i. to think 
seriously : to meditate. [L. contemplor, 
contemplatus, to mark out carefully a 
templum or place for auguries — con, sig. 
completeness, and templum. See Con- 
sider and Temple.] 

CONTEMPLATION, kon-tem-pla'shun, n. 
continued study of a particular sulv 

CONTEMPLATIVE, kon-tem'pla-tiv, ady. 
given to contemplation. — adv. Contem'- 

CONTEMPORANEOUS, kon-tem-po-ra'ne- 
us, adj. living, happening, or being at the 
same time. — adv. Contempora'neously. 
— n. Contempoba'neousness. [L. con, to- 
gether, and temporaneus — teinpus, time.] 

CONTEMPORARY, kon-tem'po-rar-i, adf. 
contemporaneous. — n. one who lives at 
the same time. 

CONTEMPT, kon-tempt', n. scorn: dis- 
grace : Qaw) disobedience of the rules 
of a court. [See Contemn.] 

CONTEMPTIBLE, kon-tempt'i-bl, adj. des- 
picable. — adv. Contempt'ibly. — n. Con- 

CONTEMPTUOUS, kon-tempt'u-us, adj., 
full of contempt : haughty : scornful. — 
adv. Contempt'uously. — n. Contempt'- 


CONTEND, kon-tend', v.i. to strive: to 
struggle in emulation or in opposition : 
to dispute or debate. [L. contendo, con- 
tentum — con, and tendo, to stretch, 

CONTENT, kon'tent or kon-tent', n. that 
which is contained : the capacity, meas- 
tirement, or extent of anything : — pi. 
the things contained : the list of subjects 
treated of in a book. [See Contain.] 

CONTENT, kon-tent', adj. having the 
desires limited by present enjoyment : 
satisfied. — v.t. to make content : to satisfy 
the mind : to make quiet : to please. 

CONTENTED, kon-tent'ed, adj., content.— 
adv. Content'edly. — w^.Content'edness, 
Content' MENT, 

CONTENTION, kou-ten'shun. ». a violent 
straining after any object : strife : debate. 
[See Contend.] 

CONTENTIOUS, kon-ten'shus, adj. quarrel- 
some. — adv. Conten'tiously. — n. Con- 

CONTERMINAL,kon-ter'min-al, CONTER- 
MINOUS, kon-ter'min-us, adj. having a 
common terminus or boundary, [L. con- 



Urminus, neighboring — c<m, tc^ether, 

, and terminus, a boundary.] 

OONTEEMINANT, kon-ter'min-ant, ac^'. 
coming to an end at the same time : con- 
terminate. Lamb. 

CONTEST, kon-test', v.t. to call in question 
or make the subject of dispute : to strive 
for. — adj\ Contest' ABLE. [L. conteator, 
to call to witness — con, and tester, to be 
a witness — testis, a witness.] 

CONTEST, kon'test, n. a struggle for su- 
periority : strife : debate. 

CONTEXT, kon'tekst, n. something woven 
together or connected : the parts of a 
discourse or treatise which precede and 
follow a special passage. [L. contexo — 
con, together, texo, textus, to weave.] 

CONTEXTURE, kon-tekst'ur, n. the mter- 
weaving of parts into a whole : system. 

CONTICENT, kon'ti-sent, adj. silent: 
hushed : quiet : said of a number of per- 
sona or the like. " The servants have 
left the room, the guests sit conticent."-^ 
Thackeray. [L.. conticens, conticentis^ 
ppr. of conticeo — con, together, and taceo^ 
to be silent.] 

CONTIGUITY, kon-tig-u'i-ti, n. the state 
of being in close contact. 

CONTIGIJOUS, kon-tig'u-us,ad/., touching: 
adjoining : near. — adv. Contig'uousl.y.— 
n. Contig'uousness- [L. contiguus, from 
contingo, contigi, to touch on all sides — ■ 
con, signifying completeness, tango, to 

CY, kon'ti-nen-si, n. the restraint im- 
posed by a person upon his desires and 
passions : chastity. [See Continent, adj.] 

CONTINENT, kon'ti-nent, n. a large extent 
of land not broken up by seas : the main- 
land of Europe : one of the great di- 
visions of the land surface of the globe. — 
adj. Continent' AL. FL. continens =■ con- 
tinuus, holding together, uninterrupted.]! 

CONTINENT, kon'ti-nent, adj., holding in 
or restraining the indulgence of pleasure, 
especially of sexual enjoyment : temper- 
ate : virtuous. — adv. Con'tinently. [L. 
continens, moderate — contineo — con, to- 
firether. and teneo, to hold.] 

CONTINENTALISM, kon-ti-nen'-tal-iz'm 
n. a procedure, opinion, custom, etc., com- 
mon to Continental Europe. 

CONTINGENCE, kon-tin'jens, CONTIN- 
GENCY, kon-tin'jen-si, n. the quality of 
being contingent: what happens by 
chance : an accident. 

CONTINGENT, kon-tin'jent, adj. depend- 
ent on something else : liable but not 
certain to happen : accidental. — n. an 
event which is liable but not certain to 
occur : a share or proportion, especially 
of soldiers. — adv. Contin'gently. [L. 
contingo, to touch, to happen.] 
CONTINUAL, kon-tu-'u-al, adj. without 
interruption : unceasing. — adv. Contxn'- 
UALLY. [See Continue.] 
CONTINUANCE, kon-tin'u-ans, n. durac 
tion ; uninterrupted succession : stay. 

ODNTrNTJATION, kon-tin'i>«'shun. w. con- 
stant succ ession : extension. 
OONTINUATi VE, kou-tin'u-a-tiv, adj., 

OONTINUATOR, kon-tin'ii-artor, n. one 
who continues or keeps up a series or 

CONTINUE, kon-tin'u, v.t. to draw out or 
prolong : to extend or increase in any 
way : to unite without break : to persist 
in. — v.i. to remain in the same place or 
state : to last or endure : to persevere. 
[Fr. continuer — L. continuus, joined, con- 
nected, from contineo — con, together, 
and teneo, to hold.] 

CONTINUED, kon-tin'Qd, adj. uninter- 
rupted : unceasing : extended. — adv. 

CONTINUITY, kon-tin-u'i-ti, n. state of 
being continuous : uninterrupted con- 

CONTINUOUS, kon-tin'Q-us, a«^*., joined 
together : without interruption. — adv. 

CONTLINE, kont'lln, n. the space between 
the strands on the outside of a rope. 
E. H. Knight. 

CONTO, kon'to, ru a Portuguese money of 
account in which large sums are calct>- 
lated ; value 1,000,000 reis, or $1,100 gold 

CONTORT, kon-tort', v.t. to twist or turn 
violently : to writhe. [L. con, intensive, 
and torgueo, tortus, to twist.] 

CONTORTION, kon-tor'shun, n. a violent 

CONTOUR, kon-toor', w. the outline : the 
line whkh bounds the figure of any ob- 
ject. [Ft. contour, from coti, and tour, 
a turning — L. tomus, Gr. tomos, a turn- ■ 

CONTRABAND, kon'tra-band, ac^., 
against or contrary to ban or law : pro- 
hibited. — n. illegal traffic: prohibition: 
prohibited goods. — n. Con'trabandist, a 
smuggler. Tit. contrdbbando — L. contra, 
against, and Low L. bandum, a procla- 
mation. See Ban.J 

CONTRABASS, kon-tra-bas', n. (mus.) a 
stringed instrument of the violin family 
oi the lowest key. 

CONTRACT, kon-trakt', v.t. to draw to- 
gether: to lessen: to shorten: to acquire: 
to incur : to bargain for : to betroth. — 
v.i. to shrink : to become less. [L. con- 
traho, contractus, from con, together, 
and traho, to draw.] 

CONTRACT, kon'trakt, n. an agreement 
on fixed terms : a bond : a betrothment : 
the writing containing an agreement. 
[O. Fr. contract, an agreement— L. con- 
tractus, a compact.] 

CONTRACTED, kon-trakt'ed, adj., dravm 
together : narrow : mean. — adv. QoSr 
tract'edly. — n. Contract'edness. 

CONTRACTIBLE, kon-trakt'i-bl, adj. capa- 
ble of being contracted.— »s. ContraCTI- 
bil'ity, Contraot'ibleness. 

CONTRACTILE, kon-trakt'il, adj. tending 



or having power to contract. — n. CDN- 

CONTRACTION, kon-trak'shun, n. act of 
contracting : a word shortened by reject- 
ing a part of it. 

CONTRACTOR, kon-trakt'or, n. one of the 
parties to a bargain or agreement : one 
who engages to execute work or furnish 
supplies at a fixed rate. 

CONTRA-DANCE, kon'tra-dans (corruptly 
Countby-dance), n. a dance in which the 
partners are arranged in opposite lines. 
[Fr. contre-danse ; from L. contra, 
against, opposite, and Dance.] 

CONTRADICT, kon-tra-dikt', v.t. to speak 
in opposition to : to oppose by words : 
to assert the contrary : to deny. _ [L. 
contradico,contradictus — confra,again8t, 
a nd d ico, to speak.] 

CONTRADICTION, kon-tra-dik'shun, n. 
act of contradicting: a speaking against : 
denial : inconsistency. 

CONTRADICTIVE, kon-tra-dikt'iv, CON- 
TRADICTORY, kon-tra-dikt'or-i, adj. 
aflBrming the contrary : opposite : incon- 
sistent. — adv. Contradict'orily. 

CONTRADISTINCTION, kon-tra-dis-tink'- 
shun, n., distinction by contrast. 

CONTRADISTINCTIVE, kon-tra-dis-tinkt|- 
iv, adj., distinguishing by opposite quali- 

CONTRADISTINGinSH, kon-tra-dis-trng'- 

fwish, v.t. to distinguish or mark the 
iflerence by opposite qualities. [L. con^ 
tra, against, opposite, and Distinguish.] 

CONTRALTO, kon-tral'to, n. (music) counr 
ter-alto- same as alto or counter-tenor. 

CONTRARIETY, kon-tra-rl'e-ti, n. opposi- 
tion : inconsistency. 

CONTRARIWISE, kon'tra-ri-wlz, adv. on 
the contrary way or side : on the other 
h and . [Contrary and Ways. ] 

CONTRARY, kon'tra-ri, adj., opposite : in- 
consistent : contradictory. — n. a thing 
that is contrary or of opposite qualities. 
— n. Con'trabiness. — adv. Con'trarily. 
[L. contrarius — contra, against.] 

Contrast, kon-trast', stand against 
or in opposition to. — v.t. to set in opposi- 
tion, in order to show superiority or give 
effect. [Fr. contraster — L. contra, oppo- 
siteto, stare, to stand.] 

CONTRAST, kon'trast, n., opposition or 
unlikeness in things compared : exhibi- 
tion of differences. 

CONTRAVALLATION, kon - tra - val - a'- 
shun, n. a /orft^caf ion built by besiegers, 
which is thus opposed to that of the 
besieged. [L. conira, opposite to, and 
vallo, vallatus, to fortify — vallum, a 

CONTRAVENE, kon-tra-ven', v.t. to come 
against : to oppose : to hinder. [L. coti- 
tra, against, venio, to come.] 

CONTRAVENTION, kon-tra-ven'shun, n. 
act of contravening : opposition : obstruc- 

CONTRIUUTARY, kon-trib'u-tar-i, adj. 
paying' a share. 

CGNTRETEIVIPS, kon-tr-tang', n. something 
happening inopportunely or at the wrong 
time: anything embarrassing: a hitch. 
[Fr. — contre, against, and temps, time.] 

CONTRIBUTE, kon-trib'ut, v.t. to give 
along with others : to give for a common 
purpose : to pay a share. — v.i. to give or 
bear a part. — n. Contrib'utor. [L. con, 
along with, tribuo, tributus, to give.] 

CONTRIBUTION, kon-trib-u'shun, n. a 
collection : a levy. 

CONTRIBUTIVE, kon - trib'u - tiv, CON« 
TRIBUTORY, kon-trib'u-tor-i, adj. giv- 
ing a share : helping. 

CONTRITE, kon'trit, adj. broken-hearted 
for sin : penitent. — adv. Con'tritely. 
[L. contritus — contero — con, sig. com- 
pleteness, and tero, to bruise.] 

CONTRITION, kon-trish'un, n. deep sor- 
row for sin : remorse. 

CONTRIVANCE, kon-triv'ans,?i. act of con- 
triving : the thing contrived : invention : 

CONTRIVE, kon-trlv*, v.t. to jind out or 
plan : to invent. — n. Contriv'er. [Ft. 
controuver — con, and trouver, to find. 
See Trover.] 

CONTROL, kon-trol', n. (formerly COMP- 
TROLL), restraint : authority: com- 
mand. — v.t. to check : to restrain : to 
govern : — pr.p. controll'ing ; pa.p. con- 
trolled'. [Fr. ccmtrole, from contre-role, 
a duplicate register, for checking the 
original. See Roll.] 

CONTROLLABLE, kon-trol'a-bl, adj. capa- 
ble of, or subject to control. 

CONTROLLER, kon-trol'-er, n. an automat- 
ic or other kind of device for controlling 
electric current, or any mechanism nm 
by electric current, or the speed of a 

trol'er, n. one who controls or checks the 
accounts of others by keeping a counter- 
roll or register. — n. Controll'ership. 

CONTROLMENT, kon-trol'ment, n. act or 
power of controlling : state of being 
controlled : control. 

CONTROVERSIAL, kon-tro-ver'shal, adj. 
relating to controversy. — adv. Contro- 

CONTROVERSIALIST, kon-tro-ver'sbal- 
ist, n. one given to controversy. 

CONTROVERSY, kon'tro-ver-si, n. a dig. 
putation, discussion, or debate : contest 

CONTROVERT, kon'tro-vert, v.t. to op 
pose : to arg-ue against : to refute. [L 
contra, against, and verto, to turn.] 

CONTROVERTIBLE, kon-tro-vert'i-bl, adf 
that may be controverted. — adv. CON- 

« O N T U MAC lOUS, kon-tu-ma'shus, adj. 
opposing lawful authority with con- 
tempt : obstinate : stubborn. — adv. CoN- 
tuma'ciously. — n. Contuma'ciousness. 

CONTUMACITY, kon-tu-mas'i-ti, n. same 
as Contumacy. Carlyle. 

CONTUMACY, kon'tu-ma-si, n. obstinate 
disobedience or resistance : stubbornness; 



jXi. contumada — contumax, contumacie, 
insolent, from con, and root tern- in temno, 
to despise, or ace to Littre iromjumeo, 
t o swel l.] 
CONTUMELIOUS, kon-tfi-me'li-us, adj. 
haughtily reproachful: insolent. — adv. 
Contume'ijously. — n. Contume'uoos- 


CONTUMELY, kon'tu-mel-i, n. rudeness; 
insolence : reproach. [L. contumdia, 
which is from the same source as eoTi- 
tumacy. See Contumacy.] 

CONTUSE, kon-tuz', v.t. to beat exceed- 
ingly or bruise to pieces : to crush. [L. 
contundo, contvsus — con and tundo, to 
beat, to bruise.] 

CONTUSION, kon-tu'zhun, n. act of bruis- 
ing: st ate o f being bruised : a bruise. 

COOTUSIVE, kon-tu'ziv, adj. apt to cause 
contusion: bruising, "Shield f rom oo?i- 
tusive rocks her tender limbs." — Antijae- 

CONUNDRUM, kon-un'drum, n, a aart of 
riddle containing some odd or fanciful 
resemblance between things quite unlike. 
[Ety. unknown.] 

CONVALESCE, kon-val-es', v.i. to regain 
health. [L. con, and valeaeo — valeo, to be 

CONVALESCENCE, kon-val-es'ens, n. 
gradual recovery of health and sta^ngth. 

CONVALESCENT, kon-val-es'ent, adj. 
gradually recovering health. — n. one re- 
covering health, 

CONVECTION, kon-vek'shun, n. the i»oc- 
ess of transmisaon of heat or electriaty 
through liquids or gases by means of cur- 
rents. [L. convectio — con, and veho, I 

CONVENE, kon-ven', v.i. to come together: 
to assemble. — v.t. to call together. \¥r. 
— L. convenio, from co», together, and 
venio, to come.] 

CONVENER, kon-ven'er, n. one who con- 
venes a meetings : the chairman of a com- 

CONVENIENCE, kon-ven'yens, CONVEN- 
lENCY, kon-ven'yen-si, n. suitableness : 

CONVENIENT, kon-ven'yent, adj. suit- 
able : handy : commodious, — adv. CON- 
ven'iently. [L. conveniens, convenientis, 
orig. pr^. of convenio, to come together.] 

CONVENT, kon'vent, n. an association or 
persons secluded from the world and de- 
voted to a religious life : the house in 
which they live, a monastery or nunnery, 
[L, conventus — convenio, to come to- 

CONVENTICLE, kon-vent'i-kl, n. applied in 
contempt to a meeting for worship of 
dissenters from the Established Church 
in England. [L. conventiculum, a secret 
m eetin g of monks, dim. of conventus.'] 

CONVENTION, kon-ven'shim, n. an as- 
sembly, esp. of representatives for some 
special object : temporary treaty : an 
agreement. [Fr. — L. conventio. See 

CONVENTIONAL, kon-Ten'shun-al, adj. 
formed by convention : growing out of 
tacit agreement or custom : customary. 
— adv. Conyen'tionally. 

CONVENTIONALISM, kon - ven'shun - al - 
izm, n. that which is established by tacit 
agreement, as a mo de of speech, etc. 

n. state of being conventional : that 
which is established by use or custom. 

CONVENTUAL, kon-vent'u-al, adj. belong- 
ing to a convent. — n. a monk or nun. [L. 

CONVERGE, kon-verf , v.i. to tend to one 
point. [L. con, together, and vergo, to 
bend, to incline.] 

CONVERGENCE, kon-verj'ens, CONVER- 
GENCY, kon-verj'ens-i, n. act or quality 
of tending to one point. 

CONVERGENT, kon-verj'ent, o^/. tending 
to one point. 

CONVERSABLE, kon-vers'a-bl, adj. dis- 
posed to converse : sociable. — adv. CON- 
vers'ably. [See Converse.] 

CONVERSANT, kon'vers-ant, ac^'. ac- 
quainted by study : familiar : {B.) walk- 
ing or associating with. 

CONVERSATION, kon-ver-sa'shun, n. in- 
tercourse : talk : familiar discourse : (B.) 
behavior or deportment, — adj. CONVEE- 

CONVERSATIONALIST, kon-ver-^'shun- 
al-ist, n. one who excels in conversation. 

CONVERSAZIONE, kon-ver-sat-se-6'ne, n. 
a meeting for conversation, particularly 
on literary subjects z—pl. Conversazio'ni 
(-oe.) [It.] 

CONVERSE, kon-vers', v.i. to have inter- 
course: to talk familiarly. [Fr. — L. eon- 
versor, to live with — con, intensive, and 
verso, to turn much — x^irto, to turn.] 

CONVERSE, kon'vers, n. famihar inteiv 
course : conversation. 

CONVERSE, kon'vers, n. a proposition 
converted or turned about — Le. one in 
which the subject and predicate have 
changed places. — adj. reversed in order 
or relation. — adv. Con'veeskly. 

CONVERSION, kon-ver'shun, n, change 
from one thing, state, or religion, to an- 
other : change from a wicked to a holy 
life : appropriation to a special purpose : 
{logic) act of interchanging the terms of 
a proposition. 

CONVERT, kon- vert', v.t to turn round : 
to change or turn from one thing, con- 
dition, or religion to another : to change 
from a bad to a good life : to apply to a 
particular purpose. [L. converto, oon- 
versus — con, and verto, to turn.] 

CONVERT, kon' vert, n., one converted: 
one who has become reUgious, or who 
h as ch anged his religion, 

CONVERTER, kon-vert'er, n. an iron re- 
tort of a somewhat globular shape with 
a large neck, used in the Bessemer proc- 
ess of steel-making, molten iron being 
exposed in it to a blast of air, the oxygen 
of which b'ims out the carbon and some 



other ingredients of the iron ; the requis- 
ite amount of carbon being then intro- 
duced by the addition of molten spie- 
geleisen or other variety of iron rich in 
carbon, and the result being a variety of 
steel. The converter is supported on 
trunnions, so that it may swing freely. 
It has a lining consisting in most cases 
of finely ground hard sandstone mixed 
with fire-clay powder, and made into a 
paste with water. Also written CkJN- 


CONVERTER, kon-ver'-ter, n. used esp, in 
electrical engineering, meaning a trans- 

CONVERTIBLE, kon-vert'i-bl, adj. that 
may be converted : that may be changed 
one for the other. — adv. Convert'ibly. — 


CONVEX, kon'veks, adj. rising into a 
round form on the outside, the reverse of 
concave. — adv. Con'vexly. [L. convexus 
— conveho — con, together, and veho, to 

CONVEXED, kon-vekst', adj. made convex. 
— adi\ Convex'edly. 

CONVEXITY, kon-veks'i-ti, n. roundness 
of form on the outside. 

CONVEY, kon-va', v.t. (lit.) to bring or 
send on the way : to carry : to transmit : 
to impart.— «dj. Conveyable, kon-va'ac 
bl. — n. Convey'er. [O. Fr. conveier — 
Low L. conviare, to conduct — L. con, 
along with, and via, a way.] ' 

CONVEYANCE, kon-va'ans, n. the instru- 
ment or means of conveying : (law) the 
act of transferring property : the writ- 
ing which transfers it. 

CONVEYANCER, kon-va'ans-er, n. one 
whose business is the preparation of deeds 
for the transference of property. 

CONVEYANCING, kon-va'ans-ing, n. the 
business of a conveyancer. 

CONVICT, kon-vikt', v.t. to prove guilty; 
to pronounce guilty. [Irom root of 

CONVICT, kon'vikt, n. one convicted or 
found guilty of crime, esp. one who has 
been condemned to penal servitude. 

CONVICTION, kon-vik'shun, n. act of conr 
vindng or of convicting : strong belief : 
a proving guilty. 

CONVINCE, kon-vins', v.t. to subdue the 
mind by evidence : to satisfy as to truth 
or error : (B.) to convict : to refute. — 


[L. con, sig. completeness, and vinco, 
victus, to conquer.] 

CX)NVIVE, kon'viv, n. a boon companion. 
Fraser's Mag. [Fr. convive, L. conviva, 
a guest, a table companion.] 

CONVIVIAL, kon-viVi-al, adj. feasting in 
company : relating to a feast : social : 
jovial. — adv. Conyiv'ially. — n. CoN- 
vivial'ity. [L. convivium, a living to- 
gether, a feast — con, together, and vivo, 
to live.] 

CONVOCATION, kon-vo-ka'shun, n. act of 
convoking: an assembly. 

CONVOKE, kon-vSk*, v.t. to call together: 
to assemble. [L. con, together, and 
voco, vocatus, to call.] 

kon'vo-lut-ed, adj., rolled together, or 
one part on another. [See Convolve.] 

CONVOLUTION, kon-vo-lQ'shun, n. a 
twisting : a fold. 

CONVOLVE, kon-volv', v.t. to roll to- 
gether, or one part on another. [L. con, 
together, and volvo, volutus, to roll.] 

CONVOLVULUS, kon-vol'vu-lus, n. a 
genus of twining or trailing plants, 
called also bindweed. 

CONVOY, kon-voy', v.t. to accompany on 
the way for protection. [Fr. convoyer, 
from root of Convey.] 

CONVOY, kon'voy, n. the act of convoy- 
ing : protection : that which convoys or 
is con voyed. 

CONVULSE, kon-vuls', v.t. to agitate 
violently : to affect by spasms. [L. con, 
intensive, and vello, vulsus, to pluck, to 

CONVULSIBLE, kon-vuls'i-bl, a^'. capable 
of being convulsed : subject to convul- 
sion. Emerson. 

CONVULSION, kon-vul'shun, n. a violent 
and involuntary contortion of the mus- 
cles: commotion. 

CONVULSIVE, kon-vuls'iv, adj. attended 
with convulsions: spasmodic. — adv. CON- 


CONY, CONEY, ko'ni or kun'i, n. a rabbit. 
[Prob. orig. E. ; cf. Dut. konijn, Dan. 
Tcanin; or, through O. Fr. connil, from 
L. cuniculus, a rabbit.] 

COO, koo, v.i. to make a noise as a dove : 
to caress fondly :—pr.p. coo'ing ; pa.p, 
cooed'. [From the sound.] 

COOK, kook, v.t. to prepare food. — n. one 
whose business is to cook. [A.S. coc, 
a cook (Ger. koch), borrowed from L. 
coguo, to cook.] 

COOKERY, kook er-i, n. the art or practice 
of cooking ; also a delicacy : a dainty. 
" Cookeries were provided in order to 
tempt his palate." — Roger North. 

COOL, kool, adj. slightly cold: free from 
excitement : calm : not zealous or ar- 
dent : indifferent : impudent ; also used 
in speaking of a sum of money, generally 
a large sum, by way of emphasizing the 
amount. (Colloq.) " I would pit her for 
a cool hundred." — Smollett. "A cool four 
thousand ... I never discovered from 
whom Joe derived the conventional 
temperature of the four thousand 
pounds, but it appeared to make the 
sum of money more to him, and he had 
a manifest relish in insisting on its being 
cool." — Dickens. — v.t. to make cool : to 
allay or moderate, as heat, excitement, 
passion, etc. — ^To cool one's coppers, to 
allay the thirst or parched sensation 
caused by excessive drinking of intoxi- 
cating liquors. "Something to cool his 
coppers." — T. Hughes. (Slang.) — v.i. to 
grow cool. — n. CooL. — adv. Cool'ly. 



FA.S. col; Gter. kuhl; see Cold and 

COOLER, kool'er, n. anything that cools. 

COOLIE, kool'i, n. a laborer: in Hindustan, 
a porter in general: an Indian or Chinese 
laborer in other countries. [Hind. fciUt, 
a laborer.] 

COOLNESS, kool'nes, n. moderate cold : 
indifference : want of zeal. 

COOM, koona, n. matter that gathers at 
the naves of wheels : soot that gathers 
at the mouth of an oven : coaldust. 
{Conn, with Ger. kahm, mould gathered 
on liquids.] 

COOMB, koom, another form of Comb— 4 

COOP, koop, n. (lit.) anything hollow, as a 
cup — a tub, cask, or barrel : a box ch* 
cage for fowls or small animals. — v.t. to 
confine in a coop : to shut up or confine. 
[A.S. cypa, a basket ; akin to CuP.] 

GOOPEE, koop'er, n. one who makes eo(^s„ 
tubs, casks, etc 

COOPERAGE, k5op'er-aj, n. the work, or 
workshop of. a cooper : the sum paid for 
a cooper's work. 

CO-OPERANT, ko-op'er-ant, adj. workmg 

CO-OPERATE, ko-op'er-at, v.i. to work 
together. — n. Co-oferatoe. [L. co, to- 
gether, and Operate.] 

CO-OPERATION, ko-op-er-»'shun, n. joint 
operation : the association of a number 
of persons for the cheaper purchasing of 
goods, or for carrying on some branch of 
industry. — adj. Co-op^erative. 

CO-ORDINATE, ko-or'dinmt, adj. holding 
the same order or rank : not subordinate. 
— adv. Co-or'dinatelt. [L. co, together, 
equal, and Ordinate.] 

CO-ORDINATION, ko-or-di-na'shim, n. 
state of being co-ordinate. 

COOT, k66t, n. a shori-4aUed water-fowl. 
[Dut. koet ; W. cwtiar — cwt, a short tail. 
See Cut.] 

COPAL, ko'pal, n. a resinous substance 
used in varnishes. [Sp. — Mexitsin copalli, 
a, general name of resins.] 

COPARTNER, ko-part'oer, n. a, joint part- 
ner. — ns. Copart'nership, Copart'nery. 
{L. CO, together, aad Partner.] 

COPE, kop, n. a cotrering, a cap or hood : 
a cloak worn by a priest : anjrthing 
spread overhead : a coping. — v.t. to cover 
with a cope. [From root of Cap.] 

COPE, kop, v.i. to vie with, especially on 
equal terms or successfully : to match. 
fDut. koopen, cog. with A.S. ceapian, to 
barguin. See Cheap.] 

COPECK, ko'pek, h. a Russian copper coin 
equal to f of a cent. 

kop'ing-ston, n. the stone which copes 
or tops a wall. [CX)PE, a covering, and 

COPIER, kop'i-er, COPYIST, kop'i-ist, n. 
one who copies: an imitator: a plagiarist. 

COPING, kop'ing, n. the capping or cover- 
ing course of masonry of a wall. 

COPIOUS, ko'pi-«s, adj., plentiful: ovei> 
flowing : not concise. — adv. Co'ctously. 
— n. Co'PiousNESS. [O. Fr. copieux—lj. 
eop4o8us — copia, plenty — co, intensive, 
and ops, opis, power, property, wealth. 
See Opulent.] 

COPPER, kop'er, n. a metal of a reddi* 
color, named from the island of Cyprus : 
a vessel made of copper. — v.t. to cover 
with copper. [Low L. cuper — L. cuprum, 
a contr. of cwprifiim ces, •' Cyprian brass," 
because the Romans obtained copper in 

COPPERAS, kop'er-as, w. sulphate of iron 
or green vitriol. [Fr. ixmperose (It. cop- 
parosa) — L. cupri rosa, rose of copper.] 

COPPERISH, kop'er4sh, COPPERY, kop'- 
er-i, CUPREOUS, ku'pre-us, adj. contain- 
ing or like copper. 

COPPERPLATE, kop'er-plat, n. a plate of 
polished copper, on which something has 
been engraved : an impression taken 
fir<H]t the plate. 

COPPICE, kop'is, COPSE, kops, n. a wood 
of small growth for cutting. [O. Fr, 
oepeiz, wood newly cut — cowper, to oat 
— Low L. copare, to cut.] 

COPRESENCE, ko-prez'ens, n. the state or 
condition of being present along with 
others : associated presence. " The co. 
presence of other laws." — Emerson. 

COPTIC, kop'tik, adj. pertaining to ikts. 
Copts, the descendants of the ancient 

COPULA, kop'u-la, n. that which coupiesox 
joins together : a b<Mid or tie : (logic) thf 
word joining the subject and predicate. — . 
Copula (gram.) is omitted, with few exr 
ceptions, in modern improved text-bootss. 
[L. CO, tf^ether, and root ap, connected 
with L. aptus, fastened, and Gr. haptO, 
to jcrin.] 

COPULAR, kop'u-ler, adj. in logic, of or ret 
lating to a copula. 

COPULATE, kop'u-lat, v.t. wad v.i. to 
couple or join together : to cume together 

COPULATION, kop-u-la'shuB, n. act of 


COPULATIVE, kop'u-lilt-iv, adj., uniting, 
— M. (gram.) a conjunction that unites 
ideas as well as words. 

COPY, kop'i, n. one of a number, esp. of 
books : an imitation from an original 
pattern : that which is imitated : an 
original work : manuscript f <» printing, 
— v.t. to write, paint, etc., after an origi- 
nal : to imitate : to transcribe : — pa.p. 
cop'ied. [Fr. copie, from L. copia, plenty ; 
in Low L. a transcript, because by such 
the original was multiplied.'] 

COPYHOLD, kop'i-hold, n. (Eng. law) «, 
species of estate or right of holding land, 
for which the owner can only show the 
oopy of the rolls originally made by the 
steward of the Icwni's court. 

COPYIST. See Copier. 

COPYRIGHT, kop'i-rit, n. the exclusive 
right of an author or his heirs to publish 



for a term of years copies of his work, 
whether a book, painting, engraving, 

COQUET, ko-ket', v.i. to excite admiration 
or love, from vanity, or to deceive. — v.t. 
to trifle with in love : — pr.p. coquett'ing ; 
pa.p. coquett'ed. [Fr. cogueter — coquet, 
dim. of cog, a cock.] 

COQUETRY, ko-ket'ri or kok-'et-ri, n. act 
of coquetting : attempt to attract ad- 
miration, etc., in order to deceive : deceit 
in love. [Fr. coquetterie.} 

COQUETTE, ko-ket', n. a Tain, trifling 

COQUETTISH, ko-ket'ish, adj. practicing 
coquetry : befitting a coquette. — adv. Co- 
quett'ishly.— w. Coquett'ishness. 

COR, kor, n. a Hebrew measure, the same 
as the homer. 

CORACLE, kor'a-kl, n. a small oval row- 
boat used in Wales, made of skins or 
oilcloth stretched on wicker-work. [W. 
conogl — corwg, anything round ; QaeL 
curach, a wicker-boat.] 

CO-RADICATE, ko-rad'i-kat, adj. in philol. 
of the same root with. Skeat. [L. preflx 
CO, and radix, radids, a root.] 

CORAL, kor'al, n. a hard substance of vari- 
ous colors, growing on the bottom of the 
sea, composed of the skeletons of zoo- 
phytes : a child's toy made of coral : 
also the unimpregnated eggs in the lob- 
ster, so called from being of a bright red 
color. [O. Fr. — L. corallium — Gr. kor- 

CORALLIFEROUS, kor-al-ifer-us, ac^\, 
bearing or containing coral. [CORAL, 
and L. fero, to bear.] 

CORALLINE, kor'al-in, adj. of, like, or 
containing coral. — n. a moss-like coral : 
a coral-like substance. 

CORANACH, kor'a-nak, n. a dirge or lam- 
entation for the dead, formerly common 
among the Irish and Scottish Celts. [Ir., 
a "dirge."] 

CORBAN, kor'ban, n. (lit.) anything de- 
voted to God : a vessel to receive gifts of 
charity : alms. [Heb. korban, an offer- 
ing, sacrifice.] 

CORBEL, kor'bel, n. (arch.) an ornament 
orig. in the form of a basket — any orna- 
mented projection supporting a superin- 
cumbent weight. [Fr. corbeUle, from L. 
corbicula, dim. of corhis, a basket.] 

CORD, kord, n. {orig.) a chord : a small 
rope or thick kind of string, — v.t. to bind 
with a cord. [Fr. cor<& — L. chorda. 
See Chord.] 

CORDAGE, kord'aj, n. a quantity of C(yrd9 
or ropes. 

CORDELIER, kor-de-ler', n. a Franciscan 
friar, so named from the knotted cord 
worn by him as a girdle. [O. Fr. cordel, 
dim. of corde, a rope.] 

CORDIAL, kor'di-al, adj., hearty: with 
warmth of heart : sincere : affectionate : 
reviving the heart or spirits. — n. any- 
thing which revives or comforts the 
heart : a medicine or drink for refresh- 

ing the spirits. — adv. Cor'diaixy.— w. 

Cordial'ity. [Fr. — L. cor, cordis, the 

heart. See Core.] 
CORDITE, kOrd'-it, n. (mil.) a smokelesa 

powder made in the shape of a cord. 
CORDON, kor'don, n. a cord or ribbon be- 
stowed as a badge of honor : (fort.) a 

row of jutting stones : a line of military 

posts. [Fr.] 
CORDOVAN, kor'do-van, CORDWAIN, 

kord' wan, n. goatskin leather, orig. 

from Cordova in Spain. 
CORDUROY, kor'du-roy, n. thick cotton 

stuff, corded or ribbed. [Perh. Fr. corde 

du roi, king's cord.] 
CORDWAINER, kord'wan-er, n. a worker 

in cordovan or cordwain : a shoemal^er. 
CORE, kor, n. the heart : the inner part 

of anything, especially of fruit. [O. Fr. 

cor — ^L. cor, cordis, the heart.] 
CORELATIVE, etc. See Correlative. 
CORELESS, kor'les, adj. wanting a core : 

without pith : weak : debihtated. 

I am gone in years, my Liege, am very old. 
Careless and sapless.— Sir S. Taylor. 

CORIACEOUS, kor-i-a'shus, adj., leathery: 
of or like leather. [L. corium — Gr. 
chorion, skin, leather.] 

CORIANDER, kor-i-an'der, n. an annual 

Elant, the seeds of which when fresh 
ave a bug-like smell, used as a medi- 
cine, spice, etc. [Fr. — L. coriandrum — 
Gr. koriannon, korion, from koris, a 

OORlNTHIAN, ko-rinth'i-an, adj. pertain- 
ing to Corinth, a city of Greece : per- 
taining to an ornate order of Greek ar- 

CORK, kork, n. the outer bark of the 
cork-tree, an oak found in the south of 
Europe, etc.: a stopper made of cork. — 
v.t. to stop with a cork : to stop up. 
[Sp. corcho — L. cortex, bark, rind.] 

CORMOPHYTE, kor'm5-fIt, n. in bot. a 
general term apphed to all vascular 
plants and to the higher cellular plants 
m which roots and leaves are distinguish- 
able. Called also Phyllophyte. Ency. 
Brit. [Gr. kormos, a trunk, and phyton, 
a plant.] 

CORMORANT, kor'mo-rant, n. a genus of 
web-footed seabirds, of great voracity : a 
glutton. [Fr. cormoran (It. corvo mar- 
tno), from L. corvus marinus, the sea- 
crow. — Brachet.l 

CORN, korn, n. a grain or kernel : seeds 
that grow in ears, as wheat, rye, etc.: 

Sain of all kinds. In U.S., applied to 
dian corn or maize, only. — v.t. to 

sprinkle with salt in grains. — n. Corn'- 
• FIELD, a field in which corn is growing. 

[A.S. corm ; Goth, kaum ; akin to L. 

CORN, korn, n. (lit.) horn : a hard homy 

excrescence on the toe or foot. [Fr. 

cor/ie — Low L. corma — L. coTmu, horn, 

akin to E. Horn.] 
CORNCRAKE. Same as Crake. 
CORNEA, kor'ne-a, n. the transparent 



homy membrane which forms the front 
part of the eye. 

CORNEL, kor'nel, n. the comeZian-cherry 
or dogwood-tree, so named from the 
homy or hard nature of its wood. [O. 
Fr. comille, Low L. comiola, comolium 
— L. comu, a horn.] 

CORNELLAJN, kor-ne'li-an, n. a precious 
stone, a variety of chalcedony. [Fr. 
cornaline — L. comu, a horn, the stone 
being so called from the likeness of its 
color to the reddish tint of the finger- 

CORNER, kor'ner, n. a horn-like projec- 
tion : the point where two lines meet : a 
secret or confined place : in specidation, 
a clique or party formed for the purpose 
of obtaining possession of the whole or 
greater part of a particular stock or other 
species of property, and thus creating a 
demand for it at high prices. [O. Fr. 
corniere — L. comu.} 

CORNER, kor'ner, v.t. to place at a disad- 
vantage : to checkmate : also, to create 
a scarcity of, as of a particular stock or 
the hke, after having obtained command 
of the supply. [See above noun.] 

CORNERED, kor'herd, adj. having cor- 

CORNERr^TONE, kor'ner-ston, n. the 
stone which unites the two walls of a 
building at a corner : the principal 
stone, esp. the corner of the foundation 
of a building : hence (fig.) something of 
very great importance, as that upon 
which other things rest. 

CORNET, kor'net, n. (Jit.) a little horn : a 
horn-shaped trumpet : formerly a body 
of cavalry accompanied by a cornet- 
player : formerly, the lowest rank of 
commissioned officers in the British cav- 
alry, corresponding to the present sub- 
lieutenant. — n. Cor'net-a-pis'ton, a kind 
, of cornet with valves and pistons. [Fr. 
comet, dim. of come, a horn, trumpet. 
See Corn, (lit.) horn.] 

CORNETCY, kor'net-si, n. the commission 
or rank of a comet. 

CORNICE, kor'nis, n. the highest moulded 
projection of a wall or column, etc. 
[Fr. — It. — Low L. coronix, coronicis — Gr. 
Koronis, a curved line, a flourish ; akin to 
L. corona.] 

CORNICULATE, kor - nik'u - lat, adj., 
homed : shaped like a horn. [L. comic- 
ulatus — corniciUum, dim. of comu.] 

CORNIFICATION, kor'nif-i-ka'shun, n. the 
growth or formation of horn. Southey. 
JL. comu, a horn, and f ado, to make.] 

CORNIGEROUS, kor-nij'er-us, adj., bear- 
ing horns. [L. comu, and gero, to bear.] 

CORN-LAWS, korn-lawz, n. (in England) 
laws that restricted the importation of 
wheat, etc., by imposing a duty, repealed 
in 1846. 

CORNOPEAN, kor-n5'pe-an, n. a musical 
wind-instrument of the horn or trumpet 
kind. [From L. comu, a horn.] 

CORNUCOPIA, kor-nu-ko'pi-a, n. (lit.) the 


horn of plenty : according to the fable, 
the horn of the goat that suckled Jupi- 
ter, placed among the stars as an em- 
blem of plenty. [L. comu, and copia^ 

COROLLA, ko-rol'a, n. the inner covering 
of a flower composed of one or more 
leaves called petals. [L. corolla, dim. of 
corona, a crown.] 

COROLLARY, korol-a-ri, n. an inference 
or deduction from recognized facts. [L. 
corollarium, a little garland, a gratuity 
— corolla.] 

CORONAL, kor'o-nal, CORONARY, kor'o- 
nar-i, adj. pertaining to a crown, or to 
the top of the head. — Coronal, n. a 
crown or garland : the frontal bone. [L. 
corona, a crown.] 

CORONATION, kor-o-na'shun, n. the act 
of crowning a sovereign. [L. coronatio.] 

CORONER, icor'o - ner, n. an officer, in 
mccL States elected, whose duty is to 
inquire into the causes of accidental or 
suspicious deaths. 

CORONET, kor'o-net, n. a small or inferior 
crown worn by the nobility : an orna- 
mental head-dress. — adj. Cor'oneted, 
having or wearing a coronet. 

CORONIS, ko-ro'nis, n. the curved line or 
flourish at the end of a book or chapter ; 
hence, the end generally. (Rare.) " The 
coronis of this matter is thus : some bad 
ones in this family were punish'd strictly, 
all rebuked, not all amended." — Bp. 
Hacket. Also in Greek gram, a sign of 
contraction (') placed over a syllable. 
[Gr. koronis.] 

CORPORAL, kor'po-ral, n. among infan- 
try, a non-commissioned or sub-officer 
next in rank to a sergeant : in the navy, 
an officer under a master-at-arms. — n. 
Cor'poralship. [Fr. caporal — It. capo- 
rale — capo, the head — L. caput, the 

CORPORAL, kor'po-ral, adj. belonging or 
relating to the body : having a body : 
not spiritual. — n. the cloth used in Catho- 
lic churches for covering the elements of 
the Eucharist. — adv. Cor'porally. [L. 
corporalis — corpus, corporis, the body.] 

CORPORATE, kor'po-rat, adj. legally 
united into a body so as to act as an in- 
dividual : belonging to a corporation : 
united.— ady. Cor'porately. — n. Cor'- 
PORATENESS. [L. corporatus — corporo, 
to shape into a body, from cot^u^.] 

CORPORATION, kor-po-ra'shun, n. a body 
or society authorized by law to act as one 

CORPOREAL, kor-p6're-al, adj. having a 
body or substance : material. — adv. COR- 



CORPS, kor, n. a large body of soldiers, 
consisting of two divisions, and forming 
a complete army by itself : — pi. Corps, 
korz. [Fr., from L. corpus.] 

CORPSE, korps, n. the dead body of a hu- 
man being. [O. Fr. corps, or cors, the 



body — Lat. corpus; akin to A.S. hrifc 

See Midriff.] 

CORPULENCE, kor'pu-lens, COEPU- 
T.iENCY, kor'pu-len-si, n. fleshiness of 
body : excessive fatness. 

CORPULENT, kor'pu-lent, adj. having a 
large body : fleshy or fat. — adv. Cortu- 
LENTLY. [Ft. — ^L. eorpulentua — corpus, a 

CORPUSCLE, kor'pus-l, n. a minute par- 
ticle : a physical atom. — oxljs. Corpus'- 
CfULAR, CoEPUB'cuiiOUB. Ftof. TynddlL 
[L. corpuscidum, a little bcidy, dim. oi 
corpus, a body.] 

CORRECT, kor-ekt', v.t. to make right : to 
remove faults : to punish : to counter^ 
balance. — adj. made right or straight : 
free from faults : true. — adv. CoRi 
rect'IiY. — n. Correct'ness. [L. corrigo, 
correctus — cor, intensive, rego, to rule, 
set right.] 

CORRECTION,kor-ek'shun, n. amendment: 

CORRECTIONAL, kor-ek'shun-al, COR- 
RECTrVT], kor-ekt'iv, adj. tending, or 
having the power, to correct. — CoRREcr'r 
IVE, n. that which corrects. 

CORRECTOR, kor-ekt'or, n. he who, or 
that which, corrects. 

CORRELATABLE, ko-re-lat'a-bl, adj. car 
pable of being correlated : assignable to 

CORRELATE, kor'e-lat. v.i. to be mutually 
related, as father and son. — n. Correla- 
tion. [Coined from L. cor, with, and 
Reilate I 

CORRELATIVE, kor-cl'a-tiv, adj., mutually 
or reciprocally related. — n. person or 
thing correspondingly related to another 
person or thing. — adv. Correl'attvely. 
— n. Correl'attveness. 

CORRESPOND, kor-e-6pond',tJ.t. to answer, 
suit : to hold intercourse, especially by 
sending and receiving letters.^^zdr. COBr 
RESPOND'iKaLY. [Coined from L. cor, 
with, and Respond.] 

CORRESPOND ENCE, kor-e-spond'ens, 
CORRESPONDENCY, kor-e-spond'en-si, 
n. suitableness: friendly intercourse: com- 
munication by means of letters : letters 
which pass between correspondents. 

CORRESPONDENT, kor-e-spond'ent, adj. 
agreeing with : suitable. — n. one witn 
whom intercourse is kept up by let 3rs. 
— adv. Correspond'ently. 

CORRIDOR, kor'i-dor, n. a passage-way or 
open gallery running along, communi- 
cating with separate chambers. [Fr. — 
It. corridore, a runner, a running— It. cor- 
rere, to run — L. curro.] 

CORRIGENDA, kor-i-jen'da, things 


CORRIGIBLE, kor'i-ji-bl, adj. that may be 
corrected, reformed, or punished. 

CORROBORANT, kor-ob'o-rant, CORROB- 
ORATIVE, kor-ob'o-rat-iv, adj. tending 
to confirm. — n. that which corroborates. 

CORROBORATE, kor-ob'o-rat, v.t. to con- 
firm : to make more certain. [L. cor, in- 

tensive, and rdboro, rdbovatus, to make 
strong. See Robust.] 

CORROBORATION, kor-ob-o-ra'shun, n. 

CORRODE, kor-o*?', v.t. to gnaw or eat 
away by degree* : to rust. [L, cor, in« 
tensive, rodo, rosus, to gnaw.] 

CORRODENT, kor-od'ent, adj. having the 
power of corroding. — n. that which cor^ 

CORROSION, kor-6'zhun, n. act of eating 
or wasting away. 

CORROSIVE, kor-os'iv, ac^. having the 
quality of eating away. — n. that which 
has the power of corroding. — adv. CoR- 
ROs'rvELY. — n. Corros'iveness. [L. cor° 
rosus. See Corrode.] 

CORRUGATE, kor'oo-gat, v.t. to wrinkly 
or draw into folds. — n. Corruga'tion. 
[L. cor, intensive, rugo, rugatus, to 
wrinkle — ru^a, a wrinkle.] 

CORRUPT, kor-upt', v.t. to make putrid \ 
to defile : to debase : to bribe. — v.i. tq 
rot : to lose purity. — adj. putrid : de-f 
praved : defiled : not genuine : full of 
errors.— odf. Corrupt'ly. — ns. Corrupt'* 
NESS, Corrupt'er. [L. cor, intensive," 
and rumpo, ruptus, to break.] 

CORRUPTIBLE, kor-upt'i-bl, adj. liable tq 
be corrupted. — adv. Corrupt'ibly. — ns. 
Corruptibil'ity, Corrupt'ibl.eness. 

CORRUPTION, kor-up'shun, n. rottenness: 
putrid matter : impurity : bribery. 

CORRUPTIVE, kor-upt'iv, adj. having the 
quality of corrupting. 

CORSAIR, kor'sar, n. a pirate: a pirate'? 
vessel. [Fr. corsaire, one who makes 
the course or ranges — ^L. cursus, a run- 
ning — curro, to run. J 

CORSE, kors, n. a poetic form of Corpse. 

CORSELET, CORSLET, kors'let, n. a piece 
of armor for covering the body. [Fr. 
corselet, dim. of O. Fr. eors — L. corpus, 
the body.] 

CORSET, kor'set, n. an article of women's 
dress laced round the body : stays. [Dim. 
of O. Fr. eors — L. corpus, the body. J 

CORTEGE, kor'tazh, n. a train at attend- 
ants, orig. applied only to the court : a. 
procession. [Fr. — It. corteggio — corte, 
court. See Court.] 

CORTES, kor'tes, w. the parliament of Spain 
and Portugal. [Sp., pi. of corte, a court.] 

CX)RTEX, kor'teks, n. the bark or skin of 
a plant : a covering. — adj. Cor'tical, 
pertaining to bark: external. [L. cor- 
tex, corticis, bark. See Cork.] 

kor'ti-kat-ed, adj. furnished with bark ; 
resembling bark. 

CORUNDUM, ko-nm'dum,w. a crystallized 
mineral of extreme hardness, consisting 
of T>u»"e alumina, used for polishing gems. 

CORUSCATE, ko-rus'kat or kor'-, v.i. to 
sparkle : to throw off flashes of light. — 
adj. CoRUS'CANT, flashing. [L. corusco, 
coTuscatvs, to vibrate, glitter — coruscus.\ 

CORUSCATION, ko - rus - ka'shun, n. a 
glittering ; sudden flash of light. 



CORVETTE, kor-vet', n. a sjmall ship of 
war, next to a frigate. [Fr. — Port, cor- 
beta — L. corlnta, a slow - sailing ship, 
from corbis, a basket.J 

CORVINE, kor'vln, adj. pertaining to the 
crow. [L. corvinus — corvus, a crow.] 

CORYPHEUS, kor-i-fe'us, n. the chief or 
leader, esp. the leader of the chorus in 
the Attic drama. [L. — Gr. koryphaios — 
koryphe, the head.T 

COSE, koz, n. anything snug, comfort- 
able, or cos ey ; specifically, a snug con- 
versation. Written also Coze. " They 
might have a comfortable coze." — Miss 

COSE, koz, v.i. to be snug, comfortable, 
or cosey. "The sailors cose round the 
fire with wife and child." — Kingsley. 

COSECANT, ko-se'kant, COSINE, ko'sin, 
COTANGENT, ko-tan'jent, ns. {math.) 
the secant, sine, or tangent respectively 
of the complement of an arc or angle of 

COSEISMAL, ko-sls'mal, n. the curve 
formed by the points at which the wave- 
swell of an earthquake reaches the sur- 
face : the line along which an earth- 
quake is simultaneously felt. Used also 
adjectively, as a coseismal line. "The 
coseismal zone of maximum disturbance." 
— R. Mallet. [Prefix co, and Gr. seismos, 
an earthquake.] 

COSMETIC, koz-met'ik, adj. improving 
beauty, especially that of the complex- 
ion. — n. a preparation used for beautifyr 
ing the complexion. — adv.CosMET'lCAlXiY. 
[Gr. kosmetikos — kosmeo, to adorn — kos^ 
mos, order, ornament.] 

COSMIC, koz'mik, COSMICAL, koz'mik-al, 
adj. relating to the world or to the uni- 
verse : of or pertaining to cosmism ; as, 
the cosmic philosophy : {astron.) rising 
or setting with the sun. — adv. Cos'mic- 
ALLY. [Gr, kosmikos — kosmxys."] 

COSMISM, koz'mizm, n. that system of 
philosophy based on the doctrine of evo- 
lution enunciated by Mr. Herbert Spencer 
and his school : a phase of positivism. 

COSMOCRAT, koz'mo-krat, n. ruler of the 
universe or of the world : in the extract 
applied to the devil. [Gr. kosmos, the 
universe, and krateo, to rule.] 
You will not think, great Cosmocrat! 

That I spend my time in fooling ; 
Many irons, my Sire, have we in the fire. 
And I must leave none of them cooling. 

— Southey. 

COSMOGONIST, koz-mog'o-nist, n. one 
who speculates on the origin of the uni- 

COSMOGONY, koz-mog'o-ni, n. the science 
of the formation of the universe. [Gr. 
kosmogonia — kosmos, and gon, root of 
gignomai, to be born.] 

COSMOGRAPHIC, koz-mo-graf'ik, COS- 
MOGRAPHICAL, koz-mo-graf'ik-al, adj. 
pertaining to cosmography. 

COSMOGRAPHY, koz-mog'ra-fl, n. (lit.) a 
description of the world : the science 
of the constitution of the universe. — n. 

Cosmog'rapher. [Gr. kosmographia-^ 
kosmos, and grapho, to write.] 

COSMOLOGIST, koz-mol'o-jist, n. one 
versed in cosmology. 

COSMOLOGY, koz-mol'o-ji, n. the science 
of the universe : a treatise on the struct- 
ure and parts of the system of creation. 
— adj. Cosmolog'ical. [Coined from Gr. 
kosmos, and logos, discourse.] 

COSMOPOLITAN, koz-mo-pori-tan, COS- 
MOPOLITE, koz-mop'o-llt, n. (lit.) a citi- 
zen of the world : one who can make a 
home everywhere : one free from local 
or national prejudices. — n. Cosmopol'i- 
TANiSM. [Gr. kosmopolites — kosmos, and 
pontes, a citizen — polis, a city.] 

COSMORAMA, koz-mo-ra'ma, n. a vieiVj 
or a series of views, of different parts of 
the world. — adj. Cosmoram'ic. [Gr. kos- 
mos, and horama, a spectacle — horao, to 

COSMOS, koz'mos, n. the world as an 
orderly or systematic whole, opposed to 
chaos. [Gr.] 

COSMOTHEISM, koz-mo-the'izm, n. same 
as Pantheism. [Gr. kosmos, the universe, 
and Theos, God. J 

COSSACK, kos'ak, n. one of a warlike tribe 
in the east and south of Russia. [Russ. 
Kasake (of Tartar origin), a light-armed 
soldier, a robber.] 

COSSETTE, kos-set', in beet sugar manu- 
facture, the cut beet ready for extracting 
the juice. [Fr.] 

COST, kost, v.t. to bring a certain price : 
to require to be laid out or suffered : — 
pa.t. and pa.p. cost. — n. what is laid out, 
or suffered to obtain anything-^Z. ex- 
penses of a lawsuit. [Fr. coMer, O. Fr. 
counter — L. constare, to stand at — con, 
and stare, to stand.] 

COSTAL, kost'al, adj. relating to the ribs, 
or to the side of the body. [L. costa, a 

COSTERMONGER, kos'ter-mung-ger, n. a 
seller of costards or apples and other 
fruit : an itinerant seller of fruit. [Cos^ 
tard, a variety of apple, and Monger.J 

COSTIVE, kos'tiv, adj. having the motioif 
of the bowels too slow. — adv. Cos'tively, 
[Fr. constipe. See Constipate.] 

COSTIVENESS, kos'tiv-nes, n. slowness in 
the action of the bowels. 

COSTLY, kost'li, adj. of great cost : high^ 
priced : valuable. — n. Cost'liness. 

COSTUME, kos-tum', n. the manner of 
dressing prevalent at a particular 

Eeriod or place : dress. [Fr. — It. — Low 
I. costuma — L. consueiudo, custom. 

Doublet of Custom.] 
COT, kot, n. a small dwelling, a cottage ; 

a small bed : a sleeping-place on board 

ship : an inclosure for sheep or cattle. 

[A.S. cote, a cot or den ; a doublet of 

COTE, k5t, n. an inclosure for sheep, etc, 
COTEMPORANEOUS, ko-tem-po-ra'ne-us, 

COTEMPORARY, k5-tem'po-rar-i. Same 

as Contempoeaneous, Contemporary. 



COTERIE, ko'te-re, n. a number of persons 
who meet familiarly for social, literary, 
or other purposes. [Fr. ; orig. a number 
of peasants clubbed together to obtain a 
tenure of land from a lord — Low L. cota, 
a hut. See COT.] 

COTILLON, COTILLION, ko-tiryun, ». a 
brisk dance bv eight persons. [Fr. — cotte, 
a petticoat — IjOw L. cotta, a tunic. See 

COTQUEAN, kot'kwen, w, a man who 
busies himself with women's affairs. 

^[CoT, a small house, and quean.'] 

COTTAGE, kot'aj, ti. a cot : formerly ap- 
plied to a hut or hovel, now to a small 
neat dwelling. 

COTTAGEE, kot'aj-er, n. one who dwells 
in a cottage. 

COTTAR, GOITER, kot'er, n. same as 

COTTON, kot'n, n. a soft substance ike 
fine wool, got from the pods of the cot- 
ton-plant : cloth made of cotton.. [Fr. 
coton — Ar. qutun.] 

COTYLE, kot'i-le, COTYLA, kot'i-la, «. 
in anat. the cavity of a bone which re- 
ceives the end of another in articulation : 
in zool. one of the suctorial cups or disks 
of the arms of a cuttle-fish, by means of 
which it attaches itself to any object, on 
the principle of a boy's sucker. [Gr. 
hotyte, a hollow, cavityj 

COTYLEDON, kot-i-le'don, n. a cup-shaped 
leaf or lobe in certain plajits, forming 
part of the seed, and on which the grow- 
ing germ is nourished. [Gr. kotyleaon — 
kotyle, a cup.] 

COTYLEDONOUS, kot-i-le'don-us or -led*- 
on-us, adj. pertaining to or having coty^ 
l edon s or seed-lobes. 

COTYLIGEROUS, kot-i-llj'er-us, adj. fur- 
nished with cotyles. 

COUCH, kowch, v.t. to lay dovm on a bed, 
etc. : to arrange in language, to express : 
to depress or remove a cataract in the 
eye. — v.i. to lie down for the purpose of 
sleep, concealment, etc. : to bend or stoop 
in reverence. — Cotjch a spear, to fix it in 
its rest at the side of the armor. [Fr. 
coucher, to lay or lie down, O. Fr. colcher 
— L. collocare, to place — col, and locus, a 


COUCH!, kowch, n. any place for rest or 
sleep : a bed. 

COUCH A NT, kowch'ant, adj., couching or 
lying down with the head raised. [Fr., 
pr.p. of coucher.'] 

COUCHMATE, kowch' mat, n. one who Ues 
in the same couch or bed with another : 
a bed-fellow : a bed-mate : hence a hus- 
band or wife. Browning. 

COUGAR, koo'gar, n. an American animal : 
same as the puma. [Brazilian.] 

COUGH, kof, n. an effort of the lungs to 
throw off injurious matter, accompanied 
by a harsh sound, proceeding from the 
throat. — v.i. to make this effort. — v.t. to 
expel from the throat or lungs by a cough. 
[From a Low Get. root found in Dut. 

Jeugchen, to cough, imitative of the 

OOULD, kood, past tense of Can. [O. E. 
ooude, couth — A.S. eutJie for cunthe, was 
able ; I is inserted from the influenee ol 
vxndd and should.] 

COULEUR, koo-ler', n. color; used ia 
French phrases such as couleur de rose, 
meaning color of rose: hence, as an ad- 
jective, roseate, or rose-colored: also a 
suit in certain card games played by the 
French. [Fr.] 

COULTER. See Colter. 

COUNCIL, kown'sil, n. an assembly called 
together for deliberation or advice. [Fr. 
eoncile — L. concilium — con, together, and 
root cal, to call.] 

COUNCILLOR, kown'sU-or, n. a member 
et a council. 

CX!)UNSEL, kown'sel, n., consfultation : de- 
liberation : advice : plan : purpose : one 
who gives counsel, a barrister or advo- 
cate. — v.t. to give advice: to warn: — 
pr.p. coun'seUing; pa.p. coim'selled. [Fr. 
conseil — L. eonsUivan, advice — consvuere, 
to consult.] 

COUNSELLOR, kown'sel-or, n, one who 
counsels : a barrister. — n. COUN'SELLOR- 


COUNT, kownt, n. on the continent, a title 
of nobility equal in rank to an English 
earl.— /em. Coinn^ESS, the wife of a coMni 
or earl. [Fr. comte, from L. comes, 
comitis, a companion (of a prince) — con, 
with- and eo, itum, to go.] 

COUNT, kownt, v.t. to nmnber, sum up : 
to ascribe : esteem : consider. — v.i. to add 
to or increase a number by being counted 
to it : to depend. — w. act of numbering : 
the number counted : a particular charge 
in an indictment. — adj. Count'less. [O. 
Fr. cunter, Fr. compter — L. computare. 
See Compute 1 

COUNTENANCE, kown'ten-ans, n. the 
face : the expression of the face : appear- 
ance. — v.t. to favor or approve. [Fr. 
contenance — L. eontinentia, restraint, in 
Late L. demeanor — L. continere, to con- 
tain. See Contain.] 

COUNTER, kown'ter, n. he who or that 
which counts : that which indicates a 
number : a piece of metal, etc., used in 
reckoning : a table on which money is 
counted or goods laid. 

COUNTER, kown'ter, adv., against: in 
opposition. — adj. contrary : opposite. 
[L. contra, against.] 

COUNTERACT, kown-ter-akt', v.t. to act 
counter or in opposition to : to hinder or 
defeat. — n. Counterac'tion. 

COUNTERACTIVE, kown-ter-akt'ir, acfj. 
tending to counteract. — n. one who or 
that which counteracts. — adv. CoDNTBB- 

COUNTERBALANCE, kown-ter-bal'aiis, 
v.t. to balance by weight on the opposite 
side : to act agamst with equal weighfc, 
po wer, or influence. 

COUNTERBALANCE, kown'tef-bal-ans, w. 



an'eG[ual weight, power, or agency work- 
ing in opposition. 

COUNTER-CLAIM, koun-ter-klam', v.t. and 
i. in law, to present a claim as against 
the claim of another. — n. such a claim. 

COUNTERFEIT, kown'ter-fit, v.t. to imi- 
tate : to copy without authority : ^ to 
forge. [Fr. contrefait, from contrefairef 
to imitate — ^L. contra, against, facere, to 
do, to make.l 

COUNTERFEIT, kown'ter-fit, n. some- 
thing false or copied, or that pretends to 
be true and original. — adj. pretended : 
made in imitation of : forged : false. 

COUNTERFOIL, kown'ter-foil, n. the cor- 
responding part of a tally or check. 
[CoinsTTEB and Foil]. 

COUNTERMAND, kown-ter-mand', v.t. to 
give a command in opposition to one 
already given: to revoke. [Fr. contre- 
mander — L. contra, against, and mando, 
to order.] 

COUNTERMAND, kown'ter-mand, n. a 
revocation of a former order. — adj. 


COUNTERMARCH, kown-ter-march', v.t. 
to march back or in a direction contrary 
to a former one. 

COUNTERMARCH, kown'ter-march, n. a 
marching backward or in a direction dif- 
ferent from a former one : {mil.) an evo- 
lution by which a body of men change 
front, and still retain the same men in 
the front rank : change of measures. 

COUNTERPANE, kown'ter-pan, n. a cov- 
erlet for a bed, stitched or- woven in 
squares. [A corr. of O. Fr. contre- 
poincte, which is a corr. of coultepointe 
— L. culcita puncta, a stitched pUlow or 
cover. See Quilt.] 

COUNTERPART, kown'ter-part, n. the 
part that answers to another part : that 
which fits into or completes another, 
having the qualities which the other 
lacks, and so an opposite. 

COUNTERPOINT, kown'ter-point, n. the 
older form of Counterpane. 

COUNTERPOINT, kown'ter-point, n. 
(music) written harmony which originally 
consisted of points placed opposite to 
each other : the setting of a harmony of 
one or more parts to a melody : the art 
of composition. [Fr. contrepoint — contre, 
against, and point, a point. See Counter 
and Point.] 

COUNTERPOISE, kown-ter-poiz', v.t. to 
poise or weigh against or on the opposite 
side : to act in opposition to with equal 
effect. — n. Coun^terpoise, an eqvially 
heavy weight in the other scale. [Count- 
er and Poise.] 

COUNTERSCARP, kown'ter-skarp,?i. (fort.) 
the side of the ditch nearest to the besieg- 
ers and opposite to the scarp. [Counter 
and Scarp.] 

COUNTERSIGN, kown'ter-sin, v.t. to sign 
on the opposite side at a writing : to sign 
in addition to the signature of a superior, 
to attest the 0«thenticity of a writing. — 

n. a military private sign or word, which 

must be given in order to pass a sentry ; 

a counter-signature. [Counter and SlON.] 

COUNTER-SIGNATURE, kown'ter-sig'na- 

tur, n. a name countersigned to a writing. 
COUNTERSTAND, kown'ter-stand, n. the 
act of resisting or making a stand agamst: 
opposition : resistance. Longfellow. 
COtTNTER-TENOR, kown'ter-ten'or, n. 
name applied to alto, when sung by a male 
voice (so called, because a contrast to 
ten or). 
COUNTERVAIL, kown-ter-val', v.t. to be 
of avail against : to act against with 
equal effect : to be of equal value to. 
[Counter and Avail.] 
COUNTESS. See under Count. 
COUNTRY, kun'tri, n. a rural region as 
distinct from a town : a tract of land : 
the land in which one was born, or in 
which one resides. — adj. belonging to the 
country : rustic : rude. [Fr. contree-^ 
Low L. contrata, contrada, an extension 
of L. contra, over against. It was a 
name adapted by the Gterman settlers in 
Gaul as a translation of G«r. gegend, 
region (from gegen, over against).] 
COUNTRY-DANCE. See Contra-dance 
COUNTRYMAN, kun'tri-man, n. one wht 
lives in the country : a farmer : one born 
in the same country with another. 
COUNTY, kown'ti, n. (orig.) the provincf 
ruled by a count : a division of a State ii 
XJ. S. with a chief city, called the county 
seat : a shire (Eng,). 
COUP, koo, n. a prompt, forcible, unex- 
pected stroke, blow, or stratagem. Hencf 
coup de grace, koo-de-gras', a finishing 
stroke: coup d'etat, koo-da-ta', a stroke 
of policy in government or polities ; coup 
de main, koo-de-man', an unexpected at- 
tack. [Fr. — L. colaphus, a ouff.] 
COUPLE, kupl, n. two of a kind joined 
together, or connected : two : a pair. — 
v.t. to join together : to unite. [Fr., 
from L. copula. See Copula.] 
COUPLET, kup'let, n., two lines of verse 

that rhyme with each other. 
COUPLING, kup'ling, n. that which con- 
COUPON, koo'pong, n. an interest warrant 
attached to transferable bonds, which is 
cut off when presented for payment. [Fr. 
— couper, to cut off.] 
COTJRAGE, kur'aj, n. the quality that en- 
ables men to meet dangers without fear ; 
bravery: spirit. [Fr. courage, from L. 
cor, the heart.] 
COURAGEOUS, kur-a'jus, adj., full of 
courage : brave. — adv. Couba'geously.— ^ 
n. Coura'geousness. 
COURIER, ko6'ri-er, n. a runner : a messen- 
ger : a state servant or messenger : a 
travelling attendant. [Fr., from eourir 
— L. currere, to run.] 
COURSE, kors, n. the act of running : the 
road or track on which one runs : the 
direction pursued : a voyage : a race : 
regular Drogress from point to point i 



method of procedure : conduct : a part 
of a meal served at one time. {Ft. coura 
— L. curstis, from eurro, cursum, to run.] 

COURSE, kors, v.t. to run, chase, or hunt 
after. — v.i. to move with speed as in a 
race or htmt. 

COURSER, kors'er, n. a runner : a swift 
horse : one who courses or hunt& 

COURSING, kors'ing, n.,Jm.ntiag with grey 
houn ds. 

COURT, kort, n. a space inclosed : a space 
surrounded by houses : the palace of a 
sovereign : the body of persons who foruL 
his suite or council : attention : cLvility, 
as to pay court : (law) the hall of justice : 
the judges and officials who preside theee: 
any body of persons assembled to decide^ 
causes, whether civil, military, or eccle~ 
siastical. — v.t. to pay attentions to : to 
woo : to solicit : to seek. — n. CouET'YAiiD, 
a court or inclosure near a house. [Fr. 
cour, O. Fr. cort—Low L. cortis, a court- 
yard — L. cors, cohors, axL inclosure ; akin 
to Qr. chortos, an inclosed place, L. /wr- 
tus, a garden. See Yaed.J 

COURTEOUS, kurt'yus, adj. of court-Ulce 
manners : pohte : respectful : obliging. 
— adv. Cotjkt'eoxjsly.^ — n. Cotmx'Boua- 


n. a fashionable prostitute. [Sp. carte- 
Sana — corte, court. See Couet.J 

COURTESY, kurfe-ai, n.,. courtliness: ele- 
gance of manner : an act of civHity or 

COURTESY, kurt'si, n. the gesture of salu- 
tation or respect performed by women 
by slightly depressing the body and bend- 
mg the knees. — v.i. to' make a courtesy : 
— pr.p. courfesying ; pa.p. courf esied, 
[O. Fr. cortoisie. See CtoUKT.] 

COURTIER, k5rf yer, n. one who frequents 
courts or palaces : one who courts or flat- 

COURTIERISM, kort'i-er-izm, n. the prac- 
tices and behavior of a courtier, " The 
perked-up eourtierism and pretentions 
nullity of many here." — Carlyle. 

COURTLEDGE, korf lej, n. same as Cueti- 
LAfiE. " A rambling courtl&lge of barns 
and walls." — Kingsley. 

COURTLY, korf li, adj. having manners 
like those of a court : elegant. — n. Couitr*- 


COURT-MARTIAL, korf-mftr'shal, n. a 
court held by officers of the army or 
navy for the trial at offences against 
military or naval laws: — pi. COUBTS- 


COURT-PLASTER, korf-plas'ter, n. stick- 
ing piosfer made of silk, orig. applied as 
patches on the face by ladies at court. 

COURTSHIP, kort'ship, n. the act of woo- 
ing with intention to marry. 

COUSIN, kuzfn, n. formerly, a kinsman 
generally : now, the son or daughter of 
an. uncle or aunt. — CotrsrN-GEKMAN,a first- 
cousin. [Fr.— L. oonsobrinus — con, sig. 
connection, and sobrinua for soratnnuat 

applied to the children of sisters — soroTt 
n sistGr. I 

GOUSINRY, kuz'n-ri, n. cousins collective- 
ly : relatives : kindred. " Of the numer- 
ous and now mostly forgettable covMnry 
we specify farther only the Mashams of 
Otes in Essex."— CarZ?/te. 

OOUSINSHIP, kua/n-ship, n. the state of 
b^ng cousins : relationship: cousinhood. 
Oeorpe Eliot. 

GOUTIL, koo-til', n. a material used for 
corsets, mattresses, etc.: a eloaely woven 
canvas : also written CouTitu:, Coutelle. 
[ Fr. oouiil.l 

GOYQ, kov, n. a small inlet of the sea : a 
bay. — v.t. to overarch, and thus form a 
hollow. [A.S. cofa, a chamber ; Ice. 
kofi, a shed; nxjt to be confused with 
c am or alcove.} 

COVENANT, kuVe-nant, n. a mutual 
agreement: the writing containing the 
agreement. — v.i. to enter into an agree- 
ment: to contract or bargain. [O. Fi*. 
— L. con, together, and venio, to come.] 

COVENANTED, kuv'en-ant-ed, adj. hold- 
ing a position, atuation, or the like 
under a covenant. — Covenanted civil 
SERVICE, that branch of the British Indian 
civil service whose members enter a 
special department after being sent out 
from Britain, and are entitled to regular 
promotion ajid a pension after serving a 
specified number of years, and who can- 
not resign without permisaon, 

COVENANTER, kuv-e-nanf er, n. one wha 
signed or ax^lhered to the Scottish Na- 
tional Covenant of 1638. 

COATEiR, kuVer, v.t. to hide : to clothe : to 
shelter : to brood or sit on : to be suffi- 
cient for, as to cover expense. — n. that 
which covers or protects : (hunting) the 
retreat of a fox or hare. [Fr. couvrir 
(It. coprire) — L. eooperire — con, and 
operio, to cover.] 

COVER, kuVer, v.L to lay a table for a 
meal: to prepare a banquet. Shak. "Ta 
cover courtly for a king." — Greene. 

COVERING, kuv'er-ing, n. anything that 

COVERLET, kuv'er-let, n. a bedcover. [Fr, 
coutrrelitytroTn couvre, andZt^ — L. Zectwm, 

COVERT, kuv'ert, adj., covered: con- 
cealed : secret. — n. a place that covers 
or affords protection. 

COVERTLY, kuv'ert-li, aOo. in a covered 
or concealed manner. 

COVERTURE, kuv'er - tur, n., covering, 
shelter, defence : (law) the condition of a 
mairied woman. 

COVET, ku\-'et, v.t. or v.i. to desire or 
wish for eagerly : to wish for what is urv- 
lawful. — adj. Cov'etable. [O. Fr. cov- 
eiter, Fr. convoiter ; It. cubitare — L. 
cupidus, desirous — cupio, to desire.] 

COVETOUS, kuv'et-us, adj. inordinately 
desirous : avaricious. — adv. Cov'etouslt. 
— n. Cov'etousnkss. 

COVEY. kuVi, n. a brood or hatch of birds-; 

cow— CEAG 


a small flock of birds— said of game. [Fr. 

couvee — couvi, pa.p. of couver, to hatch 

— ^L. cubo, to lie down.] 
COW, kow, n. the female of the bull. [A.S. 

en; Ger. kuh, Sans, go : from its cry.] 
COW, kow, v.t. to swbdtte, fceep under: 

to dishearten. [Ice. kuga, Dan. kue, to 

subdue, to keep under.] 
COWARD, kow'ard, n. one who turns tail : 

one without courage. [O. Fr. couard. It. 

codardo — L. cauda, a tail.] 
COWARD, kow'ard, COWARDLY, koV- 

ard-li, adj. afraid of danger : timid : 

mean.— odu. Cow'ardly. — n. CoWakdh- 


OOWARDICE, kow'ard-is, n. want of cour- 
age : timidity. 

dOWER, kow'er, v.i. to sink down, gener- 
ally through fear : to crouch. [Cf. Ice. 
laira, Dan. kure, to Ue quiet,] 

COWL, kowl, n. a cap or hood : a monk's 
hood: a cover for a chimney. [A.S. 
eufle; Ice. cqfl; akin to L. cucullus, 

COWLED, kowld, adj. wearing a cowl. 

COWPOX, kow'poks, n. a disease which 
appears in pox or pimples on the teats of 
the c<yw, the matter from which is used 
for Vaccination. 

COWRY, kow'ri, n. a small shell used as 
money in the E, Indies and in Africa. 

COWStiP, kow'sKp, n. a species of prim- 
rose which appears early in spring in 
moist places. [A.S. ku-slyppe, a word of 
doubtful meaning.] 

COWTREE, kow'tre, n. a tree that pro- 
duces a nourishing fluid resembUng milk. 

COXCOMB, koks'kom, n. a strip of red 
cloth notched like a cock's comb, which 
professional fools used to wear : a fool : 
a fop. [Corr. of Cockscomb.] 

COXSWAIN. See Cockswain. 

COY, koy, adj. modest : bashful : shy. — 
adv. Coy'ly. — n. Coy'ness. [Fr. coi; 
from L. quietus, quiet.] 

COYISH, Koy'ish, adj., somewhat coy. — 
adv. CoY'iSHLY. — n. Coy'ishness. 

COZ, kuz, n. a contraction of Cousin. 

COZEN, kuz'n, v.t. to flatter : to cheat. — 
n. Coz'ener. [From Fr. cotisiner, to 
claim kindred for one's own advantage, 
play the parasite — cousin, a cousin.] 

COZENAGE, kuz'n-aj, n. the practice of 
cheating : deceit. 

COZY, ko'zi, adj. snug : comfortable. — adv. 
Co'ziLY. [Fr. causer, to chat ; prob. fr. 
Ger. kosen, to caress.] 

CRAB, krab, n. a common shell-fish having 
ten legs, the front pair terminating in 
claws : a sign in the zodiac. [A.S. cra6- 
ba ; Ger. krabbe.] 

CRAB, krab, n. a wild bitter apple. [Perh. 
because it pinches, like a crab.] 

CRABBED, krab'ed, adj. ill-natured : pee- 
vish : harsh : rough : difficult, perplexing. 
— adv. Crabb'edly. — n. Crabb'edness. 

CRABSIDLE, krab'sId-1, v.i. to go or move 
side foremost like a crab. *' Others crab- 
sidiing along." — Southey. 

CRACK, krak, n. a He: a fib. "Aeon- 
founded crack." — Ooldsmith. (Old slang.) 

CRACK, krak, v.i. to utter a sharp sudden 
sound : to split. — v.t. to produce a sudden 
noise : to break into chinks : to split : to 
break partially or wholly. — n. a sudden 
sharp splitting sound : a chink : a flaw. 
rA.S. cearcian, to crack ; Dut. krak, 
Gael, cnac ; like Creak, Croak, etc., 
from the sound.] 

CRACKER, krak'er, n. the person or thing 
which cracks : a noisy firework : a hard 

CRACKLE, krak'l, v.i. to give out slight 
but frequent cracks. — n. Crac^'ling, th« 
rind of roasted pork. 

CRACKLE, krak 1, n. a small crack : spe- 
cifically applied to a particular kind of 
chinaware, or to the mode of ornament- 
ing it. [See Cracklin.] 

CRACKLIN, krak'lin, n. a species of china- 
ware which is ornamented by a net- 
work of small cracks in all directions. 
The ware receives the minute cracks in 
the kiln with the effect that the glaze or 
enamel which is afterwards applied ap- 
pears to be cracked all over. 

CRACKNEL, krak'nel, n. a hard, brittle 

CRADLE, kra'dl, n. a bed or crib in which 
children are rocked : (fig.) infancy: a 
frame in which anything is imbedded : 
a case for a broken limb : a frame under 
a ship for launching it : an implement 
for reaping grain by hand. — v.t. to lay or 
rock in a cradle. [A.S. cradol, borrowed 
from Gael, creathall, a cradle, a grate ; 
akin to L. craticula, dim. of crates, a 
crate, and to E. Hurdle. See Cratb.] 

CRADLE-BABE, kra'dl-bab, n. an infant 
lying in a cradle. " MUd and gentle as 
the cradle-babe." — Shak. 

CRADLE - CLOTHES, kra'dl - kloffcz. n. 
clothes worn by a child in the cradle i 

O that it could be proved 
That some night-tripping fairy had exchanged 
In cradie-dotnes our children where they lay. 


CRADLE-WALK, kra'dl-wawk,n. a walk or 
avenue arched over with trees. "The 
garden is just as Sir John Germain 
brcfught it from Holland ; pyramidal 
yews, treUlages, and square cradle-walks 
with windows clipped in them." 

CRAFT, kraft, n. cunning : dexterity : art : 
trade : small ships. [A.S. craeft ; Ger. 
kraft, power, energy ; from root of 

CRAFTSMAN, krafts'man, n. one engaged 
in a. cr aft or trade. 

CRAFTY, kraft'i, a4j. having craft or 
skill: cunning: deceitful. — adv. Craft'- 
ILY. — n. Cbaft'iness. 

CRAG, krag, n. a rough, steep rock or 
point : (geol.) a bed of gravel mixed with 
shells. [Gael, creag, W. craig, a rock, 
which is short for car-eg, a dim. from 
root car, a rock, whence also cam = E. 



CRAGGED, krag'ed, CRAGGY, krag*!, adA., 
fuU of crags or broken rocks : rough : 
rugged. — ns. Ckagg'edness, Cragjo'iness. 

CRAKE, krak, CORN'CRAKE, «. the 
landrail, a migratory bird which lives 
much amoD^ grass, com, etc. [So 
named from its cry.} 

CRAM, kram, v.t. to press close : to stuff : 
to fill to superfluity. — v.i. to eat greedily: 
— pr.p. cramm'ing ; pcup. crammed'. — n. 
CRAMM'Bat, one who prepares students 
tor examination by cramming them with 
the required knowledge. [A.S. cram- 
mian ; Ice. kremja, to squeeze ; Dan. 
hrctmme, to crumple, crush.] 

CRAMP, kramp, n. a painful spasmodic 
contraction of muscles : restraint : a 
piece of iron bent at the ends, for hold- 
mg together wood, stone, etc. — v.t. to 
affect with spasms : to confine : to 
hinder: to fasten with a crampiron. 
pL; Ger. Jerampf, conn, with Clamp.} 

CRAMPFISH, kramp'flsh, n. the torpedo, 
because it causes spasms when touched. 

CRANBERRY, kranTjer-i, n. a red, sour 
berry growing on a stalk resembling the 
neck of a crane, much used for tarts, etc 

CRANCH, kranch. Same as Crunch. 

CRANE, kran, n. a large wading bird, with 
long legs, neck, and bill : a bent pipe for 
drawing liquor out of a cask, a machine 
for raising heavy weights — both named 
from their likeness to the bird. [A.S. 
cran; Grer. kranich, W. garan; Gr. 
geranos, L. grus, a crane, from the 
sound ; cf. Gareulous.} 

CRANIAL, kra'ni-al, ac^'. pertaining to the 

CRANIOGRAPH, kra'-nio-graf, n. an in- 
strument for defining the shape of the 


CRANIOLOGIST, kra-ni-ol'o-jist, n. one 
sldlled in craniology. 

CRANIOLOGY, kra-ni-ol'o-ji, n. the study 
of skulls : phrenology. — cujfj. Cranioloq - 
ICAU [Low L. cramumy a skull, and Gr. 
logos, a discourse.} 

CRANIUM, kra'ni-um, n. the skull : the 
bones inclosing the brain. [Low L. cra- 
nium — Gr. kranion, from kare, the head.} 

CRANK, krangk, n. a crook or bend : a 
bend on an axis for communicating 
motion : a twisting or conceit in speech. 

gi'rom an E. root krank, seen also in 
ut. kronkden, krinkelen, to curl, twist, 
bend ; also in E. Cringe, Crdtkle.] 

CRANK, krangk, CRANKLE, krangk'l. 
CRINKLE, kringk'l, v.t. to form with 
short turns or wrinkles. — r.t. to bend, 
turn, wind, or wrinkle^ 

CRANK, krangk, CRANKY, krangk'l, ac^f, 
weak : (nawr.) Kable to be upset. XFrom 
the notion of bending ; cf. Gfer. krank, 

CRANKLE, krangka, CRINKLE, kringk'l, 
n. a turn, winding, or wrinkle. 

CRANKNESS, krangk'nes, n. liability to 
be iipset. 

CRANNOG, kran'og, n. the name given in 

Scotland and Ireland to a fortified island 
(partly natural and partly artificial) in a 
lake, uaed as a dwelung-place and place 
of refuge among the early inhabitants. 

CRANNY, kran'i, n. {Kt.) a rent : a chink : 
a secret place. [Fr. cran, a notch — ^L. 
crena, a notch.} 

CRAPE, krap, n. a thin transparent crisp 
or crimpled silk stuff, usually black, us^ 
in mourning. [Fr. crepe, O. Fr. cre^)e — 
L. crispus, crisp.} 

CRAPULENCE, krap'u-lens, n. sickness 
caused by intemperance.— cuZ/. Cbap'u- 
liOUS, CRAP'tJUSNT. [Fr. crapide— L. crap- 
ula, intoxication.} 

CRASH, krasb, n. a noise as of things 
breaking or being crushed by falling. — v.i, 
to make a noise as of things falling and 
breaking. [Formed from the soun£ See 
Crush.] - 

GRASIS, Kra'sis, n. (grram.) the mingling or 
contraction of two vowels into one lon^ 
vowel, or into a diphthong. [Gr. kras%s 
— kerannumi, to mix.} 

CRASS, kras, adj., gross: thick: coarse. 
[L. erass^LS.'\ 

CkASSAMENT, kras'a-ment, n. the grose 
or fchick part of a fluid, esp. blood. [L. 
crassamentum — crassus. ] 

CRASSITUDE, kras'i-tud, n. grossness: 

CRATCH, krach, n. a crib to hold hay for 
cattle, a manger. [Fr. creche, a manger; 
from a Teut. root, of which E. Crib is 
an example.] 

CRATE, krat, n., teiclxr-zcork: a case made 
of rods wattled together, and used for 
packing crockery in. [L. crates, a hurdle. 
See Cradle.] 

CRATER, krat er, n. the bowl-ahaped mouth 
of a volcano. [L. crater — Gr. krater, a 
large bowl for mixing wine, from keran- 
numi, to mix.] 

CRAUNCH, kranch, a form of Crunch. 

CRAVAT, kra-vat', n. a kind of neckcloth 
worn by men, introduced into France in 
1636 from the Cravate's or Croatiajis, 
FFr. eravate, a corruption of Croat.] 

Crave, krav, v.t. to beg earnestly : to 
beseech : to demand or require : to long 
for. [A.S. crafian, to crave.} 

CRAVEN, krav'n, n. a coward : a spiritless 
fellow. — adj. cowardly : spiritless. — adv, 
Crav'enly. — n. CraVenness. [Grig, 
cravant, or cravand, craving quarter or 
mercy when vanquished.} 

CRAVING, krav'ing, n. a strong desire. 

CRAW, kraw, n. the crop, throat, or first 
stomach of fowls. [Dan. kroe ; Ger. kror^ 
gen; Scot, craig, the neck.} 

CRAWFISH. See Crayfish. 

CRAWL, krawl, v.i. to creep or move on : 
to mov3 feebly or slowly. [Ice. krafla, 
Dan. kravle ; Ger. krabbeln, to creep.} 

CRAYFISH, kra'fish, CRAWFKH, kraV- 
fish, n. a small species of crab or lobster, 
found in fresh water. [A corr. of Fr. 
ecrevisse, from O. Ger. krebiz, a crab,* 
not a compound of FiSH.1 



OEAYON, kra'on, n. a pencil made of chalk 
or pipe-clay, variously colored, used for 
drawing : a drawing done with crayons. 
[Fr. crayon — craie, chalk, from L. Greta, 

CRAZE, kraz, v.t. to weaken : to derange 
(applied to the intellect). — adv. Ckaz'- 
KDLY. [Ice. krasa, to crackle, from which 
also is derived Fr. ecraser, to crush, 
shatter ; akin to Crash.] 

CEAZY, k>Az'i, adj. feeble: crack-brained: 
insane. — adv. Craz'lly. — n. Craz'eness. 

CREIAK, ki'ek, v.i. to make a sharp, er ach- 
ing, gyrating sound, as of a hinge, etc. 
[E. ; O. Fr. criquer, is from the same Teut. 
root ; conn, with CRACK.] 

CREAM, krem, n. the oily substance which 
forms on milk: the best part of anything. 
— v.t. to take off the cream.— v.i. to gather 
or form cream. [Fr. crime — Imw L. 
erema; perh. allied to A.S. ream, Grer. 
rahm, which had prob. initial h.] 

CREAM-FACED, krem' -fast, adj., pale- 
faced either naturally or through fear : 

CRE A MY, krem^, ac^'., full of or like cream: 
gathering like cream. — n. Cream'iness. 

CREASE, kres, n. a mark made by folding 
or doubling anything. — v.t. to make 
creases in anything. [Bret, kriz, a 
wrinkle ; perh. akin to L. crisptts.] 

CREASE, CREESE, kres, n. a Malay dag- 
ger. [The Malay word.] 

CREASOTE. See Creosote. 

CREATE, kre-at', v.t. to bring into being 
or form out of nothing : to beget : to 
form : to invest with a new form, office, 
or character : to produce. [L. creo, cre- 
atus ; cog. with Gr. kraino, to accom- 
plish, to fulfill ; Sans, kri, to make.] 

CREATIN, kre'a-tin, n. a crystallizable 
substance found in the jlesh or muscu- 
lar tissue of animals. [Gr. kreas, flesh.] 

CREATION, kre-a'shun, n. the act of crea^ 
ing, esp. the universe : that which is cre- 
ated, the world, the universe. 

CREATIVE, kre-a'tiv, adj. having power 
to create : that creates. — adv. Crea'uve- 
LY. — n. Crea'tiveness. 

CREATOR, kre-a'tor, n. he who creates : a 
maker.— The Creator, the Supreme Be- 
ing, God. 

CREATURE, kre'tur, n. whatever has 
been created, animate or inanimate : 
esp. every animated being, an animal, 
a man: a term of contempt or endear- 
ment : a dependent. [O. Fr. — L. ereor 

CREDENCE, kre'dens, n., belief: trust: 
the small table beside the altar on which 
the bread and wine are placed before 
being consecrated. [Low L. credentia — 
credent-, believing, pr.p. of credo.] 

CREDENT, kre'dent, adj. easy of belief. 

CREDENTIAL, kre-den'sHkl, adj. giving a 
title to belief or credit. — n. that which 
entitles to credit or confidence.— jpZ. esp. 
the letters by which one claims confi- 
dence or authority among strangers. 

CREDIBLE, kred'i-bl, adi. that may be 
believed. — ns. Credibil. ITY, Cred'ible- 
NESS. — adv. Cred'ibly. 

CREDIT, kred'it, n., belief: esteem: repu- 
tation : honor : good character : sale on 
trust : time allowed for pjayment : the 
side of an account on which pay^ments 
received are entered. — v.t, to belteve : to 
trust : to sell or lend to on trust : to 
enter on the credit side of an account : 
to set to the credit of. [L. creditus — 

CREDITABLE, kred'it-a-bl, adj. trust- 
worthy: bringing credit or honor. — n. 
Cred'itableness. — adv. Cred'itably. 

CREDITOR, kred'it-or, n. {commerce) one 
to whom a debt is due. 

CREDULITY, kre-du'li-ti, n., eredulotis- 
ness: disposition to beUeve on insufficient 

CREDULOUS, kred'u-lus, adj., easy of be- 
lief: apt to believe without sufficient 
evidence : unsuspecting. — adv. Cred'u- 


CREED, kred, n. a summary of the article^ 
of religious belief. JX. credo, I believe, 
the first word of the Apostles' Creed j 
akin to Sans, graddha, faith.] 

CREEK, krek, n. a small inlet or bay of 
the sea or a river : any turn or winding. 
[A modification of Crook ; A.S. creeca ; 
cog. with Dut. kreek ; Ice. kriki, a cor- 
ner — orig. a bend.] 

CREEKY, krek'i, adj. full of creeks : wind- 

CREEL, krel, n. a basket, esp. an angler's 
basket. [Gael.] 

CREEP, krep, v.t. to move on the belly, 
like a snake : to move slowly : to grow 
along the ground or on supports, as a 
vine : to fawn :-—pr.p. creep ing ; pa.t. 
and pa.p. crept. [A.S. creopan; Dut. 

CREIEPER, krep'er, n. a creeping plant : a 
genus of small climbing birds. 

CREESE. See Crease. 

CREMATION, krem-a'shun, n. act of burn- 
ing, esp. of the dead. [L. crematio, from 
cremo, to burn.] 

CREME, kram, n. cream j used in cookery, 
names of cordials, etc. [Fr.] 

CREMONA, krem-o'na, n. a superior kind 
of violin made at Cremona in Italy. 

CRENATE, kre'nat, CRENATED, kre'nat- 
ed, adj. (bqt^ having the edge notched, 

CRENELATED, kre - nel - at'ed, adj. fur- 
nished with notches in a parapet to fire 
through : indented : battlemented. [Low 
L. crenellare, to indent — crenellus, a bat- 
tlement — L. crena, a notch.] 

CREOLE, kre'ol, n. strictly applied to an 
inhabitant of S. America or W. Indies 
born in the country and of pure Euro- 
pean blood : one born in tropical Amer- 
ica of any color, but of a race not native 
to it. [Fr. Creole — Sp. criollo, contr. of 
criadillOf "a little nursling," dim. of 
criado — criar, lit. to create, also to bring 
up, to nurse — L. creare.] 



CREOLIN, kr§'-6-lm, n, {chem.) a trade 
name for substances in soap having the 
qualities of a disinfectant. 

CREOSOTE, kre'o-sot, CREASOTE, kr6'a- 
s6t, n. an oily, colorless liquid distilled 
from woodtar, and having the quality of 
preserving flesh from corruption. [Qr. 
lereas, Jcreos, flesh, and soter, a preserver, 
from sozo, to save.} 

CREPITATE, krep'i-tat, v.i. to crackle, as 
salt when suddenly heated. [L. cr^aito, 
erepitatus, frequentative of crepo, to 

CREPITATION, krep-i-ta'shun, n. a re- 
peated snapping noise. 

CREPT, krept, pa.<. and pa.p. of Creep. 

CREPUSCULAR, kre - pus'ku - lar, CRE- 
PUSCULOUS, kre-pus'ku-lus, adj. of or 
pertaining to twilight. 

kre-pus'l, n., twilight. [L. crepusculum 
— creper, dusky, obscure.] 

CRESCENDO, kres-en'do, adv. with an in- 
creasing volume of sound, a musical 
term whose sign is ■<. 

CRESCENT, kres'ent, adj., increasing. — n. 
the moon as she increases towards half- 
moon : a figure like the crescent moon, 
as that on the Turkish standard : the 
standard itself : the Turkish power : a 
range of buildings in curved form. [L. 
crescens, crescentis, pr.p. of cresco, tr 

CRESS, kres, n. the name of several sp©- 
cies of plants like the watercress, which 

ffrow in moist places, and have pungent 
eaves used as a salad. [A.S. ccerse, cre»- 
see ; cog. with Dut. Teers, Grer. kresse.'] 

CRESSET, kres'et, n. a cruse, jar, or open 
lamp filled with combustible material 
placed on a beacon, Ughthouse, etc. [Fr. 
cretiset. See Crock, Cruse.] 

CREST, krest, n. the comb or tuft on the 
head of a cock and other birds : a plume 
of feathers or other ornament on the top 
of a helmet : Qier.) a figure placed over 
a coat of arms. — v.t. to furnish with, or 
serve for, a crest. [O. Fr. ereste — h, 

CREST-FALLEN, krest'-fawln, adj. de- 

CRESTLESS, krest'ies, adj. without a crest : 

not of high birth. 
CRETACEOUS, kre-ta'shus, adj. composed 

of or like chalk. [L. cretaceus, from 

creta, chalk.] 
CRETIN, kre'tm, n. one of a class of idiots 

found in deep valleys, esp. among the 

Alps, and generally afflicted with goitre. 

[Ety. dub.l * 

CRETINISM, kre'tin-izm, n. the condition 

of a cretin. 
CREVASSE, krev-as', n. a crack or split, 

esp. applied to a cleft in a glacier. [Fr. 

crevasse — crever, to burst, rive — ^L. cre- 

jpare, to creak, crack.] 
CREVICE, krev'is, n. a crack or rent : a 

narrow opening. [A doublet of Crev- 

CREW, kr65, n. a company, in a bad or 
contemptuous sense : a ship's company. 
[Ice. kru, a multitude ; Sw. kry, to 

CREW, kr66— did crow— ^jjowf tense of 

CREWEL, kroO'el, n. a kind of embroidery. 
[Cf . Clew.] ^ 

CkIB, krib, n. the rack or manger of a 
stable : a stall for oxen : a child's bed : 
a small cottage : {colloq.) a Uteral trans- 
lation of the classics, which schoolboys 
use unfairly in preparing their lessons. 
— r.f. to put away in a crib, confine, 

J>ilfer:— cribb'ing; pa.p. cribbed'. 
A.S. crib ; Grer. krippe.] 
IBBAGE, krib'aj, n. a game at cards in 
which the dealer makes up a third hand 
to himself partly by cribbing or taking 
from his opponent. 

CRIBBLE, m-ib'l, n. a coarse screen or 
sieve, used for sand, gravel, or grain : 
coarse flour or meal. — v.t. to sift or rid- 
dle. [L. cribellum, dim. of cribrum, a 

CRICK, krik, m a spasm or cramp, esp. of 
the neck. [A doublet of Creek.I 

CRICKET, krik'et, n. a genus of insects 
allied to grasshoppers, which make a 
chirping noise with their wing-covers. 
[ Fr. criquet, from Teut. root of Creak.] 

CRICKET, krik'et, n. a game with bat and 
ball. — v.i. to play at cricket. [A.S. cricc, 
a staff ; the game was at first played 
with a club or staff.] 

CRICKETER, krik'et-er, n. one who plays 
at cricket. 

CRIED, krldj^a.f. and pa.p. of Cry. 

CRIME, krim, n. a violation of law : of- 
fence : sin. [Fr. — L. crimen."] 

CRIMINAL, Imm'in-al, adj. relating to 
crime : gtulty of crime : violating laws. 
— n. one guilty of crime. — adv. Crtm'in- 

AT.T. V. 

CRIMINALITY, krim-in-al'i-ti, n. guilti- 
CRIMINATE, krim'in-at, v.t. to accuse. — 

adj. Crim'inatory. 
CRIMINATION, krim-in-a'shun, n. act of 

criminating : accusation. 
CRIMP, krimp, adj. made crisp or brittle. 

— v.t. to wrinkle : to plait : to make 

crisp : to seize or decoy. — n. one who 

decoys another into the naval or military 

service. [A dim. of cramp ; Dut. krim- 

pen, to shrink.] 
CttlMPLE, krimp'l, v.t. to contract or draw 

together : to plait : to curl. [Dim. of 

CRIMSON, krim'zn, n. a deep red color, 

tinged with blue: red in general. — adj. 

of a deep red color. — v.t. to dye crimson. 

— v.i. to become crimson : to "blush. [O. 

E. crimovyn — O. Fr. cramoisin ; from Ar. 

keryiez j:=Sans. krimi, L. vermis, E. 

worm), the cochineal insect, from which 

it is made.] 
CRINGE, knnj, v.i. to bend : to crouch 

with servility : to submit : to fawn : to 



llatter. rA»S- crinccmt cringan, to face ; 
connectec with Grane, weak.] 

CRINGEiiING, krinj'ling, w. one who 

CEINITB, fcri'mt, adj., hairy : (bot) re- 
sembling' a tuft of hair, fli. crinitus, 
provided with hair — erinis, hair.] 

G.B.INKLE. See under Cramb: and 

CKINOLINE, krin'o-Un, n. a lady^s stiff 

eetticoat, originally made of haircloth, 
at. afterwards expanded by hoops, etc 
Wr. CTtn — L. orinis, hair, and lin — L. 
timtm, flax.] 

GRTPPLE, knp'l, »i a lame person. — adj, 
lame. — v.t. to make lame t to deprive of 
the power of exertion. [From root of 
Creep. 1 

CRISIS, "kri'sis, n. point or time for de- 
ciding anything-!— that is, when it must 
either terminate or take a new course: 
the decisive moment:— pi. Crises^ kri'- 
8ez» [Gr. hrisiSi from Icrind, to sepa- 

ORISP, krisp, adj., curled : so dry as to bo 
crumbled easily: brittle. — v.t. to curl or 
twist : to make wavy. — adv. CRiSP'liY.— 

». GRISP'NBSSs [L. CTMpU*.] 

CRISPY, krisp'i, adj., curled or curly: 

CRITERION, kri-te'ri-on, m a meaTis or 

standard of .judging : a test : a rule ■c—^?. 

Crite'ria. [Gr., from Jcrit€s, a judge — 

krino.} , 
CRITIC, krit'ik, n. a judge in literature, the 

fine arts, etc. : a fault-finder. [Gr. kriti- 

kos — krino.] 
CRITICAL, fcrit'ik-al; ad/, relating- to criti- 

oi^n : skilled in judging literary and other 

productions : discriminating : captious: 

decisive. — adv. Crit'ioally. — n. Grtt'io- 


CRITICISE, krit'i-fflz, v.^. to pass judgment 
on : to densure. 

CRITICISM, krit'i-sizm, n. the art of judg- 
ing, esp. in literature or the fine airts: 
a critical judgment or observation. 

CRITIQUE, kri-tek', n. a criticism or crit- 
ical examination of any production: a 
review. [Fr.] 

CROAK, krok, v.i. to utter a low rough 
sound as a frog or raven : to grumble: to 
forebode evil. — n. the sound of a frog or 
raven. — n. Croak'er. [From the sound. 
Cf. Crake, Crow, and L. graculus, a 

CROCHET, kro'sha, n. fancy knitting made 
by means of a small hook. [Fr. crochet, 
a little crook, a hook — croc, from root 
of Crook.] 

CROCK, krok, n. a narrow-necked earthen 
vessel or pitcher: a cup. [A.S. croc; Ger. 
krug ; perh. of Celt, origin, as in W, 
crodian, a pot, Grael. krog, a pitcher; akin 
to Crag, and giving the notion of hard- 

CROCKERY, krok'er-i, n. earthenware: 
vessels formed of baked clay. 

CROCODILE, krok'o-dll, n. a large amphib- 

ious reptile inhabiting the large rivers 
of Asia and Africa. [Fr. — L. crocodilus 
— Gr. krokodeilos, a lizard; so called 
firom its resemblance to a lizard.] 

CROCUS, kr5'kus, n. a well-known flower. . 
[Jj. crocus — Gr. krokos ; prob. of Eastern 
origin, as Heb. fcarfcow, saffron.] 

CROFT, kroft, w. a small piece of arable 
land adjoining a dwelUng* a kind of 
small farm. — n. Croft'er. [A.S. croft; 
perh. from Gael, croit, a croft.] 

CROMLECH, krom'lek, n. a circle of stand- 
m« stones, oft^u called a Druidical circle. 
[W. cromlech — crom,, curved, circular, 
and llech, a stone.] 

CRONE, kron, n. an old woman, usually in 
contempt. [Perh. Celt., as in Ir. erton, 
withered, old.] 

CRONY, kron'i, n. an old and intimate 
companion. [From Crone.] 

CROOK, krook, n. a bend, anything bent : 
a staff bent at the end, as a shepherd's 
or bishop's : an artifice or trick. — v.t. to 
bend or form into a hook : to turn from 
the straight line or from what is right. 
— tJ.t. to bend or be bent. [FVom a.root 
common to Teut. and Celt., as W. creegr, 
a hook. Ice. krokr, Dut. fcro&e, a fold or 
wrinklej ■ 

CROOKED, krook'ed, adj., bent like a 
crook: not straight: deviating from rec- 
titude, perverse. — adv. Grogk'edIiT.-:— «. 

CROP, krop, n. all the produce of a field of 
grain: anything gathered or cropped: 
the craw of a bird. — v.t. to cut off the 
top or ends : tO out short' or clOse : to 
mow, reap, or gather r^-pr.j). cropp'ing; 
pa.p. cropped'. — Crop our, v.i. to appear 
above the surface : to come to light. [A. 
Si crop^ the top shoofr of a plant; any 
protuberance, as the crop of a bird ; .Dut. 
cro p, a bird's orop.l 

CROQUET, krota, n. a game in which two 
or more players try to drive wooden 
balls^ by means of long-handled mallets, 
through a series of arches set in the 
ground. fEty. unknown.] 

CROQUETTE, kro-kef; n. in cookery> a ball 
of mineed meat or fish, seasoned and 
fried. [Fr. croquer, to cmncn.] 

CROSIER, kro'zher, n. a staff with a crook 
at the top carried before bishops on sol- 
emn occasions. [O. Fr. croce, a crosier 
— ^Fr. croo, a crook, hook, from root of 

CROSS, kros, n. a gibbet' on which male- 
factors were hung, consisting of two 
pieces of timber, one placed crosswise on 
the other, either thus f or X ; the instru- 
ment on which Christ suffered, and thus 
the sjrmbol of the Christian religion : the 
sufferings of Christ : anything that 
crosses or • thwarts : adversity or afiHic- 
tion in general : a crossing or mixing of. 
breeds, esp. of cattle. — v.t: to mark with 
a cross : to lay one body or draw one line 
across another : to cancel by drawing 
cross lines : to pass from side to side : to 



obstruct : to thwart : to interfere with. 
—47.1. to lie or be athwart : to move or 

8 ass from place to place. [O. Fr. croi«, 
■r. croix — L. crux, orig. an upright post 
to which latterly a cross-piece was 
added ; conn, with Crook by Gael, croc- 
an, a hook, crock, hung ; le. crochaim, 
to hang, crock, a gallows.] 

CEOSS, kros, adj., lying across: trans- 
verse : oblique : opposite : adverse : ill- 
tempered: interchanged. — adv. Cross'ly. 
— n. Cross'ness. 

CROSSBILL, kros'bil, n. a genus of birds 
resembling bullfinches, linnets, etc., with 
the mandibles of the bill crossing each 
other near the points. 

CROSS-BONES, kros'-bonz, a symbol 
of death, consisting of two human thigh 
or arm bones, placed crosswise, and often 
found on old monuments, etc., generally 
in conjunction with a skull. 

CROSSBOW, kros'bo, n. a weapon for 
shooting arrows, formed of a bow placed 
crossimse on a stock. 

CROSSBUN, kros'bun, n. abun marked with 
the form of a cross, eaten on Good- 

CROSS-BUTTOCK, kros'-but-ok, n. a pe- 
culiar throw practiced by wrestlers ; 
hence, an unexpected fling down or re- 
pulse. "Many cross-buttocks did I sus- 
tain." — Smollett. 

CROSS-EXAMINE, kros-cgz-am'in, v.t. to 
test the evidence of a witoeaB by subject- 
ing him to an examination by the opr 
posite party. — n. Cboss-examina'tion. 

CROSS-GRAINED, kros'-grand, adj. havr 
ing the grain or fibres crossed or inr 
tertwined : perverse : contrary : untractr 

CROSS-HATCHING, kros-hach'ing, n. a 
term in engraving appUed to lines, 
whether straight, sloping, or curved, 
which cross each other regularly to inr 
crease or modify depth of shadow. 

CROSSING, kros'ing, n. act of going across: 
a thwarting: a place for passing from 
one side to the other. 

CROSSLET, kros'let, n. a little cross. 

CROSS-QUESTION, kros'-kwest-yun, v.t, 
to cross-examine. 

CROSS-REFERENCE, kros-ref er-ens, n. a 
reference from one part of a book to an- 
other where something incidentally men- 
tioned is treated of, or where there is 
some account of the same or an allied 
subject as that which is under notice at 
the place where the cross-reference is. 

CROSSTREES, kros'trez, n. pieces of tun- 
ber placed across the upper end of the 
lower-masts and top-masts of a ship. 

CROSSWAY, kros'wa, n. a way that crosses 
anot her. 

CROSSWISE, kros-wiz, adv. m the form of 
a cross : across. 

CROTCHET, kroch'et, n. a note in music, 

equal to half a minim, | : a crooked or 

perverse fancy: a whim or conceit. 
[Fr. crochet, dim. of croc, a hook. See 

CROTCHETEER, kroch-et-er', n. one who 
fixes the mind too exclusively on one 
subject : one given to some favorite 
theory crotchet, or hobby. "Nobody of 
the slightest pretensions to influence is 
safe from the solicitous canvassing and 
silent pressure of social crotcheteers." — 
Fortnightly Rev. 

CROTCHETINESS, kroch'et-i-nes, n. the 
state or quality of being crotchety: the 
character of a crotcheteer. Qrote. 

CROTCHETY, kroch'et-i, adj. having 
crotchets or peculiarities : whimsical. 

CROTON, kro'ton, n. a genus of tropical 

giants, producing a brownish-yellow oil, 
aving a hot biting taste. [Gr. kroton, 
a tick or mite, which the seed of the 
t)lant resembles.] 

CROUCH, krowch, v.i. to squat or he close 
to the ground : to cringe : to fawn. [A 
form of Crook.] 

CROUP, kroop, n. a severe disease in the 
throat of cnildren, accompanied by a 
hoarse cough. [A.S. hropan, to cry ; 
Scot, roup, croup, hoarseness ; from the 

CROUP, kroop, n. the rump of a fowl : the 
buttocks of a horse : the place behind 
the saddle. [Fr. croupe, a protuberance ; 
allied to Crop.] 

CROUPIER, kro6'pi-er, n. one who sits at 
the croup or lower end of the table as as- 
sistant-chairman at a pubUc dinner : a 
vice-president : he who watches the cards 
and collects money at a gaming-table. 

CR0W,kr6, n. a large bird, generally black, 
which utters a croaking sound : the cry 
of a cock : a boast. — v.i. to croak, to cry 
as a cock, in joy or defiance : to boast : to 
swagger i—pa.t. crew (kroo) or crowed'; 
pa.p. crowed'. [A.S. crawe, a crow: 
from the sound.] 

CROWBAR, kro'bar, n. a large iron bar 
with a claw hke the beak of a crow. 

CROWD, krowd, n. a number of persons or 
things closely pressed together, without 
order : the rabble : multitude. — v.t. to 
gather into a lump or crowd : to fill by 
pressiwg^ or driving together. — v.i. to 
bress together in nvmibers : to swarm. 

CROWFOOT, kro'foot, n. a common weed, 
the flower of which is like a crow's foot. 

CROWN, krown, n. the diadem or state- 
cap of royalty : regal power : honor s 
reward : the top of anything, esp. of the 
head : completion : accomplishment : a 
6s. piece stamped with a crown. — v.t. to 
cover or invest with a crown : to invest; 
with royal dignity : to adorn : to dignity \ 
to complete.— ac^*. Crown'less. [Fr. 
couronne — L. corona; cog. with Gr. 
koronos, curved ; W. crwn, Gael, cruinn, 

CROWN-GLASS, krown'-glas, n. a kind of 
window-flrZoss formed in circular plates or 



CROWN-HEAD, krown'-hed,«. in draughts 
the row of squares next to each player. 

C R O W N-P R I N C E, krown'-prins, w. the 
prince who succeeds to the crovm. 

CROW'S-FOOT, kroz'-foot, n. wrinkles pro- 
duced by age, spreading out in the shape 
of a crow's foot from the corners of the 
eyes : (miL) a caltrop. 

CRUCIAL, kroo'shi-al, adj. testing, search- 
ing, from the practice of marking a testing 
instance with a cross to draw attention 
to it. [Fr. crucial, from L. cmx, crucis, 
a cross. See Ckoss.] 

CRUCIBLE, kro6'si-bl, n. an earthen pot, 
for melting ores, metals, etc. [Low L. 
crucibidum, from root of CROCK ; erro- 
neously supposed to be conn, with L. 


CRUCIFEROUS, kroo-sifer-us, adj. (bat.) 
bearing four petals in the form of a cross. 
[Li. crux, and /ero, to bear.] 

CRUCIFIX, kroo'si-fiks, n. a figure or pict- 
ure of Christfioeed to the cross. 

CRUCIFIXION, kro6-si-fik'shun, n. death 
on the cross, esp. that of Christ. 

CRUCIFORM, kroo'si-form, adj. in the 
form of a cross. 

CRUCIFY, kroo'si-fi, v.t. to put to death 
by fixing the hands and feet to a cross : 
to subdue completely : to mortify :— ;pa.p. 
cruc'ifled. [Fr. crucifler — L. crudjigo, 
erueijixus — crux, andjigo, to fix.] 

CRUDE, kr56d, adj., raw, unprepared : not 
reduced to order or form : unfinished : 
undigested : immature. — adv. Crude'ly. 
— n. Crude'ness. [L. erudite, raw. 

CRUDITY, krood'i-ti, n. rawness : unripe- 
ness : that which is crude. 

CRUEL, kroo'el, adj. disposed to inflict 
pain, or pleased at suffering : void of pity, 
merciless, savage. — adv. Cru'ellt. — n. 
Cru'elty. [Fr. cruel — ^L. crudelis. From 
root of Crude.] 

CRUET, kroo'et, n. a small Jar or phial for 
sauces and condiments. [Ace. to Skeat, 
prob. formed from Dut. Kruik, a jar =■ 
E. Crock ; and ace. to E. IluUer, dim. of 
O. Fr. cruye (mod. Fr. cruehe, cruchette, 
a jar), from root of Crock.] 

CRUISE, krooz, v.i. to sail to and fro : to 
rove on the sea. — n. a sailing to and fro : 
a voyage in various directions in search 
of an enemy, or for the protection of 
vessels. — n. Crttis'er. [Dut. kruisen, to 
cross — kruis, a cross — O. Fr. crois — ^L. 

CRUISE, krooz, n. a small bottle. Same 
as Cruse. 

CRUMB, krum, n. a small bit or morsel of 
bread : the soft part of bread. [A.S. 
eruma ; Grer. krume ; allied to Crimp.] 

CRUIVIBCLOTH, krum'kloth, n. a cloth laid 
under a table to receive falling crumbs, 
and keep the carpet clean. 

CRUMBLE, krum'bl, v.t. to break into 
crumbe. — v.i. to fall into small pieces : to 
decay : to perish. [Orig. dim. of Cbumb 
Dut. kruinMens Ger. kriiTneln.'^, 

CRUMBY, CRUMMY, krum'i, adj., in 
crumbs: soft. 

CRUMP, krump, adj. crooked : wrinkled. 
[A.S. crumb ; Ger. krumm, ; Scot, crum- 
my, a cow with a crumpled horn. From 
the root of CRA.MP, Crimp.] 

CRUMPET, krum'pet, n. a kind of crumby 
or soft cake or mufl3n. 

CRUMPLE, krimip'l, v.t. to mark with or 
draw into folds or wrinkles : to crease. — 
v.i. to become wrinkled : to contract or 
shrink. [Freq. of CRAMP.] 

CRUNCH, krunch, v.t. to crush with th^ 
teeth : to chew anything hard, and so 
make a noise. [From the sound ; cf . F, 

CRUPPER, krup'er, n. a strap of leather 
fastened to the saddle and passing und«»r 
the horse's tail to keep the sa,ddle in its 
place. [Fr. croupiire — croupe, the Croup 
of a horse.] 

CRURAL, kroo'ral, adj. belonging to or 
shaped like a leg. [L. cruraKs, from cms, 
cruris, the leg.] 

CRUSADE, kroo-sad', n. a military expedi-r 
tion under the banner of the cross to 
recover the Holy Land from the Turks: 
any daring or romantic undertakiDg. 
[Fr. croisade — Prov. crozada — croz, a 
cross. See Cross.] 

CRUSADER, kroo-sad'er, n. one engaged 
in a crusade. 

CRUSE, krooz, n. an earthen pot : a small 
cup or bottle. [Fr. ; Ice. krus : also allied 
to Crock.] 

CRUSH, krush, v.t. to break or bruise : to 
squeeze together : to beat down or over 
whelm: to subdue : to ruin. — n. a violent 
squeezing. [O. Fr. cruisir, from a Scan, 
root seen in Sw. krysta, whose oldest 
form appears in Goth. kriuMan, to grind 
the teeth, formed from the sound. See 
Crash and Craze.] 

CRUST, krust, n. the hard rind or outside 
coating of anything : the outer part of 
bread : covering of a pie, etc.: (geol.) the 
solid exterior of the earth. — v.t. to cover 
with a crust or hard case. — v.i. to gather 
into a hard crust. [O. Fr. — L. crusta ; 
perh. conn, with Gr. kryos, icy cold.] 

CRUSTACEA, krus-ta'shi-a, a class of 
animals whose bodies are covered with a 
crust-like shell covering, such as lobsters, 
shrimps, and crabs. 

CRUSTACEAN, krus-ta'shi-an, n. one of 

CRUSTACEOUS, krus-ta'shi-us, CRUSTA-^ 
CEAN, krus-ta'shi-an, adj. pertaining to 
the Crustacea, or shellfish. 

CRUSTATED, krus-tat'ed, adj. covered 
with a crust. 

CRUSTATION, krus-ta'shun, n. an adher- 
ent crust. 

CRUSTY, krust'i, adj. of the nature of or 
having a crust : having a hard or harsh 
exterior : hard : snappy : surly. — adv. 
Crust'ily. — n. Crust'iness. 

CRUTCH, kruch, n. a staff with a crosS" 
piece at the head to place under the arm 



of a lame person : any support like a 
crutch. [From root of Crook ; perh. 
modified by L. crux, a cross.] 

CRY, kri, v.i. to utter a shrill loud sound, 
esp. one expressive of pain or grief: to 
lament : to weep : to bawl. — v.t. to utter 
loudly : to proclaim or make public : — 
pa.t. a.ndpa.p. cried'. — n. any loud sound: 
particular sound uttered by an animal : 
bawUng- : lamentation : weeping : prayer; 
clamor : — pi. Cries. — n. Cri'er. [Fr. 
crier (It. gridare) — L. quiritare, to 
scream — ^freq. of L. queri, to lament.] 

CRY, kri, v.i. to be in the act of giving 
birth to a child : sometimes followed by 
out. Shak. 

CKYINGM3UT, krring-out, n. the confine- 
ment of a woman : labor. " Aunt Nell, 
who, by the way, was at the crying-out^ 

CRYPT, kript, n. an underground cell 
or chapel, esp. one used for burial. [L. 
crypta—Gr. krypte — krypto, to conceal. 
Doublet of Grot.] 

CRYPTOGAMIA, krip-to-ga'mi-a, n. the 
class of flowerless plants, or those which 
have their fructification concealed. [Gr. 
A:r?/pf OS, concealed, and gamos, marriage.] 

CRYPTOGAMIC, krip -to-gam'ik, CRYP- 
TOGAMOUS, krip-tog'a-mus, adj. per- 
taining to the Cryptogamia. 

CRYPTONYM, krip'to-nim, n. a private, 
secret, or hidden name : a name which 
one bears in some society or brother- 
hood. J. R. Lowell. [Gr. kryptos, con- 
cealed, and onoma, a name.] 

CRYSTAL, kris'tal, n. a superior kind of 
glass : {chem.) a piece of matter which 
has assumed a definite geometrical form, 
with plane faces. [O. Fr. cristal — L. crys' 
tallum, from Gr. krystallos, ice — kryos, 
icy cold ; akin to Crust.] 

CRYSTAL, kris'tal, CRYSTALLINE, kris*- 
tal-In or -in, adj. consisting of or like 
crystal in clearness, etc. 

CRYSTALLIZATION, kris-tal-iz-a'shun, n. 
the act of crystallizing. 

CRYSTALLIZE, kris'tal-Iz, v.t. to reduce to 
the form of a crystal. — v.i. to assume a 

— crystalline form, 

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, kris-tal-og'ra-fi, n. 
the science of crystallization. [Gr. krys- 
tallos, and grapho, to write.] 

CUB, kub, n. the young of certain animals, 
as foxes, etc. : a whelp : a young boy or 
girl (in contempt). — v. to bring forth 
young:— pr.p. cubb'ing ; pa.p. cubbed'. 
[Prob. Celt., as Ir. cuib, a whelp, from 
CM, a dog.] 

CUBANITE, ku'-ban-it, n. (min.) a copper 
ore found in Cuba. 

CUBATURE, kub'a-tar, n. the act of find- 
ing the solid or cubic content of a body : 
the result thus found. 

CUBE, kub, n. a solid body having six 
equal square faces, a solid square : the 
third power of a number, as — 2X2X2=8. 
— v.t. to raise to the third power. [Fr. 
cube — L. cubus—QtT. kybos, a die.] 

CUBEB, ku'beb, n. a dried berry of a climb- 
ing shrub, native to Sumatra — useful as a 
remedy for indigestion, piles, sore throat, 
urinary diseases, etc. [Fr. cubebe.] 

CUBIC, kub'ik, CUBICAL, kiib'ik-al, adj. 
pertaining to a cube. — adv. CUB'lOAIi.Y. 

CUBICULUM, kub-ik'u-lum, n. a burial 
chamber in the Catacombs often for a 
single family, having rovmd its walls the 
loculi or compartments for the recep- 
tion of dead bodies. The name was also 
applied to a chapel attached to a basilica 
or other church. [L., a bed-chamber, 
from cubo, to lie.] 

CUBIFORM, kub'i-form, adj. in the /on» 
of a cube. 

CUBIT, kub'it, n. a measure employed by 
the ancients, equal to the length of the 
arm from the elbow to the tip of the 
middle-finger, varying from 18 to 22 
inches. [L. cubitus, (lit.) a bend; akin 
to L. cubare, to lie down ; also to Cup.] 

CUBOID, kub'oid, CUBOIDAL, kub-oid'al, 
adj'. resembUng a cube in shape. [Gr. 
kyboeides, from kybos, a die, and eidos, 

CUCKOLD, kuk'old, n. a man whose wife 
has proved unfaithful. — v.t. to wrong a 
husband by unchastity. [O. Fr. coucuol 
(Mod. Fr. cocu) — coucou, a cuckoo — L. 

CUCKOO, koo'koo, n. a bird which cries 
cuckoo, remarkable for laying its eggs in 
the nests of other birds. [Fr. cou<;ou— 
L. cucidus, from the sound. Cf. Cock, 

CUCUMBER, ku'kum-ber, n. a creeping 
plant, with large oblong fruit used as a 
salad and pickle. [L. cucumis, cucumr 

CUD, kud, n. the food brought from the 
first stomach of a ruminating animal 
back into the mouth and chewed again. 
[Like Quid, what is chewed, from A.S. 
ceowan, to chew.] 

CUDDLE, kud'l, v.t. to hug : to embrace : 
to fondle. — v.i. to lie close and snug to- 

f ether. — n. a close embrace. [Ace. to 
keat, a freq. of M.E. couth, well known, 
familiar. See Uncouth.] 

CUDDY, kud'i, n. a small cabin or cook- 
room, generally in the forepart of a boat 
or lighter : in large vessels applied to 
the officers' cabin under the poopdeck. 

CUDGEL, kud' j el, n. a heavy staff: a club. 
— v.t. to beat with a cudgel '.—pr.p. 
cud'gelling ; pa.p. cud'geUed. fW. cogyl^ 
a club.] 

CUDWEED, kud' wed, n. the popular name 
for many species of plants covered with 
a cottony down. [Prob. corrupted from 
cotton-weed. '\ 

CUE, ku, n. a queue or tail-like twist of 
hair formerly worn at the back of the 
head : a rod used in playing billiards : 
the last words of an actor's speech serv- 
ing as a hint to the next speaker : any 
hint : the part one has to play. [Fr. 
queue — L. cauda, a taU.] 



CUE-BALL, ku-bawl, adj. corruption of 
Skew-bald. " A gentleman on a cue-ball 
iiorse." — B. D. Blackmore. (Provincial 
Eag lish.) 

CUFF, kuf , tt. a stroke with the open hand. 
— v.t. to strike with the open hand. 
. PProm a Scan, xoot seen in Sw. Jeuffa, to 

CUFF, kuf, n. the end of the sleeve near 
the wrist: a covering for the wrist. 
rProb. cog. with CoiF.] 

CUIRASS, kwi-ras' or kwe'-, n. a defensive 
covering for the breast orig. made of 
leather, afterwards of iron fastened with 
«traps and buckles, etc. [Fr. cuirasae — 
Irf)w L. coratia — ^L. coHum, skin, leather ; 
whence Fr. euir.] 

CUIRA66IEE, kwi-ras-er', n. a soldier 
armed with a cuirass. 

CULDEE, kul'de, n. cue of a Celtic frater- 
nity of monks who formerly lived in 
Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. [Ir. ceile 
de, "servant of God." See Gillie.] 

CULINAEY, ka'lin-ar-i, adj. pertaining to 
the Tdtchen or to cookery: used in the 
kitchen. [L. culinaritia — culina, a kitch- 

CULL, kul, v.t. to select : to pick out. [Fr. 
cueillir, to gather — ^L. colligo-~col, to- 
gether, and lego, to gather. A doublet 
of Collect.] 

CULLENDER. See Colandee. 

CULLION, kul'yun, n. a wretch : acoward- 
ly fellow. [Fr. eouillon, a dastard, a 

Eoltroon (It. coglione) — L. coleus, a leather 
a g, the scrotum.] 

CULLY, kul'i, n. (a contr. of Cdllion) a 
mean dupe. — v.t. to deceive meanly.— 
pa.p. cull'ied. 

CULM, kulm, n. the stalk or stem of cereals 
or of grasses. [L. culmits, a stalk or stem. 
Cog. with Haulm.] 

CULMIFEROUS, kul-mif er-us, adj., bear- 
ing stalks or stems. [L. culmus, a stalk, 
and fero, to bear.] 

CULMINATE, kul'min-at, v.i. to come to 
the top : (astron.) to be vertical or at the 
highest point of altitude : to reach the 
highest point. [Coined, as if from a Low 
L. culmtno, from L. culmen, properly 
columen, a summit. See Column.] 

CULMINATION, kul-min-a'shun, n. act of 
culminating : the top or highest point : 
(astron.) transit or passage of a body 
across the meridian or highest point for 
the day. 

CULOTtiC, koo-lot'ik, adj. having breech- 
es ; hence, pertaining to the respectable 
classes of society : opposed to Sansou- 
lottic (which see). " Young Patriotism, 
Culottic and Sansculottic, rushes for- 
ward." — Carlyle. 

CULOTTISM, koo-lot'izm, n. the princi- 
ples, rule, or influence of the more re- 
spectable classes of society. Carlyle. [See 


CULPABILITY, kul-pa-bU'i-ti, CULPA- 
BLENESS, kul'pa-bl-nes, n. liability to 

CULPABLE, kul'pa-bl, adj. faulty, crimi- 
nal. — adv. Cul'pably. [CL Fr. — L. cul- 
pabilis, worthy of blame — culpa, afault.| 

CULPRIT, kul'prit, n. one culpable or in 
fault : a criminal : in Eug. law, a prisoner 
accused, but not tried. [For eulpate, 
from old law L. cidpatus, a person ac- 
cu sed.1 

CULT, kult, -n. a system of religious be- 
lief, worship. pL cultus — colo, cultus^ 
to worship/l 

CULTIVATE, kul'ti-vat, v.t. to till or pro- 
duce by tillage : to prepare for crops : to 
devote attention to : to civilize or refine. 
— n. Cul'ttvator. [Low L. cultivo, cul- 
tivatus — ^L. coZo, cmtus, to till, to wor- 

CULTIVATION, kul-ti-va'shun, n. the art 
or practice of cultivating : civilization s 

CULTURABLE, kul'tur-a-bl, n. capable of 
becoming cultured or refined. 

CULTURE, kul'tur, n., cultivation : the 
state of being cultivated: advancement 
or refinement the result of cultivation. 
— 'V.t. to cultivate : to improve. 

CULTUS, kult'us, n. same as Cult. Helps. 
Also the moral or aesthetic state or conr 
dition of a certain time or place, [L.] 

CULVER, kul'ver, CULVERIN, kul'ver-in^ 
n. an ancient cannon, so called from its 
long, thin, serpent-like shape, or from its 
being ornamented with the figures of 
serpents. [Fr. eoulevrine, from cotUeuvre 
— L. coluber, a serpent.] 

CULVERT, kul'vert, n. an arched water- 
course, etc. [Prob. from Fr. couler, to 
flo w — L. colore — colum, it strainer.] 

OUM-iEAN, ku-m§'an, adj. of or pertaining 
to Cumce, an ancient, city on the coast of 
Campania, and the earliest of all the 
Greek settlensents in Italy ; as, the cave 
of the Cicnujean sibyl. 

CUMBER, kum'ber, v.t. to trouble or hin- 
der with something useless : to retard, 
perplex, trouble. [O. Fr. eombrer, to 
hinder — Low L. combrus, a heap ; corr. 
of L. cumultis, a heap.] 

CUMBERSOME, kum'ber-sum, ac{;. trouble- 

CUMBRANCE, kum'brans, n. encum- 

V branee. 

Cumbrous, kum.'brus, adj. hindering; 
obstructing : heavy : giving trouble.— 
adv. Cum'brously. — n. Cum'bbousness.J 

CUMIN, CUMMIN, kum'in, n. a plant, the 
seeds of which are valuable for their car- 
minative qualities. [L. cuminum,ihrough. 
the Gr. ki^minon, from Heb. kammon.J 

CUMMER:^UND, kum'-mer-bund, n. in In- 
dia, a sash, or girdle. [Hind. Kamar- 

CUMULATE, ktini'u-lat, v.t. to heap to- 
gether : to accumulate. [L. cicmulo, 
-attim — cumulus, a heap.] 

CUMULATION, kum'u-la-shun. Same as 

CUMULATIVE, kum'u-la-tiv, adj. increas- 
ing by successive additions. 



CUMULUS, kQ'mii-lus, n. a species of 

CUNARDER, kun-ar-der, n. one of the line 
of steamships founded by Sir Samuel 
Cunard (1787-1865). 

CUNEAL, ku'ne-al, CUNEATE, ktt'ne-at, 
adj. of the form of a wedge. [L. cuneus, 
a wedg-e.l 

CUNEIFORM, ku-ne'i-form, CUNIFORM, 
ku'ni-form, adj. wedge-shaped — specially 
applied to the old Babylonian and Assy^ 
rian writing, of which the characters 
have a wedge-shape. 

CUNNING, kun'ing, adj., Icnowing : skill- 
ful : artful : crafty. — n. knowledge : 
skill : faculty of using stratagem to ac- 
complish a purpose. — adv. Cunn'ingly. 
[\4l.S. cunnan, to know.] 

CUP, kup, n. a vessel used to contain liq- 
uid : a drinking-vessel : the liquid con- 
tained in a cup : that which we must re- 
ceive or undergo : affictions : blessings. 
— v.t. to extract blood from the body dv 
means of cupping-glasses from whicn 
the air has been exhausted:— ; cupp'- 
ing; pa.p. cupped'. [A.S. cuppe, Fr. 
coupe. It. coppa, a cup, the head ; all 
from L. cupa, cuppa, a tub, a drinking- 

CUPBOARD, kupTjord or kub'urd, n. a 
place for keeping victuals, dishes, etc. 
jrCup and BOASD, a table or shelf.] 

CUPID, kii'pid, n. the god of love. [L. 
Cumdo — cupio, to desire.] 

CUPIDITY, ku-pid'i-ti, n., eager desire for: 
covetousness : lust after. [L. cupidii^c 
— cupidus, desirous.] 

CUPOLA, kQ'po-la, n. a cup-shaped vault 
on the summit of a tower : a dome. [It. ; 
dim. of Low L. cupa, a cup — L. cupa, a 
tub. See Cup.] 

CUPREOUS. See under Copperish. 

CUR, kur, n. a worthless, degenerate dog : 
a churlish fellow.— ad/. Cubr'ish. [Dut. 
leorre, Dan. kurre, to whir ; from its 

CURABLE, kur'a-bl, adj. that may be 
cured : capable of curing. " A curable 
vertue against all diseases." — Sandys. — n. 


CURAQOA, koo-ra-so',w. a liqueur so named 
from the island of Curayoa in the West 
Indies, where it was first made. 

CURACY, ktir'a-si, n. the office, employ- 
ment, or benefice of a curate : also the 
state, condition, or office of a guardian ; 
guardianship. " By way of curacy and 
r)rotectorship." — Roger North. 

Curate, kur at, n. one who has the cure 
or care of souls, so in Pr. Bk. : an inferior 
clergyman in the Church of England who 
assists a rector or vicar in the discharge 
of his duties. [Low L. curatus, from L. 
cura, care.] 

CURATIVE, kur'a-tiv, adj. tending to cure. 

CURATOR, kur-a'tor, n. one who has the 
care of anything : a superintendent : one 
appointed by law as guardian. 

CURB, kurb, v.t. to bend to one's will : to 

subdue : to restrain or check : to furnish 
with or guide by a curb. — n. that which 
curbs : a check or hindrance : a chain or 
strap attached to the bit of a bridle for 
restraining the horse. [Fr. courber, from 
L. curvus, crooked, bent.] 
CURBSTONE, kurb'ston, n. a stone placed 
edgeways against earth or stone work to 
check it. 
CURD, kurd, n., milk thickened or coagur 
lated : the cheese part of milk, as dis- 
tinguished from the whey. [Celt., as in 
Gael, gruth, Ir. cruth, curd, cruthaim, I 
CURDLE, kurd'l, v.i. to turn into curd : to 
congeal: to thicken. — v.t. to cause to 
tur n into curd, or to congeal. 
CURDY, kurd'i, adj. Uke or full of curd. 
Cure, kur, n., care of souls or spiritual 
charge : care of the sick : act of healing ; 
that which heals : a remedy. — v.t. to heal; 
to preserve, as by drying, salting, etc. j 
—pr.p. cur'ing ; pa.p. cured'. [O Fr. cure 
—L. cura, solicitude, care ; not of the 
same origin as Cabe.] 
CURELESS, kur'les, adj. that cannot be 

CURETTE, ku-ret', v.t. (med.) to scrape 
with a steel instrument called a curette. 
CURFEW, kur'fu, n. (lit.) cover-fire: in 
feudal times the ringing of a bell at eight 
o'clock, as a signal to cover or put out 
all fires and lights. [Fr. couvrefeu, from 
couvrir, to cover, and feu, fire, from L. 
Curio, ku'-ri-o, «. any article of virtu or 
bric-a-brac, or any rare and curious ar- 
ticle: hence CuRioso, ku-ri-o-so, n. a col- 
lector or admirer of curios. 
CURIOSITY, kur-i-osl-ti, n., state or 
quality of being curious : inquisitiveness: 
that which is curious : anything rare or 
CURIOUS, ktir'i-us, adj. anxious to learn : 
inquisitive: showing great care or nicety: 
skillfully made : singular : rare. — axw. 
Cur'iously. — n. Cur'iousness. [Fr. 
curieux — L. curiosus — cura.] 
CURL, kurl, v.t. to twist into ringlets : to 
coil. — v.i. to shrink into ringlets : to rise 
in undulations : to writhe : to ripple : to 
play at the game of curling. — n. a ringlet 
of hair, or what is like it : a wave, bend- 
ing, or twist. [Orig. cruU ; Dut. krullen, 
Dan. krolle, to curl.] 
CURLEW, kur'lu, n. one of the wading., 
birds, having a very long slender bul 
and legs, and a short tail. [Fr. corlieu ; 
^probably from its cry.] 
CURLING, kurl'ing, n. a game common in 
Scotland, consisting in hurling heavy 
stones along a sheet of ice, Uke playing 
at bowls. 
CURLY, kurl'i, adj., having curls: full of 

curls. — n. Curl'diess. 
CURMUDGEON, kur-muj'un, n. an ava- 
ricious, ill-natured fellow : a miser. — 
adj. Cxtrmxjd'oeonly. [O. E. commud- 
gin. sig. corn-hoarding, from com and 



two horses 

mudge or mug, or mooch, to hide or 
hoard ; seen in muglard, a miser ; from 
O. Fr. mvxier, Fr. musser, to conceal.] 

CURRANT, kur'ant, n. a small kind of 
raisin or dried ^ape, imported from the 
Levant : the fruit of several gardeij 
shrubs. [From Corinth, in Greece.] 

CURRENCY, kur'en-si, n. circulation; 
that which circulates, as the money of a 
country : general estimation. 

CURRENT, kur'ent, adj., running or flowr 
ing : passing from person to person : 
generally received : now passing : pres- 
ent. — n. a running or flouring : a stream s 
a portion of water or air moving in a cer- 
tain direction : course. — adv. Curr'ent- 
LY. [L. currens, currentis — curro, cur- 
sus, to run.] 

CURRICLE, kur'i-kl, n. a 
open chaise, drawn by 
abreast : a chariot. [L. 
from cuT^o.] 

CURRICLE, kur'i-kl, v.i. to drive in a cur- 
ricle or as in a curricle. " Who is this 
that comes curricling through the level 
yellow sunlight ? " — Carlyle. 

CURRICULUM, kur-ik'u-lum, n. a course, 
esp. the course of study at a university. 

CURRIER, kur'i-er, n. one who curries or 
dresses tanned leather. 

CXJRR"S , kur'i, n. a kind of sauce or sea- 
soning much used in India and elsewhere, 
and compounded of pepper, ginger, and 
other spices : a stew mixed with curry- 
powder. [Pers. hhHtrdi, broth, juicy 
me ats, from khUrdan, to eat.] 

CURRY, kur'i, v.t. to dress leather : to rub 
down and dress a horse : to beat : to 
scratch : — pr.p. curry'ing ; pa.p. curr'ied. 

— ^TO CURRY FAVOR (corr. of CURRY FA- 
TELL, to rub down a horse, favell being a 
common old name for a horse), to seek 
favor by flattery. [Fr. corroyer — corroi, 
O. Fr. conroi ; from a Teut. root present 
in Ice. reidhi, tackle, Dan. rede, to set in 
order, E. ready. See Ready.] 

CURSE, kurs, v.t. to invoke or wish evil 
upon : to devote to perdition : to vex or 
torment. — v.i. to utter imprecations : to 
swear. — n. the invocation or wishing of 
evil or harm upon : evil invoked on an- 
other : torment. — n. Curs'er. [A.S. cur- 
sian — curs, a curse, perh. from Sw. and 
Dan. kors, a cross, which is derived from 
O. Fr. crois. See Cross.] 

CURSED, kurs'ed, adj. under a curse : de- 
serving a curse : blasted by a curse : 

CURSIVE, kur'siv, adj., running, as applied 
to handwriting : flowing. [L. curro, cur* 
sus, to run.] 

CURSORY, kur'sor-i, adj. hasty : supers 
ficial : careless.— adv. Cur'sorily. [L. 

CURT, kurt, adj., short: concise. — adv. 
Curt'ly. — n. Cijrt'ness. [L. curtus, 
shortened ; Sans, krit, to cut, separate.] 

CURTAIL, kur-tal', v.t. to cut snort: to 

cut off a part : to abridge :— w*.p. cur- 
tail'ing ; poj?. curtailed'. [Old spelling 
curtal, O. Fr. courtault, It. cortaldo — 
L. curtus.'] 

CURTAIN, Kur'tin, n. drapery hung round 
and inclosing a bed, etc. : the part of a 
rampart between two bastions ; also, an 
ensign or flag. Shak. — v.t. to inclose or 
furnish with curtains. [Fr. courtine — 
Low L. cortina; from L. cors, cortis, a 
place inclosed, a court.] 

COURTILAGE, kur'til-aj, n. in law, a 
court-yard, backside, or piece of ground, 
lying near and belonging to a dwelling- 
house : the limit of the premises within 
which housebreaking can be committed 
under English law. [O. Fr, courtilage, 
from courtil, a court-yard, from L. cors, 

CURTSY, kurt'si. Same as Courtesy, the 

CURULE, ku'rool, adj. applied to a chair 
in which the higher Roman magistrates 
had a right to sit. [L. currus, a chariot 
— curro, to run.] 

CURVATURE, kur'va-tur, n. a curving of 
bending: the continual bending or the 
amount of bending from a straight line. 
(Ti. curvatura.} 

CURVE, kurv, n. anything bent: a bent 
line : an arch. — v.t. to bend : to form 
into a curve. [L. curvus, crooked. See 

CURVET, kurVet, n. a certain leap of a 
horse in which he gives his body a curve: 
a leap or frolic. — v.i. to leap in curvets : 
to leap: to frisk:— pr.p. curv'eting; pa.p. 

CURVILINEAR, kur-vi-lin'i-ar, CURVI- 
LINEAL, kur-vi-Un'i-al, adj. bounded by 
cun^ed lines. [L. curvus, and linea, a 

CUSCtJS-GRASS, kus'kus-gras, n. a pecul- 
iar kind of British Indian grass {Andro- 
pogon muricatus) used for screens and 
blinds. Called also KJHUS. 

CUSHAT, koosh'at, n. the ringdove or 
woodpigeon. [Prov. E. cowshot ; from 
A.S. c^isceote.'] 

CUSHION, koosh'un, n. a case filled with 
some soft, elastic stuff, for resting on : a 
pillow. — v.t. to seat on or furnish with a 
cushion. [Fr. coussin. It. cuscino, from 
L. culcitinum, dim. of culcita, mattress. 
See Counterpane and Quilt.] 

CUSHITE, kush'it, adj. of or pertaining to 
a branch of the Hamite family which 
spread along tracts extending from the 
higher Nile to the Euphrates and Tigris, 
or to their language. Used also substan- 
tively. [From Cush the son of Ham.] 

CUSP,' kusp, n. a point : the point or horn 
of the moon, etc. [L. euspis, a point. 1^ 

kus'pi-dat-ed, adj. (f>ot.) having a sharp 
end or potnf. [h. cuspidatus — cusjns.] 

CUSTARD, kus'tard, n. a composition of 
milk, eggs, etc., sweetened and flavored. 
[Once spelled custade, a corr. of crustade. 



a pie with crust ; from O. Fr. eroustade 
— ii. enattatus, crusted. See CauST.] 

CTUSTAED-APPLE, kus'tard-apl, n, the 
fruit of a W. Indian tree, having an eat- 
able pulp, like a custard. 

CUSTODIAXi, kus-to'di-al, a4}- pertaining 
to custody. 

CUSTODIAN, kus-to'di-an, n. one who has 
custody or care, e^ of some pubhc 

CUSTODY, kus'to-di, n. a watching or 
ffuarding : care : security : inaprison- 
ment. [L. custodia, from custos, custodis, 
a watcher or keeper.] 

CUSTOM, kus'tum, n. what one is wont to 
do : usage : frequent repetition of the 
same act : a frequenting of a shop to buy 
^oods : r^ular trade or business : a tax 
on goods: — ^l. duties imposed on imports 
and exports. [O. Fr. custi*me, costitme ; 
from L. consuetudo — consuesco, consttetns, 
to accustom.] 

CUSTOMARY, kus'tnm-ar-i, adf. accordii^ 
to use and wont : holding or held by cus- 
tom. — adv. Cus'tomakily. — n. Gus'tom- 


CUSTOMER, kus'tum-er, n. one accustomed 
to frequent a certain place of business : a 

CUSTOM-HOUSE, kus'tum-hows, n. the 
place where eujitoms or duties on exports 
and imports are coUected. 

CUT, kut, v.t. to make an incision: to cleave 
or pass through : to divide : to carve or 
hew : to wound or hurt: to affect deeply: 
to castrate: — pr.p. cutt'ing ; jm.t. and 
pa.p. cut. — n. a cleaving or dividing : a 
stroke or blow: an incision or wound: a 
piece cut off: an engraved block, or the 
picture from it : manner of cutting, or 
mshion. — A shobt out, a short or near 

Eassage. [W. cwtau, to shorten, cwtt, a 
ttle piece ; ir. cutaieh, to curtafl.] 

CUTANEOUS, ku-ta'ne-us, ac^'. belonging 
to the skin. 

CUT-AWAY, kut'-a-wa, n. a coat, the skirts 
of which are rounded or cut away so 
that they do not hang down as in a frock- 
coat. " A green cut-away with brass 
buttons." — T. Hughes. Used also adject- 

^rroly. ** A brown cut-away coat." 

CUTCHA, knch'a, n. m Hindustan, a weak 
kind of Ume used in inferior buildings ; 
hence, used adiectively in the sense of 
temporary : makeshift : inferior : in con- 
tradistinction to pucka, which implies 
stability or superiority. 

CUTENESS, kut'nes, n. the quality of 
being cute : sharpness : smartness : acute- 
ness. " Who could have thought so in- 
nocent a face could cover so much cute- 
ness f " — Ooldsmifh. 

CUTICLE, ku'ti-kl, n. the outermost or 
thin skin. [L. euHctda, dim. of cutiSy the 
skin, E. Hide.] 

CUTLASS, kut'las, n. a broad curving 
sword with one edge. [Fr. coutelas, from 
L. cultellus, dim. (A cutter, a ploughshare, 
a knife.] 

CUTLER, kutler, n. one "wiio makes or 
sells knives. [JPr. coutelier, from root of 


CUTLERY, fcut'ler-i, n. the business of a 
cutler : edged or cutting instruments in 

CUTLET, kut'let, n. a slice of meat cut off 
lor cooking, esp. of mutton or veal, gen- 
erally the rib and the meat belonging to 
it. [Fr. cotelette, dim. of edte, from 'L. 
eosta , a rib. See Coast.] 

CUTTER, kut'er, n. the person or thing 
that cuts : a small swift vessel with one 
mae t and sharp bows that cut the water. 

CUTTING, kut'ing, n. a dimding or lopping 
off : an incision : a p iece cut off : a twig. 

CUTTLE, kut'l, CUTTLE-FISH, kut'l-fish, 
n. a kind of mollusc, remarkable for its 

Jjower of ejecting a black inky liquid. 
A.S. cudele : origin dub.] 
TT-WATER, kut'-waw'ter, n. the fore- 
part of a ship's prow. 

CYCLE, sl'kl, n. a period of time in wfaioh 
events happen in a certain order, and 
which constantly repeats itself : an imag- 
inary circle or orbit in the heavens. [Gr. 
kyMos, a circle ; akin to Cikcle.] 

CYCLIC, si'klik, CYCLICAL, si'klik-al, 
*adj. pertaining to or containing a cycle. 

CYCLOID, si'kloid, n. a figure like a circle : 
a curve made by a point in a circle, when 
the circle is rolled along a straight line. 
— of^. Cycloid' Aiu [Gr. kyklos, and eidoe, 

CYCLONE, si'klon, n. a, circular or rotaitory 
storm. [Coined from Gr. kyklon, pr,p. 
of kykloo, to whirl round — kyklos.] 

di-a, n. the circle or compass of himian 
knowledge : a work containing informa- 
tion on every department, or on a partic- 
ular department of knowledge. — a^'. 
Cycloped'ic. [Gr. kyklos, a circle, and 
ipaideia, learning.] 

CYCLOPEAN, 8l-kl5-pe'aa, adj. of or like 
the Cyclopes, a fabled race of giants with 
one circular eye in the middle of the fore- 
head : giant-Uke : vast. [Gr. kyklopeioB 
— kyklops — kyklos, a circle, and dps, an 

CYCLORAMA, si-kl6-ra'-ma, n. a circular 
painted panorama appearing in natural 
perspective. [Gr. kyklos, circte, and he- 
rama, view.] 

CYDIPPE, si-dip'pe, n. a genus of coelen- 
terate animals belonging to the order 
Ctenophora, and allied to the genus 
Beroe. One member of the genus (C 
pileus) is a very beautiful object, and is 
common in the seas round Britain. The 
body is globular in shape and adorned 
with eight bands of cUia serving as its 
means of locomotion and presenting bril- 
liant rainbow hues. From the body are 
pendent two long filaments, to which are 
attached numerous shorter threads, and 
these appendages can be protruded and 
retracted at wUl. 

CYGNET, sig'net, n. a young awan. [Ace 



to Diez, dim. of Fr. cygne, whose old 
form cisne (Sp. eisne, a swan) is from 
Low L. cecinus, and is not connected with 
L. cygnus, Gr. kyknos, a swan.] 

CYLINDER, sil'in-der, n. a solid circular 
or roHer-like body, whose ends are equal 
parallel circles. [Gr. Tcylindros, from 
fcylindo, to roll.] 

si-lin'drik-al, adj. having the form or 
properties of a cylinder. 

CYMAGRAPH, si'-ma-graf, n. a device for 
defining the contour of profiles, moldinga, 
etc. [Gr. kyma, a billow, and sfx. graph.'] 

CYMBAL, sim'bal, n. a hollow brass, basin- 
like, musical instrument, beaten together 
in pairs. [L. cymbalum, from Gr. kyrri' 
halon — kymbe, the hollow of a vessel ; 
akin to E. Hump.] 

CYMBOCEPHALIC, simT)5-se-fal'ik, ad^'. 
shaped like a bowl or cup : round : said 
of the skull. [Gr. kymhos, a cup or bowl, 
and kephale, the skull.] 

CYNIC, sin'ik, CYNICAL, sin'ik-al, adj., 
dog-like : surly : snarling : austere : mis- 
anthropic. — adv. CYN'iCALLr. [Gr. kyni- 
kos, dog-like, from kyon, kynos, a dog ; 
akin to L. can-is, E. Hound.] 

CYNIC, sin'ik, n. one of a sect of ancient 
philosophers, so called from their morose 
and contemptuous views: a morose man: 
a snarler. 

CYNICISM, sin'i-sizm, n., surliness : con- 
tempt for human nature : heartlessness, 

CYNOSURE, sin'o-shoor or si'-, n. the do^s 
tail, a constellation containing the north- 

star : hence, anything that strongly at- 
tracts attention. [Gr. kyon, kynos, a 
dog, oura, a tail.] 

CYPHER-TUNNEL, si'fer-tun-nel, n. a 
mock chimney : a chimney built merely 
for outward show. "The device of 
cypher-tunnels or mock chimneys merely 
for uniformity of building." — Fuller. 

CYPRESS, si'pres, n. an evergreen tree 
whose branches used to be carried at 
funerals : hence, a symbol of death. [Fr. 
cypres — L. cupressus — Gr. kyparissosT] 

CYST, sist, n. (Jit.) a chest : a bag in ani- 
mal bodies containing morbid matter, 
[From root of Chest.] 

CYTODE, si'tod, n. in physiol. a name 
given by Haeckel to a kind of non- 
nucleated cell containing protoplasm to 
distinguish it from the cell proper which 
has a nucleus. Nineteenth Century. 

CZAR, zar, TSAR, tsfir, n. the emperor of 
Russia.— /em. Czarina, za-re'na, the em- 
press of Russia. [Russ. tsare, a king ; 
its conn, with G^r. kaiser, L. ccesar, a 
king or emperor, is doubtful.] 

CZAREVITCH, zar'e-vitch, CESARE- 
VlTCH, se-zilr'e-vitch, n. the eldest son 
of the czar.— fern. Czarevna, zar-eVna, 
his consort. [Russ. tsare, a czar, and 
■m'te (pronounced vitch), descended from.] 

CZECH, chech, n. the name applied to a 
member of the most westerly branch of 
the great Slavonic family of races. They 
have their headquarters in Bohemia, 
where they arrived in the second half of 
the sixth century. Their language (also 
called Czech) is closely allied to the Pol- 
ish. Written also Csech. Tsech. 


DAB, dab, v.t. to strike gently with some- 
thing soft or moist : — pr.p. dabb'ing ; 
pa.p. dabbed'. — n. a gentle blow : a small 
lump of anything soft or moist : a small 
flat fish like a flounder, but with a rough 
back. [E.; from a Teut. root present in 
O. Dut. ddbben, to pinch, Ger. tappe, a 
pat. E. Tap is a doublet. See also Dub.] 

DAB, dab, n. an expert person. [Prob. a 
corr. of Adept.] 

DABBER, dab'er, n. one who or that which 
dabs : specifically, (a) in printing, a ball 
formed of an elastic material and fitted 
with a handle, formerly used for inking a 
form of type : (6) in engr. a silk-covered 
elastic ball used for spreading etching 
ground upon steel or copper plates: (c) in 
stereotyping, a hard hair brush used in 
the papier-mache process for dabbing 
the back of the damp paper, and so driv- 
ing it into the interstices of the type. 

DABBLE, dab'l, v.t. to wet by little daba 
or strokes : to spatter. — v.t. to play in 
water with hands or feet : to do any- 
thing in a trifling way. [Freq. of Dab. J 

DABBLER, dab'ler, n. one who dabbles or 
does things in a superficial, trifling way. 

DABCHICK, dab'chik, n. a small water- 
fowl that dives or dabbles in the water. 

DACE, das, DARE, dar, DART, dart, n. a 
small river fish, so called from the quick- 
ness of its motions. [M.E. darce — O. Fr. 
dars — Low L. dardvs, a dart or javelin 
(Fr. dard, a dart or a dace).J 

DACHSHUND, daks-hoond, n. a badger-dog. 
[Grer. dachs, a badger — hund, dog.] 

DACIAN, da'shi-an, adj. pertaining or be- 
longing to the Dad, an ancient barbar- 
ous people, whose territory extended 
over parts of the modern Hungary, 
Roumania, Transylvania, and neighbor- 
inoj' regions. 

DACOIT, da-koit', n. a band of robbers in 
India and Burma. [Hind, dakait, a rob- 

DACTYL, dak'til, n. in Latin and Greek 
poetry, a foot of three syllables, one long 
followed by two short, so called from its 
likeness to the joints of a Jinger : in En- 
glish, a foot of three syllables, with the 
first accented, as merrily. [L. dactylua 
— Gr. daktylos, a finger. See Digit.] 

DACTYLIC, dak-til'ik, adj. relating to or 
consisting chiefly of dactyls. 



DACTYLOLOGY, dak-til-ol'o-ji, n. the art 
of talking with the fingers, like the aeaf 
and dumb. [Gr. daktyloa, and logos, dis- 
course — legd, to speak.] 

DAD, dad, DADDY, dad'l, n., father, a 
word used by children. [W. tad; Gr. 
tata. Sans. 2a^a.] 

DADO, da'do, n. tlie solid block or cube 
forming' the body of a pedestal : w^ns- 
coating round the lower part of a wall. 
[It. — ^L. datus {talus, a die, being under- 
stood), given or thrown forth — daret to 
give. Doublet, DiB.] 

DAEMONIC, de-mon'ik, ady. pertaining to 
or proceeding from a supernatural be- 
ing or from supernatural enthusiasm. 
"He may even show sudden impulses 
which have a false air of doemonic 
strength, because they seemed inexplic- 
able." — Charge Eliot. [Gr. daimon, a 

DAFFODIL, daf'o-dil, DAFFODILLY, daf- 
o-dil-i, n. a yellow flower of the lily 
tribe, also called King's spear. [M.E. 
affodiUe — O. Fr. asphodile—Gr. and L. 
asphodelus; the d is prefixed accident- 

DAFT, daft, adj. silly, weak-minded: im- 
reasonably merry. 

DAGGER, dag'er, n. a short sword for 

. stabbing : a mark of reference ( f ). [W. 

dagr, Ir. daigear, Fr. dague. It. daga.] 

DAGGLE, dag'l, v.t. and v.i. to wet or 
grow wet by dragging on the wet 
ground. [Freq. of pro v. E. dag, to 
sprinkle with water, from a Scand. 
root seen in Sw. dagg, £. Dew.] 

DAGO, da'-go, n. in the United States, name 
given loosely to Spanish- or Italian-bom 
men. [dim. of Sp. Diego.] 

DAGUERREOTYPE, da-ger'o-tip, n. a 
method of taking sun-pictures on metal 
plates : a picture thus produced. [Fr., 
from Daguerre, the inventor, and Type.] 

DAHLIA, dal'i-a, n. a garden plant with a 
large beautiful flower. [From Dahl, a 
Swedish botanist.] 

DAIMIO, di'-myo, n. a Japanese territorial 

noble under the old feudal system: — pi. 
Daimios, di'-myos. [Japanese.] 

DAILY, d&li, adj. and adv. every day. 

DAINTIFY, dan'ti-fi, v.t. to make dainty : 
to weaken by over refinement. " My 
father charges me to give you his kindest 
love, and not to daintify his affection 
into respects or compliments." — Miss 
Bumey. [E. dainty, and L. faxio, to 

DAINTY, dan'ti, adj. pleasant to the pal- 

■ ate : delicate : fastidious. — n. that which 
is daintjjr, a d«licacy. — adv. Dain'tily. — 
n. Dain TINESS. [M.E. deintee, anything 
worthy or cosfly — O. Fr. daintie, wor- 
thiness — L. dignitas. See Dignity.] 

DAIRA, da'ir-a, n. the private estates of 
the Klhedive of Egypt. 

Dairy, da'ri, n. the place where milk is 
kept, and butter and cheese made : an 
establishment for the supply of milk. 

rSJ.E. dey, dairymaid — Ice. deigja, a 
dairymaid ; orig. a kneader of Dough, in 
Ice. d£ig : or from a root sig. to milk. 
See Dug.] 

DAIS, da'is, n. a raised floor at the upper 
end of the dining-hall where the nigh 
table stood : a raised floor with a seat 
and canopy- [O. Fr. dais — Low L. 
discus, a table — L. discus, a quoit — Gr. 
diskos. See Dish, Dbc.] 

DAISIED, da'zid, adj. covered with dai- 

DAISY, da'zi, n. (Jtit.) the day's eye, a com- 
mon spring flower, so called from its sun- 
like appearance. [A.S. dceges ege, day's 
eye, the sunj^ 

DAX£, dal, DELL, del, n. the low ground 
between hills : the valley through which 
a river flows. — ru DaL£S'kak. [A.S. 
doel; Scand. dal, GJer. thai, orig. meau- 
vas " cleft." See Deal, Dell.] 

DAQjIANCE, dal'i-ans, n., dallying, toy- 
ing, or trifling: interchange of embraces: 

DALLY, dal'i, v.i. to lose time by idleness 
or trifling; to play: — j)a.v. dall'ied. 
[A.i5. dol, foolish ; Ger. dahkn, to trifle : 
perh. conn, with Dwell.! 

DALMATIAN, dal-ma'-shun, adj. belonging 
to a strip of Austrian territory bordering 
the Adriatic, called Dalmatia. 

DAM, dam, n. an embankment to restrain 
water. — v.t. to keep back water by a 
bank or other obstruction: — pr.p. danim'- 
ing ; pa.p. dammed'. [E., and in all the 
Teut. tongues.] 

DAM, dam, n. a mother, applied to quadru- 
peds. [A form of Dame. J 

DAMAGE, dam'aj, n., hurt, injury, loss: 
the value of what is lost:— pZ. compensa- 
tion for loss or injury. — v.t. to harm, in- 
jure. — v.i. to take injury. [0. PV. dam- 
age (Ft. dommage), from L. damnum, 
loss, injury^ 

DAMAGEABLE, dam'aj-a-bl, ac^'. capable 
of being damaged. 

DAMASK, dam'ask, n. figured stuff orig. 
of silk, now of linen, cotton, or wool.—- 
v.t. to flower or variegate, as cloth. — adj. 
of a red color, Uke that of a damask 
rose. [From Dam/iscus, in Syria, where 
it was orig. made.] 

DAME, dam, n, the mistress of a house : a 
matron : a noble lady. [Fr. dame — L. 
domina, a mistress, y^wi. of doininu^, a 
master. Doublet, Dam, a mother, see 

Damn, dam, v.t. to censure or condemn : 
to sentence to eternal punishment. — n. 
an oath : a curse. [Fr. damner — ^L. 
damnare, to condemn, from damnum, 
loss, penalty.] 

DAMNABLE, dam'na-bl, adj., deserving or 
tending to damnation : hateful : perni- 
cious. — adv. Dam'nably. — n. Dam'na3LE- 
NESS. [Late L. damnabilis.] 

DAMNATION, dam-na'shun, n. (theol.) the 
punishment of the impenitent in the 
future state : eternal punishment. 



DAMNATORY, dam'na-tor-i, adj. contain- 
ing- sentence of condemnation. [L. dmn- 

DAMP, damp, w., vapor, mist: moist air: 
lowness of spirits:— j)Z. dangerous rapors 
in mines, etc. — v.t. to wet slightly: to 
chill : to discourage : to check : to make 
dull. — adj. moist : foggy.— adu. Damp'ly. 
— n. Damp'ness. [E. ; akin to Dut. damp, 
Gter. dampf, vapor.] 

DAMPER, damp'er, n. that which checks 
or moderates: {Australia) a kind of 
hastily-baked bread. 

DAMSEL, dam'zel, n. a little dame or lady : 
a young unmarried woman : a girl. [Fr. 
demoiselle, O. Fr. damoisel, a page — ^Low 
L. domicellus, dim. of dominus, a lord.] 

DAMSON, dam'zn, n. a small black plum. 
[Shortened from Damascene — Damascus. 
See Damask.] 

DANCE, dans, vA. to move with measured 
steps to music. — v.t. to make to dance or 
jump. — n. the movement of one or more 

ftersons with measured steps to music. 
Fr. danser, from O. Ger. danson, to draw 
along, Gter. tanzen.] 

DANCER, dans'er, n. one who practices 

DANCING, dans'ing, n. the act or art of 
moving in the dance. 

DANDELION, dan-de-lfun, n. a common 
plant with a yellow flower, so called from 
the jagged tooth-like edges of its leaf. 
[Fr. dent de lion, tooth of the lion.] 

DANDLE, dan'dl, v.t. to play with: to 
fondle or toss in the arms, as a baby. 
[E. ; cog. with Gter. tdndeln — tand, a toy ; 
allied in Scot, dander, to go about idly, 
to trifle.] 

DANDRIFF, dand'rif, DANDRUFF, dand'- 
ruf , n. a scaly scurf which grows on the 
head, esp. under the hair and beard. [W. 
ton, surface, skin, and drwg, bad.] 

DANDY, dan'di, n. a. foppish, silly fellow : 
one who pays much attention to dress. 
[Perh. from Fr. dandin, a ninny ; and 
prob. from root of Dandle.] 

DANE, dan, n. a native of Denmark. 

DANGER, dan'jer, n. a hazzard or risk: 
insecurity. [O. Fr. dangier, absolute 
power (of a feudal lord), hence power 
to hurt — Low L. dominium, feudal au- 
thority — L. dominus, a lord. See Dun^ 


DANGEROUS, dan'jer-us, adj. full of dan 
ger : unsafe : insecure. — adv. Dan'geiu 


DANGLE, dang^gl, v.i. to hang loosely or 
with a sunnging motion: to follow any 
one about. — v.t. to make to dangle. 
[From a Scand. root, found in Ice. dingla, 
to swing to and fro, freq. of Deng, to 
throw, push.] 

DANGLEMENT, dang'gl-ment, n. the act 
of dangling. " The very suspension and 
danglement of any puddings whatsoever 
right over his ingle-nook."— I^Z. Lytton. 

DANGLER, dang'gler, n. one who dangles 
about others, especially about women. 

DANISH, dan'ish, adj. belonging to Den- 

DANITE, dan'it, n. a member of a secret 
society among the Mormons, who, it is 
believed, took an oath to support the 
authority and execute the commands of 
the leaders of the sect at all hazards. 
Many massacres and robberies committed 
during the early history of Utah are as- 
cribed to the Danites. [From Dan. See 
Gen. xlix. 16.] 

DANK, dangk, ac^j. moist, wet. [Perh. 
conn, with Dew. See also Daggle.] 

DANTESQUE, dan-tesk', adj. pertaining or 
relating to Dante Alighieri, the Italian 

Eoet : resembling or characteristic of 
►ante's manner or style : more especially, 
characterized by sublimity and gloomi- 
ness, like his pictures of the Inferno. 

DAPPER, dap'er, adj. quick : little and 
active : neat : spruce. [Dut. dapper, 
brave ; Ger. tapfer, quick, brave.] 

DAPPLE, dap'l, ac^'. marked with spots.— 
v.t. to variegate with spots. [See Dim- 

DARAPTI, da-rap'ti, n. in logic, a mne- 
monic word, designating a syllogism of 
the third figure, comprising a univ»rsai 
afiirmative major premise, a particular 
affirmative minor premise, and a particu- 
lar affirmative conclusion. 

DARDAN, dar'dan, DARDANIAN, dar-da'- 
ni-an, adj. of or pertaining to the Dar- 
dani or Trojans, a people mentioned in 
the Iliad, to Dardania, their territory, 
or to Dardanus, the founder of the race, 
and ancestor of Priam of Troy : Trojan. 
Also used substantively. 

DARE, dar, v.i. to be bold enough : to vent* 
\xre.—pa.t. durst. — v.t. to challenge: to 
defy. J[A.S. dear, durran; Goth, daur- 
san: akin to Gr. tharreo. Sans, dhri^ 
to be bold.]' 

DARE, dar. Same as Dace. 

DARII, da'ri-I, n. in logic, a mnemonio 
word to express a syllogism of the first 
figure, comprising a universal affirmative 
major premise, a particular affirmative 
minor premise, and a particular affirma- 
tive conclusion. 

DARING, dar'ing, adj., bold: courageous: 
fearless. — n. boldness. — adv. Dak'ingly. 

DARING-GLASS, dar'ing-glas, n. a mirror 
used for daring larks. Bp. Oauden. 

DARK, dark, adj. without light : black or 
somewhat black : gloomy : difficult to 
understand : unenlightened : secret. — n. 
absence of light : obscurity : a state of 
ignorance. — adv. Dark'ly. — n. Dark'- 
NESS. [A.S. deorc] 

DARKEN, dark'n, v.t. to make dark: t, 
render ignorant : to sully, — v.i. to grow 
dark or darker. 

DARKISH, d§,rk'ish, adj. somewhat dark : 

DARKLING, dark'ling, adj. being in the 
dark (poet.). 

DARKSOME, dark'sum, a4f'» dark: 
£:loomy (poet.)t ' 



PABLING, dOnmg, n. a tiftte dear: <mt 
dearly beloved : a favorite. [Dkas, and 

9ABN, darn, v.1. to mend a hole by imi- 
tating^ the texture of the stxiff.— «. the 
place darned. [W. dam, a piece, a 

DARNEL, d&r'nel, n. a weed of the rye- 
ffraaa genus. [Ety. dub.] 

DART, dart, n. a pointed weapon for 
throwing with the hand : anything that 
pierces. — v.t. to burl suddenly : to send 
or shoot forth. — v.i. to start or shoot 
forth rapidly. — adv. DAKT'meLY. [O. 
FV. dart ; from a Low Gter. root.] 

BART. See Dact:. 

DARTLE, dar'tl, v.t. a frequentative form 
of dart. " My star that dartles the red 
and the bine. '— Browning. 

DARWEESH, dS.r'wesh, n. same as Dehvis. 

DARWINISM, dar'win-izm, n. the theory 
of the origin of species propounded by C. 
Darwin. — adj. DAE-wnriAH. 

DASH, dash, v.t, to throw violently: to 
break by throwing together : to throw 
water soddenly: to bespatter: to de- 
stroy or frustrate : to mix or adulterate. 
— v.i. to strike against: to break against, 
as water : to rush with violence. — n, a 

. violent striking: a rushing or violent 
onset : a blow: a mark ( — ) at a break 
» a sentence : a slight admixture. [Dan. 
dttske, to slap.] 

DASH-AND-DOT, dasl^-and-dot, adj. con- 
sisting of dashes and dots : as, the dash- 
cmd-dot telegraphic alphabet. 

tJASHING, dash'ing, adj. rushing: reck- 
less : hasty and rash : gallant. — adv, 

DASTARD, das'tard, n. a cowardly fellow. 
—adj. shrinking from danger: coward- 
ly. — adj. and adr. Das'tardly. — ns. 
Das'tardness, Das'tardlin^jsS. [From 
a Scand. stem dast—'E. dazed, and Fr. 
suffix -ard. See Daze.] 

DASTARDICE, das'terd-Is, n. cowardice: 
dastardliness. " Upbraided with ing^ti- 
tude, dastardice." — Richardson. 

DATA, da'ta, facts given or admitted 
from which other facts may be deduced. 
— eing. Da'tdm. [L. datum, data, given 
— do, to give.] 

DATE, dat, n. the time when a letter is 
given or written : the time of any event : 
a stipulated time. — v.t. to affix the date 
to. — v.i. to reckon : to begin. [iV. date 
— L. datum.] 

DATE, dat, n. the fruit of the date-palm, 
BO called from its fancied resemblance to 
the finger. [Fr, datte — L. daxitylus — Gr. 
daktylos, a finger.] 

DATISI, da-tl'sl, n. in logic, a mnemonic 
word expressing a syllogism of the third 
figure, com{»ising a universal affirma- 
tive major premise, a particular affirma- 
tive minor premise, and a particular 
affirmative conclusion. 

OATIVE, dat'iv, adj. that is given or ap- 
pointed. — n. the dative case, the oblique 

case of noons, ete., whieb f<^low» verbs 
or other parts of speech that expr^ 
giving or stKoe act directed to the object 
— ^generally indicated i& Engbsb by ta or 
for. [L. dativua.'] 

IOATUM; da'tum, n. See Data. 

OAUB, dawb, v.t. to smear : to pamt 
coarsely. — n. a coarse paiating. — 
Daubeb, dawb'er, n. one who dcmba : a 
coarse painter. [O. Fr. daxber, to> 
plaster — L. deaibare, to whitewash— dc, 
down, and albu». whj^e.] 

DAUGHTER, daVter, n. a female child: 
a female descendant. — n, Dauoh'teb.-im- 
LAW, a son's wife. [A.S. dohtor ; Scot. 
dochter, Ger. tockter, Gr. thygater. Sans. 
dvJiifri, from duh or dJuwh, to milk — as 
if " the milkmaid.'* See Duo.] 

DAUGHTERLY, daw'ter-li, adj., like or 
becoming a daughter. — n. Daugh'teeli- 


DAUNT, dant or dawnt, v.t. to frighten : 
to discourage. [O. Fr. danter, Fr. domp- 
ter — L. domito — domOf Gr. datnad, to 
tame : conn, with Tame.] 

DAUNTLESS, dant'les, ad^'. n<A to be 
daunted. — adv. DAUNT'i.ESSi.y. — n. 


DAUPHIN, daw'fln, n. formerly a name 
given to the eldest son of the king of 
France.— /em. Dai/phiness, the dauphin's 
wife. [O. Ft. davipliin, Fr. dauphin — 
L. delphinusy a dolphin. Dauphin was 
the proper name of the lords of viennois, 
who had taken for their crest three d<^- 
phins. When Viennois (Dauphine) was 
ceded to. the crown of France, the name 
became the title of the king's eldest son.] 

DAVIT, dav'it, n. a spar projecting from a 
ship, used as a crane for hoisting the 
anchor clear of the vessel: — pi. pieces of 
timber or iron, projecting over a ship's 
side or stern, having tackle to raise a 
boat by. [Fr. davier, a forceps.] 

DAW, daw, n. a bird of the crow kind : a 
jackdaw. [From its cry.] 

DAWDLE, daVdl, v.i. to waste time by 
trifling: to act or move slowly. — n. 
Daw'dlee. [Allied to Dandle.] 

DAWN, dawn, vJ. to become day: to begin 
to grow light : to begin to appear. — n. 
daybreak: beginning. [A.S. dagian, day.] 

DAY, da, n. the time of light : the time 
from morning till night : twenty-four 
hours, the time the earth takes to make 
a revolution on her axis ; also credit : a 
distant day being fixed for payment. 

Paith, then, I'll pray you, 'cause he is my neighbor. 
To take a hunored pound, and give him day. 

— B. J onsen, 

[A. S. dcegr ; Ger. tag, from an unknown 

root, not conn, with L. dies.] 
DAYBOOK, da'book, n. a hook in which 

merchants, etc., enter the transactions 

of every day, 
DAYBREAK, da'brak, n. the breaking of 

day, or first appearance of Ught. 
DAYDREAM, da'drem, n. a dreaming or 

musing while awake. 



DAY-LILY, da'-lil'i, n. a Z% that blooms 

during- the day or for a day only. 
DAYSHINE, da'shln, n. daylight. 

Wherefore waits the madman there. 
Naked in open dayshine t — Tennyson. 

DAYSMAN, daz'man, n. one who appoints 
a day to hear a cause : an umpire. 

DAYSPRING, da'spring, n. the springing 
of day : dawn. 

DAYSTAR, da'star, n. the star which ush- 
ers in the day : the morning-star. 

DAZE, daz, v.t. (obs.) to render dull or 
stupid. [Ice. dasa, to be breathless or 
exhausted ; conn, with A.S. dvxBs, fool- 

DAZZLE, dazl, v.t. to daze or overpower 
with any strong light. — adv. DAZZ'Lma- 
LY. [Freq. of Daze.] 

DEACON, de'kn, n. in Episcopal and Cath- 
ohc churches the order of clergy under 
priests : in some Presbyterian churches, 
an officer under the elders : in Cong^re- 
gational and some other churches, the 
principal lay official : in Scot, the master 
of an incorporated company.— /em. Dea'- 
CONESS. — ns. Dea'conship, Dea'conry. 
JTi. diaconus — Gr. diakonos, a servant.] 

DEACON, de'kon, v.t. to read out, as a 
line of a psalm or hymn, before singing it. 

DEAD, ded, adj. deprived of life : that 
never had life : deathlike : useless : dulic 
cold and cheerless : without vegetation s 
perfect. — DEAD-DRUNK,completely drunk; 

; Dead-language, one no longer spoken ; 
Dead-letteb, a letter undelivered and 
unclaimed at the post-office ; Dead- 
lights, storm-shutters for a cabin win- 
dow ; Dead-lock, a position of matters 
when they have become so complicated 
that they are at a complete standstill 
and progress is impossible ; Dead-march, 
a piece of solemn music played at funeral 
processions, especially of soldiers ; Dead- 
BECKONING, an estimation of a ship's 
place, simply by the log-book ; Dead- 
weight, a heavy or oppressive burden. — 
adv. Dead'ly. — n. Dead'ness. [A.S. 
dead ; Goth, dauths, Ger. todt, from root 
of die.} 

DEAD, ded, n. the time of greatest still- 
ness : — those who are dead. 

DEADEN, ded'n, v.t. to make dead: to de- 
prive partly of vigor or sensation : to 
blunt : to lessen. 

DEAD-FILE, ded'-fil, n. a file whose cuts 
are so close and fine that its operations 
are practically noiseless. 

DEADHEAD, ded'-hed, n. used colloquially 
in the United States to denote one who 
receives passes for railroad rides, free 
theatre tickets, and the like; (naut.) a 
buoy : ( mech. ) a part of a lathe. 

DEADLY, ded'li, adj., causing death: 
fatal : implacable. — n. Dead'liness. 

DEAF, def, adj., dull of hearing: unable 
to hear at all : not willing to hear : in- 
attentive. — adv. Deadly. — n. Deap*- 
NESS. [A.S. deaf ; Dut. doof, Ger. taub.] 

DEAFEN, def'n, v.t. to make deaf, partly 

or altogether : to stun : to render imper- 
vious to sound. 

DEAD-MAN, ded' -man, n. in civil engineer- 
ing, a log buried in the ground to serve 
as an anchor: — pi. used colloquially in 
the United States to denote the pins that 
have been knocked down in bowling, the 
men off the board in the game of chess, 

DEAJF-MUTE, def -mut, n. one who is both 
deaf and mute or dumb. 

DEAL, del, n. a portion : an indefinite 

auantity ; a large quantity : the act of 
ividing cards : one of the divisions or 
boards into which a piece of timber is 
cut : a fir or pine board. Often applied 
in U. S. to large and important business 
transactions, especially on the Stock Ex- 
change. [A.S. dcel ; Ger. theil, a part or 

DEAL, del, v.t. to divide, to distribute : to 
throw about. — v.i. to transact business : 
to act : to distribute cards :—pa.t. and 
pa.p. dealt (delt). [A.S. dodan — doel; 
Ger. theilen — theil.] 

DEALER, del'er, n. one who deals: a trader, 

DEALING, del'ing, n. manner of acting 
towards others : intercourse of trade. 

DEAN, den, n. a dignitaiy in cathedral and 
collegiate churches who presides over 
the other clergy : a priest who presides 
at local synods : the president of the 
faculty in a college. — ns. Dean'ship, 
Dean'ery, the office of a dean : a dean's 
house. rO.Fr. deien — ^L. decanu^, a chiet 
often — decern, ten.] 

DEANIMALIZE, de-an'-i-mal-iz, v.t. to take 
away the qualities or character of a 
beast. [Pfx. de and animalize.] 

DEAR, der, adj. high in price : costly ! 
scarce : highly valued : beloved. — n. one 
who is dear or beloved. — adv. Dear'ly. — 
n. Dear'ness. [A.S. deore ; (Jer. theua 
O. Ger. tiuri, precious.] 

DEARTH, derth, n., deamess, high price: 
scarcity : want : famine : barrenness. 

DEATH, deth, n. state of being dead : ex- 
tinction of life : manner of dying : mor- 
tality. — n. Death'-bed, the last illness, 
f A.S. death : Ger. tod.} 

DEATH-DAY, deth'-da, n. the day on which 
a person dies, or the anniversary of the 
day of the death of some individual. 

DEATHINESS, deth'i-nes, n. the quality of 

S reducing death : an atmosphere of 
eath. (Rare.) 
Look I it bums clear ; but with the air around 
Its dead ingredients mingle deatkineaa.—Southey. 

DEATHY, deth'i, adj. pertaining to or char- 
acteristic of death. (Rare.) 

The cheeks were deathy dark.— Southey. 

DEBACLE, de-bak'l', n. a breaking up of 
ice on a river: a sudden flood of water 
leaving its path strewn with debris. 

DEBAK, de-bar', v.t. to bar out from: to 
exclude : to hinder :—pr.p. debarr'ing ; 
pa.p. debarred'. [L. de, from, and Bar.] 

DEBARK, de-bark'j v.t. or v.i. to land from 


debarkations;— DECAPOD 

a barTe, sMp, or boat : to disembark. [Fr 

<Mfcxf(/uei — eSB9 — L. dte, away» and 

Basque, a ship.] 

bi.rk-a'shun, n. the act of debarJcing or 

IJGBASE,. dte-bas*, v.t. to lower: to make 

mean or of less value: to adulterate. [L. 

«fe^ down, and Basb, low.] 
DEBASEMENT, de-bas'ment, n. degraiar 


DEBASING, de-bira'ing, adj. tending to 
kncer or degrade. — adv. DEBAS'lNaLT. 

DEBATABLE, de-baf a-bl, adj. liable to be 

DEBATE, de^baf, n. a eenrtentron in words 
or argument. — v.t. to contend for in 
•rgument. — v.i. to deliberate r to join in 
deoate. — n. Debat'isr. jTr. de, smd: battre, 
to beat. See !fe!AT.] 

DEBAUCH, de-bawch', v.t. to lead away 
from duty or aHegiance r to corrupt 
with lewdness. — v.i. to indulge in revelry. 
— n. a fit of intemperance or debauchery. 
rPr. dibarucher — etes = L. dis, and a word 
oauch e, a wo rkshop, of onknown origiii,! 

I^BAFCHEE, deb'o-she, n. one gLven upi 
to debofiichery : a UbertEoe. 

DEBAUCHERY, de-bawch'er-i, n. corrup. 
tion of fidelity : seduction from duty: 
excessive krtemperance : habitual lewd- 

MBENTUBE, de-bent'Qr, n. an acknowl- 
edgment of a debt: a deed of mortgage 
given by a raihway or other company for 
borrowed money : a certificate entitling 
an exporter of imported goods to a 
drawback or repayment of the duty paid 
on their importation. [L. debeatur, tnere 
are due, 9d person [rf. paasive of debeo, to 

DEBILITATE, de-bU'i-t&t, v.t. to make 
weak: to impair the strength of. [L. 
debilito, debuitattis — debUiM, wea^ — de, 
not, h abil is, able. [See Abilitt.} 

DEBILITY, (te-bil'i-ti, »., weakness and 
languor : a weak action of the anjiT>ftl 

DEBIT, deb'it, n. a dfeftf or something due : 
an entry on the debtor side of an ac- 
count. — v.t. to charge with debt : to «*- 
ter on the debit or debtor side of an ac- 
count. [L. ddntum, what is due, from 
debeo, to owe.] 

DEBONAIR, deb-o-nar', adj. of good air 
or appearance and manners : elegant : 
courteous. [Fr. de, of, bon, good, air, 
appearance, manner.} 

DEBOUCH, de-boosh', v.i. to march out 
from a narrow pass or confined place. 
[Ft. debaucher—de, from, bouche, the 
mouth — ^L. bucca, the cheek.] 

DEBOUCHURE, da-b6o-sh56r', n. the 
mcnith of a river or strait. 

DEBRIS, de-bre', n., bruised or broken 
pieces of anything, esp, of rock : rub- 
bish : ruins. [Fr., from briser, akin to 

DEBT, det, n. what one otoes to another : 

what one becomea liable to do or saS&. 
JTj. debit um.\ 

DEBTOR, det'or, n. one who owes a debt : 
the side of an account on whieh debts 
are chairg^ed. [L. debitor.^ 

DEBUT, de-bu'(u sounded as m Scot, gtud^ 
n. a beginning or first attempt : a first 
appearance before the public, as of an 
actor, etc. [Fr. debut, a first stroke — de, 

faona, bui, aim, mark.1 

DECADARY, dek-a-da-ry, a, ^ &r pertaia- 
ing to a period of ten days or ten yeaxs^ 

DECADE OP DECAD, dek'ad or dek'ad,. m. 
an aggregate ef tB» : speciflcaQy, a period 
of ten years. [Fr. decade— Gv. deka»— 
deka, ten.] 

de-ka'den-si, n., state of decay. [Fn. — 
Low L. decadentia, from de, down, and 
Low L. cadentia — ^L. eado, to falL See 
Cadexce, Dboay.} 

DGCAGiON, dek'a-gon, n. & ^ane figure of 
ten aiigles and sides. [Gr. deka, aad 
gonia, an angle : akin to Ks££.] 

DECAHEDRON, dek-a^he'dron, n. a solid 
figure haiving ten bases or sides. [Ghr. 
deka^ and hedra, a seat.] 

DECALCOMANIA, de-kal'ko-ma'ni-a, n. 
the art or process of transferring pictures 
to marble, porcelain, glass, wood, and 
the like. It consists usually in simply 
gumming a colored lithograph or wood- 
cut to the object and then removing the 
paper by aid of warm water, the colored 
parts remaining fixed. [Fr. decaJcomO' 
nie, from decai^ier, to countertrace, aad 
Gr. mania, madness.] 

DECALOGUE, deka-log, n. the ten eota>- 
mandments. [Gr. deka, ten, logos, a dis- 
course, a proposition. 1 

DECAilERON, de-kam'-e-ron, n. Boeeaceio?B 
hundred tales supposed to be told in tea 
days. [Gr> deka, ten, and hemera, a day.] 

MICAJVIETER, de-kam'-e-ter, n. m poetry, » 
verse of ten measures, or feet. [Gr. dekft, 
ten. — metron, a measure.! 

DECAJVIP, ue-kamp', v.t. {lit.) to go from 
or shiit a camp ; to go away, esp. secretly. 
[Fr. decamper — Fr. de=L. dis, away, and 
camnp. See Camf.] 

DECAMPMENT, de-kamp'ment, n., shift- 
ing a camp: a marching o£E. [Fr. d/S' 

DECANAL, dek'an-al, ad/, pertaining to a 

DECANT, de-kairt', v.t. to poor oflP, leaving 
sediment : to pour from one vessel into 
am^her. [Fr. decanter^^te, from, and 
Cant, a side or corner.] 

DECANTER, de-kant'er, n. a vessel tor 
hoUUng decanted liquor : an ornamental 

DECAPITATE, de-kap'i-tat. v.t. to take 
the head from : to behead. [Low L. de> 
oeipitare — L. de, from, and caput, capitis, 
the head.] 

DECAPITATION, de-kap-i-ta'shun, n. the 
act of belieading. 

DECAPOD, dek'a-pod. n. one oi the sliett* 



fbtk which hove fen feet or claws, as the 
crab. [Gr. deka^ ten, and ■perns, podoa, a 

DECARBONIZE, de-k&r'b<ni4z,. v.L t& de- 
prive of carbon. [De, from, and Cakbon.] 

tECARBURIZE, de-kar'bur-iz. Same as 

IHSCARCH, dek'-arfc, n. a captain of tew; a 
member of a govemiHg bo^ of ten. 

BBCARCHY, dek'-ark-y, n. a governing 
body consisting <rf ten. fFrom «feca and 

BECARE, dek'-ar, re. in the metric system 
of measnrfng, ten acres, or a thousand 
square metres. [Fr. decave.\ 

DECASTYLE, dek'a-stfl, n. a portico with 
ten styles or cdhimns in firont. £Or. deka, 
ten, sfffios, a column.J 

DECASYLLABIC, dek-arsilrab'ik, adj. hav- 
ing ten syllables. [Fr. decasyllabigue — Gr. 
deka, ten, syllabe, a syllable.} 

DECAY, de-ka', v.i. to /aZZ away from a 
state of health or excellence : to waste 
Jtwsiy. — n. a fafling- into a worse or less 
perfect state : a passing away. [O. Fr. 
ekeaier — L. de, from, ca&re, to fell J 

DECEASE, de-ses', v.i. to eeaae to live ; to 
die. — ». death. [O. Fr. deces — L. decessus 
— dtejaway, eedo, cessus, to go. J 

DECEIT, de-sef^, n. act of deceiving : any- 
thing intended to mislead another. 
FrhronghFr. from L. deceptus.\ 

DBGEITPTJL, de-sef fool, ad^. full ot deceit: 
disposed or tending to deceive : insincere. 
— adrr. Decett'ftjllt. — n. Decett'FUI/- 

DECETVABLE, de-seVa-bT, adj. that may 
be deceived: exposed to imposture. — n, 
Dec eiy'a blbness. — ado. Decetv'am.t. 

MICEIVE, de-seV, v.t. to mislead or cause 
to err : to cheat : to disappoint. — n. De- 
OEfv'EK. [Fr. decevoftr—Li. deeipere, de- 
ceptus—de, from, capere, to take, catch.] 

DBCEMBER, de-sem'ber, n. the tenth month 
among the Romans, who began their year 
with March : with us, the twelfth naonth 
of the year. [L. decern, ten.) 

DBCEMBERLY, de-sem'ber-K, adj. resem- 
bling December : hence, chLUy, gloomy, 
«nd cheerfess. '"-The many bleak and 
deeemberhf nights of a seven years' widow- 
hood."— .S7 erne. 

DBOEMyiR, deHBem'vir, ». one of ten 
wutgntrates who at one time had absolute 
MMver m Rome :—pl. Decem'virs or (L.) 
Decemviri, de-seDft^vi-r'. [L. decern, teni, 
and vir, a man.] 

DECEMVnJATE, de-3eBri'^vn--at, n. a bo&j 
of teih men in office : the term of office of 

DECENCY, de'sen-si, n. becomingness s 
modesty, [L. deeentia. See DECEirr.] 

DECENNARY, de-sen'ar-i, n. a period ot 
ten yews, [L. decern, ten, and annus, a 

MICENNIAL, de-sea'i-aJ, cedj. consisting 
of, or happening every ten years. 

DECENT, de'sent, adj., becoming : seemly: 
proper : modest : moderate r tolerable. — 

aehr. De'cbntlt. [L. ^Eecen&, decentiSf 
pr.p. of decet, it is becoming.] 
BECENTISH, de'seB.t4s&, eao^. somewhat 
decent : o£ a fairly good kiml or qprality: 
passable. ^€olloq.)i 

You'll take owe potluek.aud \ve've deeen1rith.-mxiO. 
— fi- H. Barham. 

DECENTRALIZE, de-sen'tral-ia, v.L to 
withdraw from the centre. [L. de, priv., 


DECEPTION, de-sep'sbuov n. aet of deceiv- 
ing : the meaofi by which It is sought to 
deceive, ^j. deceptio.}^ 

DECEPTIVE, dc-sep'tiv, ac^ tendtag tq 
deceive. — adv. DECffiF'vlvjCLY. — ». Db- 

1, d'e-aer''-e-brat, «.f. to take 
away the eerebrum. 

DECIARE, des'-i-ar, n. in the metric sys- 
tem, ten. square metres. [Fr J 

DECIDE, de-sId', v.t. to determine : to 
end: to settle. [Fir. decider — L. dfr 
eidere — de, Kvr^j, ecedo, to cut.] 

MICIDED, de-ard'ed, adjl, detemdned : 
clear, unmistakable : resolute. — adv. 


DECIDUOUS, de-8id'u-u», adi.,faMngqff: 
that fall' in autumn, as leaves : not per* 
manent. — n. DECiD'trousnESS. fL. de* 
ciduus' — decido, from dCr eado, to fall.] 

DECIMAL, des'i-mal, adj\ numbered or 
proceeding by tens. — n., a fraction haT> 
mg ten or some power of ten for its 
denominator. — Decolal. STSXKil is the 
French system of weights or measiures, 
the principle of which is that it multi- 
pBes and divides by fen. — adv, Dec'i- 
MALX.Y. [Fr. — Low L. deeimoHs' — decern, 

DECIMATE, des'i-mat, v.t to take the tenth 
part of : to put to death every tenth 
man. — re. Dec^imatob. [L- deeimo, dfec^- 
mattes— deciwtts, tenth, t 

DECIMATION, des-i-ma''snun, n. a mili- 
tary punishment, by which every tenth 
man was selected by lot, and put to death, 
or otherwise punished. 

DECIPHER, de-sffer, v.t. to iai-ci]^er or 
read secret writing : to make out what 
is unintelligible or obscure. (li. de, neg- 
ative, and ClPHEE.] 

DECIPHERABLE, de-sTfer-a-hl, a^ that 
may be deciphered. 

DECISION, de-sizh'un, n. the act of decid- 
ing : dete rmination : settlement. 

DECTSIYE, de-si'siv, adj. having the power 
of deciding : final : positive. — adv. Deci'- 

SrVELT. — re. DECl'srVENESS. 

DECK, dek, v.t. to cover: to clothe: to 
adorn : to furnish with a deck, as a ves- 
sel. — re. a covering : the floor or covering 
of a ship. [Dut. delcken, to cover ; Ger. 
decheu ; akm to L. *egro. See Thatch.J 

DECKER, dek'er, «. the person or ihiag 
that decks: a vessel which has a deck or 
decks, used chiefly in composition, as a 
three-decker, a ship with three decks. 

DECK-HAND, dek'-hand, re. a person en- 
gaged on board a ship, but whose duties 



are confined to the deck, he being- unfit 
for the work of a seaman properly so 

DECKLE-EDGE, dek'-k'l-ej, n. in books or 
pamphlets, the untrimmed, rough edge 
of the paper sheets as left by the deckle: 
also any imitation of such edge. Hence 
deckle-edged paper or book: i.e. having 
a rough edge. Written also Deckel. 

DECLAIM, de-klam', v.i. to make a set or 
rhetorical speech : to harangiie. — ns. De^ 
claim'ant, Declaim'ee. [Ft. — ^L. declamo 
— de, intensive, damo, to cry out.] 

DECLAMATION, dek-la-ma'shun, n. act of 
declaiming : a set speech in public : dis- 
play in speaking. 

DECLAMATORY, de-klam'artor-i, adj. re- 
lating to declamation : appealing to the 
passions : noisy and rhetorical merely. 

DECLARATION, dek-la-ra'shun, n. act of 
declaring: that which is declared: a 
written affirmation. 

DECLARATIVE, de-klar'a-tiv, DECLARA- 
TORY, de-klar'a-tor-i, ad/, explanatory.— 
advs. Declab'atively, Declab'atorily. 

DECLARE, de-klar', v.t. to make known ; 
to show plainly to others by words : to 
assert. — v.i. to make a statement. [Fr, 
declarer, from L. dedaro, declaratua — de, 
sig. completeness, clarus, clear.! 

DECLASS, de-klas', v.t. to set apart from 
one's class: to degrade. [Fr. declasser.'] 

•ECLENSION, de-3en'shun, n. a falling 
off : deca^ : descent : (gram.) change of 
termination for the oblique cases. [See 

DECLINABLE, de-klin'a-bl, adj. having in- 
flection for the oblique cases. 

DECLINATION, dek-lin-a'shun, n. act of 
declining : deviation : decay : {astr.) the 
distance from the celestial equator. 

DECLINE, de-klln', v.i. to bend or turn 
atoay from (a straight Une) : to deviate : 
to refuse : to bend down : to fail or de- 
cay : to draw to an end. — v.t. to bend 
down : to turn away from : to refuse : to 
avoid : {gram.) to give the changes of a 
word in the oblique cases. — n. a falling 
off : deviation : decay : a gradual sinking 
of the bodily faculties, consumption. 
[Fr. didiner — ^L. de, down, away from, 
din o, to be nd. See Lean.] 

DECLIVITY, de-kliv'i-ti, n. a place that 
declines or slopes doicnwara, opp. of 
Acclivity : inclination downward : a 

fradual descent. [L. dedivitas — de, 
own ward, clivus, sloping, akin to dino.\ 
DECOCT, de-kokt', v.t. to digest by heat. 
Pj. decoQuo, decoctus—de, down, coguOf 
to cook.J 
DECOCTION, de-kok'shun, n. an extract 
of anything got by boiling. — adj. Decoc'- 

DECOHERER, de-ko-her'-er, n. in wireless 
telegraphy, a machine for overcoming the 
effect of electric waves upon the coherer. 
Hence Decohesiott, de-ko-he'-zhun, n. the 
act of regulating the coherer. [Pfx. de 
and coherer.'] 

DECOLLATE, de-kol'at, v.t. to behead. pL. 
decollo — de, from, collum, the neck.] 

DECOLLATION, de-kol-a'shun, n. th« ao« 
of beheading. 

DECOLLETAGE, da-kol-la-tazh, n. in a wo- 
man's costume, the outline ^of the top of 
a low-cut corsage. [See Decollete.] 

D:6C0LLETE, da-kol-la-ta, a. in woman's 
dress, a costume leaving the neck and 
shoulders bare. [Fr. decolleter, to un- 
cover the neck and shoulders.] 

DECOLOR, de-kul'ur, DECOLORIZE, de- 
kul'ur-iz, v.t. to deprive of color, [Fr. 
dicolorei — ^L. decoloro — de, from, color, 

DECOLORANT, de-kul'ur-ant, n. a sub- 
stance that bleaches or removes color, 

DECOLORATION, de-kul'ur-a-shun, n. the 
removal or absence of color. 

DECOMPOSABLE, de-kom-p5z'a-bl, adj, 

. that may be decomposed. 

DECOMPOSE, de-kom-poz', v.t. to separate 
the parts composing anything: to resolve 
into original elements. [L. de, sig. sepa- 
ration, and Compose.] 

DECOMPOSITION, de-kom-po-zish'un, n, 
act of decomposing : decay or dissolution. 

DECOMPOUND, de-kom-pownd', v.t. to 
compound again : to compound things al- 
ready compounded; also, to divide a thing 
into its constituent parts. — adj. com- 
pounded a second time. — adj. Decom- 
pound' able. [L. de, intensive, and Com- 

OECONCENTRATE, de-kon-sen'trSt, v.i. to 
spread or scatter from a point or centre: 
to break up or dismiss from concentra- 
tion, as bodies of troops. London Times. 
[Preflx de, priv., and Concenteate.] 

DECORATE, dek'o-rat, v.t. to ornament, 
to beautify. [L. decoro, decoratus — 
decus, what is becoming, ornament, from 
decet, it is becoming.] 

DECORATION, dek-o-ra'shvm, n. omaowttt 
anything that heightens beauty. 

DECORATIVE, dek'o-ra-tiv, adj. adorning: 
suited to adorn. 

DECORATOR, dek'o-r2rtor, n. one who 

DECOROUS, de-ko'rus, adj. becoming: suit- 
able: proper: decent. — adv. Deco'rously. 
VL. decorus.'] 

DECORTICATE, de-kor'ti-kat, v.t, to de- 
prive of the barh, husk, or peel. — n, De- 
cortica'tion. [L. decortico, decorticatus 
— de, from, and cortex, bark.] 

DECORUM, de-ko'rum, n. that which is 
becoming in outward appearance : pro- 
priety of conduct : decency. [L., neuter 
of decorus, becoming.] 

DECOY, de-ko/, v.t. to allure, entice : to 
entrap : to lure into a trap or snare. — n. 
anything intended to allure into a snare. 
[L. de, down, and O. Fr. coy, quiet ; aa 
if to quiet down. See COY.] 

DECREASE, de-kres', v.i. to grow or be- 
come less. — v.t. to make less : to lessen 
gradually. — n. a growing less : loss.— < 
adv. DECBEAS'iNaLY, [O. Fr. decrois, a 



decrease, flfwra L^ Oeeresco—det from, 
and cresco, to grow.} 

DECREE, d«^frg', n. av order by one in 
authority : an established law : a prede- 
termined purpose. — v.t. to decide or d&- 
ternaine by sentence la law : to appoint. 
~-v.i. to make a decree t—fw.p. decpee'- 
ing' ; pa,p{. decreed'. [IV. — L. deeretum — 
decerno, to decide.] 

DECREMENT, dek're-Hiefffe, n. theqaaattty 
lost by decrease. [L. deerementum — de- 

DECREPIT, de-krep'it, ac^\ worn otrfr by 
the infirmities of old age: ia the last 
stage of decay. [L. decrepitus, noise- 
less, very old — ae, not, crepitus, a noise.] 

DECREPITATE, deirep'i-tat, r.i. to 
crackle, as salts, when heated. — v.f. to 
roast so as to canse a contimial crack- 
ling. — n. Decreptta'tton. [L. de, inteo., 
crepito, to rattle much, freq. of crepo.^ 

DECREPITUDE, de-krep'i-tud, n. state of 
being decrepit or worn out with age. 

DECRESCENT, de-kres'ent, adj., becoming 
gradually less. [L.] 

DECRETAL, de-kre'taJ, adj. pertaming to 
a decree. — n. a decree, esp. <y( the pope : 
a book containing decrees : a; collection of 
the pope's decrees. 

DECRETIVE, de-kre'tiv, adf. having- the 

HECRETORY, dek're-tor-i, adj. established 
by a decree: determining : judicial. 

DECRIAL, deJo-ral, n. a crying dotcn]: 
clamorous condemnation. 

DECRY, de-krf, v.t. to cry down : to con- 
demn : to blaime :— pa.^. decried'. [Fr. 
c?e(,9)=L. dis, and crier, to cry. See Cry.J 

dek'u-man, ad^. tenth : hence, from the 
ancient notion that every tenth wave was 
the largest in a series, large: immense. 
" Overwhelmed and quite sunk by such 
decumane billowes." — Bp, Qauden, 
Sometimes substantively used fc«* the 
tenth or largest wave. "The baffled 
decuman." — J. R. Lowell. [L. decu- 
mcmMS, deciiruxnusy ot or pertaining to 
the tenth, from decern, ten.] 

DECUMBENCE, de-kum'bens, DECUM- 
BENCY, de-kiim'ben-si^w. the act or post- 
ure of lying down. 

DECUMBENT, de-kum'bent, adj.y lying 
down: recluiii:^ on the ground.— od». 
Decttm'beijtly. [L. decumbens — de, 
down, and cumbo, for eviba, to lie.] 

DECUPLE, dek'urpl, adj., tenfold.--n. a 
number ten times repeated, — v.U to 
make tenfold. [Fr. decuple — L. decern^ 
ten, and plico, to fold.] 

DECURRENT, de-kur'ent, oc^., running <» 
extending downward. — adv. Decttbb^- 
ENTLY. [L. decurrens — de, down, curro, 
cursiim, to run.] 

DECURVATURE, de-kGr'-va-tftr, «. cnrra- 
turc in a downward direction. 

DECURVE, de-kdrv', v.t. and i. to bend or 
curve in a downward direction. [Pfx. de 
and curve.l 

DECUSSATE, de-kus'at, v.t. to cross in the 
form, of an X : toi cross,^ as linas, etc^ — 
adj, crossed: arranged ia pairs which 
cross each other. — n. Decussa'tion. [L. 
decusso, decussatus — decusgis, a cola of 
ten asses {decern asses) marked with X, 
the symbol of ten.. See Aca^J 

DEDICATE, ded'i-kat,. v.t. to set apart and 

consecrate to some sacred purpose : to 

I devote wholly or chiefliy : to inscribe to 

anyone. [l^dedicOidedicatus — c(e,down, 

dicOf to declare.] 

dedication:, ded-i-ka'shun, n. the act of 
dedicating: aa address to a patron, pre< 
fixed to a book. 

DEDICATORY, ded'i-kSrtor-i, ac^. serving 
as a dedication.. 

DEDUCE, de-dus', v.t. to draw from: to 
infer a truth or opLniou from what pre- 
cedes or from premises. [L. de, from, 

ducq, ductum^ to lead.] 

s'i-bl, ( 
deduced or inferred. 

DEDUCIBLE, de-dus'i-bl, adj. that may be 

DEDUCT, de-dukf, v.t. to take from: to 
separate : to subtract. 

DEDUCTION, de-duk'sbun, w. 1, the act 
of deducing: that which is deduced: 
reasoning frcHxi a general to a particudar 
proposition. [From Deduce.] 2, the act 
of deducting : that which is deducted : 
abatement. [From Deduct.] 

DEDUCTIVE, de-dukt'iv, adj., that is, or 
may be deduced from premises.— odt?. 

DEED, ded, n. s«»iiething done : &a suet : 
an exploit : a legal transaction : the writ- 
tea evidence of it. [A.S. deed — don, to 
do ; Ger. that — thun, to do. See Do.] 

DEEDILY, ded'i-U, adi\ in a deedy mao? 
ner : actively : busily : industriously. 
" Prank Churchill at a table nesur ber 
most deedily occupied about her specta- 
cles." — Miss Austen. (Rare.) 

DEEDLESS, dedles, adj. not having per- 
formed deeds. 

DEEM, dem, v.t. or v.i. to judge : to think: 
tobelieve. [A.S. deman, to form a jud^ 
naent — dom, judgment. See Doom.] 

SEIEP, dep^ adj. extending far down or far 
frona the outside: difiScult to understand: 
secret : wise and penetrating : cunning : 
very still : profound : intense : sunk low : 
low or grave. — n. that which is deep : the 
sea : anything profound or incompre- 
hensible. — adv. to a great depth . pro- 
foundly. — adv. Deep'ly. — «. Deep'ness. 
{A.S. deop; (Jer. tief ; akin to Dip, 
)ive .1 

DEEPEN, dep'n, v.t. to maJce deeper in 
any sense: to increase. — v.i. to become 

DEER, der, n. a quadruped of several spe- 
cies, as the stag, reindeer, etc. ; in M. 
K any kind of animal. [A.S. deor ; Gex. 
thier, 6r. ther, L. fera, a wild beast.] 

DEER-STALKER, der'-stawk'er, n. one 
who practices deer-stalking. 

DEER-STALKING, der'-stawk'ing, n. the 
hunting of deer by stalkingt or stealing 



upon them unawares. [See Stalk, to 

DEFACE, de-fas', v.t. to destroy or mar the 
face or external appearance of, to dis^ 
figure : to obliterate. [O. Fr. desfacer-^ 
des — L. dis, away, and face, from L. 

DEFACEMENT, de-fSs'ment, n. act of de- 
facing : injury to form or appearance ; 
that which defaces. 

DEFALCATE, de-fal'kat, v.t. to deduct a 
part of, used chiefly of money, etc. : to 
embezzle money held on trust. [Low L. 
difalco, difalcatus, to cut away — ^L. dif' 
«=dis-, off, and falx, falds, a sickle. See 

DEFALCATION, def-al-ka'shun, n. a dim- 
inution : a deficit of funds intrusted to 
one's care. 

DEFAMATION, def-a-ma'shmi, n. the act 
of defaming : calumny : slander. 

DEFAMATORY, de-famVtor-i, adj. con- 
taining defamation : injurious to reputa- 
tion : calumnious. 

DEFAME, de-fam', v.t. to take away or 
destroy the good fame or reputation of : 
to speak evil of. [O. Fr. defam^r — L. 
diffamare — dis, away, detraction, and 
fama, report. See Fame.] 

DEFAULT, de-fawlt', n. a. fault, failing, or 
failure : defect : neglect to do what duty 
or law requires : offence. — v.i. to fail 
through neglect of duty: to fail to ap- 
pear in court when called upon. [O. Fr. 
defavte, and default — de=L. dis, inten- 
sive, and faute. See Fault.] 

DEFAULTER, de-fawlt'er, n. one who fails 
to account for money intrusted to his 

DEFEASANCE, de-fez'ans, n. (law) a con- 
dition annexed to a deed, which, being 
performed, renders the deed void. [Norm. 
defaisance — Fr. defaisant, pr.p. of d^ 
faire, to undo.] 

DEFEASIBLE, de-fez'i-bl, adj. that may 
be defeated or annulled. — n. Defeas'ible- 


DEFEAT, de-fet', v.t. to frustrate : to over- 
come : to ruin. — n. a frustration of plans : 
overthrow, as of an army in battle. [Fr. 
difaite — dif aire, to undo — de =- L. dis, 
asunder, and Fr. faire, L. facere, to do.] 

DEFECATE, def'e-kat, v.t. to clear from 
dregs or impurities : to purify from ex- 
traneous matter. [L. defceco, defcecatv^, 
to cleanse — de, from, fceic, feeds, dregs.] 

DEFECATION, def-e-ka'shun, n. the act of 
clearing away impurities. 

DEFECT, de-fekt', n. a deficiency : a want : 
imperfection : blemish : fault. [L. defido, 
defectus, to fail or be wanting — de, neg., 
and fado, to do.] 

DEFECTIBLE, de-fekt'i-bl, adj. liable to 

DEFECTION, de-fek'shun, n. a falling 
away from duty : revolt. 

DEFECTIVE, de-fekt'iv, adj. having de- 
fect : wanting in some necessary quality : 
insufficient. — adv. Defect'IVELY. — n. De- 

DEFEMINATION, dg-fem-i-na'-shun, «. 
(med.) removal of the ovaries. 

DEFENCE, de-fens', n. a defending : that 
which defends : protection : vindication : 
(law) a defendant's plea. — Defenc/ed, 
pa.p. (B.) fortified. 

DEFENCELESS, de-fensles, adj. without 
defence. — adv. Defence'lessly. — n. De- 

DEFEND, de-fend', v.t. (lit.) to fend or 
toard off: to keep off anything hurtful : 
to guard or protect : to maintain against 
attack : (law) to resist as a claim : to 
contest. — n. Defend'ee. [L. defendo, 
defensus, to ward off— de, off, and obs. 
fendo, to strike.] 

DEFENDABLE, de-fend'arbl, adj. that may 
be defended. 

DEFENDANT, de-fend'ant, n. a defender: 
(law) a person accused or sued. 

DEFENSIBLE, de-fens'i-bl, adj. that may 
be defended. — n. Defensibil'ity. 

DEFENSIVE, de-fens'iv, adj. serving to de- 
fend : in a state or posture of defence. — 
n. that which defends : posture of de- 
fence. — adv. Defens'ively. 

DEFER, de-fer', v.t. to put off to another 
time : to delay :—pr.p. deferr'ing ; pa.p. 
deferred'. [L. differo—dis, asunder, fero, 
to bear, carry.] 

DEFER, de-fer', v.i. to yield to the wishes 
or opinions of another, or to authority. 
— v.t. to submit to or lay before :—pr.p. 
deferr'ing ; pa.p. deferred'. [L. def ero- 
de, down, and fero, to bear.] 

DEFERENCE, def'er-ens, n. a deferring or 
yielding in judgment or opinion : regard : 

DEFERENTIAL, def-er-en'shal, adj. ex- 
pressing deference or respect. — adv. Def- 

DEFIANCE, de-fi'ans, n. the act of defy- 
ing : a challenge to combat : contempt 
of opposition. 

DEFIANTNESS, de-fi'ant-nes, n. the state 
or quality of being defiant : defiance. 
" He answered, not raising his voice, but 
speaking with quiet defi^intness." — George 

DEFICIENCY, de-fish'en-si, n. defect. 

DEFICIENT, de-fish'ent, adj. wanting. 

DEFICIT, defi-sit, n., deficiency, esp. of 
revenue, as compared with expenditure. 
JL., it is wanting, 3d per. sing, of defido.] 

DEFILE, de-fil', v.i. to march off in file or 
line, or file by file. — n. a long narrow 
pass or way, m which troops can march 
only in file, or with a narrow front. [Fr. 
defiler—ij. dis, and filum, a thread. See 

DEFILE, de-fll', v.t. to mxike foul: to pol- 
lute or corrupt : to violate. — n. Defil EB. 
[L. de, and A.S. fylan, gefylan, to pol- 

DEFILEMENT, de-fil'ment, n. act of de- 
filing : foulness. 

DEFINABLE, de-fin'a-bl, adj. that may be 

DEFINE, de-fin', v.t. to ivx the hounds or 



Hmits of: to determine with predision : 
to describe accurately : to fix the mean- 
ing of. [Ft. — L. definio, definitus, to set 
bounds to — de, and jinis, a limit.] 

DEFINITE, def'i-nit, acW:, defined: having 
distinct limits ; fixed : exact : clear. — 
adv. Def'initely. — ». Def'initeness. 

DEFINITION, def-i-nish'un, ru a defining : 
a description of a thing by its proper- 
ties: an explanation of the exact meaning 
of a word, term, or phrase; also, the 
quality or power of marking or showing 
distinctly or clearly the outlines or feat- 
ures of any object. " A small 2i inch re- 
fractor . . . the definition of which is 
supe rb. " — N ature. 

DEFINITIVE, de-fln'i-tiv, adj., defining or 
limiting: positive : finaL — n. (gram.) an 
adjective used to limit the extent of the 
signification of a noun. — adv. Defin'i- 


DEFLAGRATE, defla-grat, v.i. <xc v.t. to 

hum dovm : to burn with suddenness and 
sparkling. — n. Deflaqra'tion. [L. defla- 
gjx> — de, down, andjfla^o, to burn.] 

DEFLAGRATOR, def la-gra-tor, n. a gal- 
vanic instrument for producing rapid 

DEFLATION, dS-fla'-shnn, n, in physical 
geography, erosion produced by the action 
of the wind on the earth's surface. {L. 
de flare, defUitum, to blow away.] 

DEFLECT, de-flekt', v.i. or v.t. to turn 
aside : to swerve or deviate from a right 
line or proper course. [L. de, from, and 
flecto, to bend, turn.] 

DEFLECTION, de-flek'shun, ru a turning 
aside : deviation. 

DEFLEX, de-fleks', v.t. [Same as De- 


DEFLORATE, de-flo'rat, adj., past the 
fiotvering state, as an anther after it has 
shed fts pollen. 

DEFLORATION, def4o-ra'8hun, w. the act 
of deflouring. 

DEFLOUR, de-flowr', v.t. to deflower or 
deprive of flowers : to deprive of original 
grace and beauty : to ravish. — n. De- 
flour'ee. [Fr. ciifleurir — ^L. defloro, to 
strip flowers oflf — de, priv., and^os,.,/I<>rw, 
a flower.] 

DEFLOWER. Same as Deflour. 

DEFLUXION, de-fluk'shun, n. a discharge 
of fluid matter in the body. [L. deflvxio 
— de, down, amd fluo, fltucum, to flow.] 

DEFOLIATION, de-fo-li-a'shun, n. the 
falling off of leaves: the time of shedding 
leaves. [Low L. def olio, defoUatuvn—de, 
ofl", folium, a leaf.] 

DEFORCE, de-fors', v.t. (law) to keep out 
of possession bv force. — n. Defobce'- 
MENT. [Fr. de=L. dis, and Force.] 

DEFORM, de-form', v.t. to alter or injiire 
the form of : to disfigure. [L. deformis, 
u^ly — d^> from, and forma, form, 

DEFORMATION, def-or-ma'shun, n. act of 

DEFORMITY, de-form'i-ti, n. state of being 

deformed : want or proper form : ugff- 
ness : disfigurement : anything that de- 
stroys beauty. 

DEFRAUD, de-frawd', v.t. to deprive of 
bv fraud : to withhold wrongfully : to 
cheat or deceive. FL. defravdo—de, 
from, arxA fraus, frauais, fralMlJ 

DEFRAY, de-fra', v.t. to discharge the ex- 
penses of anything : to pay :—pr.p. de- 
fray'ing ; pa.p. defrayed'. — ns. DmmAY'- 
MENT, Defray* AL. (Fr. defrayer — dS, 
and fruis, expense — ^Low L. fmctum, 
breakage, damage, expense.] 

DEFT, deft, ad^. handy, clever. — ado. 
Deft'ly. — n. Deft'ness. [A.S. doeft, 
convenient, fitting.] 

DEFUNCT, de-funkt', adj. having finished 
the course of life, dead. — n. a dead per- 
son. [L. defitngor, defunctus, to finish — 
de, a nd fungor, to perform.] 

DEFY , de-fi', v.t. to challenge : to brave : 
—pr.p. defying ; pa.p. defied'. — n. Det 
Fl ER. [Fr. dMer — Low L. diffidare, to 
renounce faith or allegiance — L. dis, 
ausunder, and fido, to trust— fides, faith.] 

DEGAGE, da-ga-zha', iidj. easy: uncon- 
strained. Said of one's manner. [Fr. 
degager, to disengage.] 

DEGENERACY, de-jen'er-a-si, DEGEN- 
ERATION, de-jen-er-a'shun, n. the act 
or process of becoming degenerate : the 
state of being degenerate. 

DEGENERATE, de-ien'er-at, adj. having 
departed /rom the nigh qualities of race 
or kind : become base. — adv. DEGiai'- 
ERATELY. — 71. Degen'erateness. jXi. de- 
generatus, from degenero, to depart fronn 
its kind— dc, from, down, genus, gen- 
eris kind 1 

DEGENERATE, de-jen'er-at, v.i. to fall 
from a nobler state : to be or to grow 

DEGENERATIVE, de- jen'er-a-tiv, at?;., 
tending or causing to degenerate. 

DEGERM, de-jerm', v.t. in milling, to de- 
prive of germs, as from wheat grains. 
— n. Degebminatob, de-jerm'-i-na-t«r, a 
machine used in mills for removing liie 
ger ms fro m grains. 

DEGLUTITION, deg-loo-tish'un, n. the act 
or power of swaRowing. [Fr. — L. de, 
down, and glutio, to swallow. See 

DEGRADATION, deg-ra-da'shun, n. dis- 

DEGRADE, de-grad', v.t. to lower in 
grade or rank : to deprive of office or 
dignity : to lower in character or value t 
to disgrace. [Fr. digrader — L. de, down, 
and gradv^, a step. See Grade.] 

DEGEAS, da-gra', n. a by-product of oil 
tanning. [Fr. gras, fat.] 

DEGREE, de-gre', n. a grade or step : posi* 
tion : rank : extent : a mark of distinc- 
tion conferred by universities : the 360th 
part of a circle : 60 geographical miles. 
{"Fr. degre — ^L. de, and gradus, a step.] 

DEHISCENCE, de-his'ens, «. the qpemn 
of the capsules of a plant. 




DEHISCENT, de-his'ent, adj., gaping or 

opening, as the capsules of plants. [L. 

dehiscens, pr.p. of aehisco — de, intensive, 

a nd hi sco, to gape.] 
DEBnTDRATION, de - hi - dra'shun, n. in 

chem. the process of freeing a compoxmd 

from the water contained in it. 
DEHYPNOTIZE, de-hip'-no-tljz, v.t. to 

arouse from a hypnotic condition. [Pfx. 

de and hypnotize.'] 
DEICIDE, de'i-sid, n. the killing of a god : 

the putting to death of Jesus Christ. 

gFrom a supposed L. form deicidium — 
eus, and ccedo, to cut, to Mil.] 
DEIFICATION, de-i-fi-ka'shun, n. the act 

of deifying. 
DEIFORM, de'i-form, ck^'. having the/orw» 

o f a g od. 
DEIFY, de'i-fi, v.t. to exalt to the rank of 

a god : to worship as a deit;^ :—pr.p. 

deifying ; pa.p. deified'. [Fr. deifier — L. 

deincare — deus, and facere, to make.] 
DEIGN, dan, v.i. to condescend. — v.t. to 

give : to allow. [Fr. daigner — ^L. dig' 

nor, to think worthy — dignus, worthyj 
DEISM, de'izm, n. the creed of a deist. [It. 

OEIST, de'ist, n. one who believes in the 

existence of Ood but not in revealed re- 
ligion.— adj. DiasT'iCAL. [Fr. ddiste—L. 

deus, god.] 
DEITY, de'i-ti, n. the divinity : godhead : 

a god or goddess: the Supreme Being. 

[Ft. — ^Low li. deitaa — ^L. deus, god ; Sans. 

deva — div, to shine.] 
DEJECT, de-jekf , v.t. to cast doion the 

countenance or spirits of. [L. dejicio, 

dejectus—de, down, and jocto, to cast.] 
DEJECTED, de-jekt'ed, adj., cast down: 

dispirited.— odr. Deject'edly. — n. De- 


DEJECTILE, 'de-jekt'-il, n. (mil.) a mis- 
sile, or projectile, thrown forcibly down- 
ward. [From deject and He.'] 

DEJECTION, de-jek'shun, n. lowness of 

DELA-TIOF de-la'shun, n. (Jaw) act of 
charging wia a crime. [L. defero, de- 
latum, to bring a report against, to in- 
form— de, intensive, and /ero, to bear.] 

DELAY, de-la', v.t. to put off to another 
time : to defer : to hinder or retard. — v.i. 
to pause, linger, or put off time. — n. a 

gutting oft or deferring : a hngering : 
inderance :—pr.p. delay'ing ; pa.p. de- 
layed'. [Fr. delai — L. dilatio, a putting 
off — differo, dilatum—dis, apart, and/ero, 
to carry. See Defer.] 

DELAYABLE, de-la'a-bl, adj. capable of 
delay, or of being delayed. " Law thus 
divisible, debatable, and delaydble, is be- 
come a greater grievance than all that it 
was intended to redress." — Henry Brooke. 

DELEBLE, del'e-bl, adj. that can be blotted 
out. [See Delete.] 

DELECTABLE, de-lekt'a-bl, adj, delight- 
ful : pleasing. — n. Delect' ableness. — 
adv. Delect' ABLY- [Fr. — L. delectahilia 
— ddecto, to deliijht. See Delight.] 

DELECTATION, de-lek-ta'shun, w. delight. 

DELEGANT, del'-e-gant, n. (law) one who 
meets his obligation to a creditor by 
substituting the obligation to him of a 

DELEGATE, del'e-gat, v.t. to send as a 
legate or representative : to intrust or 
commit to. — n. one who is delegated : a 
deputy or representative. — ad/, delegated, 
deputed. [L. de, away, and lego, legatus, 
to send as ambassador. See Legate.] 

DELEGATION, del-e-ga'shun, n. the per- 
sons delegated. 

DELETE, de-let', v.t. to blot out : to erase : 
to destroy. — n. Dele'tion. [L. deleo, de- 
letum, to blot out.] 

DELETERIOUS, del-e-te'ri-us, adj. tending 
to destroy life : hurtful or destructive : 
poisonous. — n. Delete'riousness. [Gr. 
deleterios, hurtful — deleomai, to hurt.] 

DELF, delf , n. a kind of earthenware made 
at Delft, in Holland. 

DELIBERATE, de-lib'er-at, v.t. to toeigh 
tvell in one's mind. — v.i. to consider the 
reasons for and against : to reflect upon : 
to discuss. [L. delibero, deliberatum^^e, 
intensive, and libro, to weigh — libra, a 

DELIBERATE, de-lib'er-at, adj. well con- 
sidered : considering carefully : slow in 
determining. — adv. Deleb'erately. — n. 

DELIBERATION, de-lib-er-a'shun, n. the 
act of deliberating : mature reflection : 
calmness : cooln ess. 

DELIBERATIVE, de-lib'er-a-tiv, adj. pro- 
ceeding or acting by deliberation. — adv. 

DELICACY, del'i-ka-si, n. state or quality 
of being delicate : anything delicate or 
daintv . [ Fr. delicatesse — L. delicatus.] 

DELICATE, del'i-kat, adj pleasing to the 
senses, esp. the taste : dainty : nicely 
discriminating or perceptiTe •. of a fine, 
slight texture' or constitution : tender, 
frail : requiring nice handling : refined in 
manners, gentle, polite, considerate. — Del'icates, (B.) delicacies. — adv. 
Del'icately, in a delicate manner : (B.) 
luxuriously. — n. Del'icateness, state of 
being delicate : (B.) delicacy, luxury. [L. 
delicattLS — delicice, allurements, luxury — 
delicio—de, intensive, and lado, to en- 
tice. 1 

DELICATESSE, del-i-ka-tes', n. nicety: 

delicacy. [Fr. delicatesse.] 

DELICATESSEN, del-i-ka-tes'-sen, 
dainties, or delicacies, in the form of 
food. Hence Delicatessen Shop. 

DELICIOUS, de-lish'us, adj. full of delica- 
cies: highly pleasing to the senses: 
affording exquisite pleasure. — n. Delx*- 
ciousNESs. [L. delicxosus — delicice.] 

DELICIOUSLY, de-lish'us-li, adv. in a de- 
licious manner : (B.) luxuriously. 

DELIGHT, de-Ut', v.t. to please highly.— 
v.i. to have or take great pleasure : to 
be greatly pleased. — n. a high degree of 
pleasure : extreme satisfaction : that 



which gives great pleasure. [O.E^deMfe; 
from O. Fr. deliter — L. defectare, inten- 
flive of deluno. 8^ Delkjaie.] 
DELIGHTFUL, de-lit'fool, DELIGHT'- 
SOME, -sum, adj., full of delight.— adv. 


DELIGNATE, de-lig-nat, v.t. to clear -vrood- 
land by cutting down the trees: to re- 
more tjhe wood from bark. [Pfx. de and 
L. lignum, wood.] 

DELINEATE, de-lin'e-at, v.t. to mark out 
with lines : to represent by a sketch or 
picture : to portray : to describe accur- 
ately in words. j^L. delineo, ddineatum 
—de, down, and hnea, a line. See Link.] 

DELINEATION, de-Iin-e-a'shun, n. the act 
of delineating : a sketch representation, 
or description. 

DELINEATOR, de-liu'e-S-tor, n. one who 

DELINQUENCY, de-lingTcwen-si, n., fail- 
ure in or omission of duty : a fault : a 

DELINQUENT, de-lin^kwent, ac^'., leav- 
ing one's duty : faihng in duty. — n. one 
who fails in or leaves his duty : a trans- 
gressor : a criminal.— odu. Dehn'quent- 
LY. [L. delinquens, -entis, pr.p. of de- 
linguo — de, intensive, and lingpio, to 

DELIQUESCE, del-i-kwes', v.i. to melt 
and become liquid by absorbing moisture, 
as certain salts, etc. [L. deliquesco, to 
melt away — de, intensive, and liguescOf 
to be com e fluid — liqueo, to be fluid.] 

DELIQUESCENT, del-i-kwes'ent, ac0., be- 
coming liquid in the atmosphere. — w. 

DELIRIANT, de-liKi-ant, «. in med. a poi- 
son which causes more or less continued 

DELIRIFACIENT, de-lir'i-fa'shi-ent, a^'. 
tending to produce delirium. — n. in med. 
a substance which tends to produce de- 
Urium. [L. deliro, to rave, and facto, 
faciens, to make.] 

DELIRIOUS, de-lirl-us, adj. wandering in 
mind : light-headed : insane. — adv. De- 
lir'iously. — n. Delib'iousness. [L. de- 
Urns, one that goes out of the furrow in 
ploughing — de, from, and lira, a furrow.] 

DELIRIUM, de-lir'i-um, n. state of being 
delirious : strong excitement : wild en- 
thusiasm. — Dklikium Tremens, a name 
generally applied to delirium produced 
by excessive drinking, and marked by 
convulsive or trembling symptoms. [L. 
delirium, (see Delirious), and tremens, 
pr.p. of tremo, to tremble.] 

DELITESCENCE, del-i-tes'ens, n. state of 
being concealed : retirement. 

DELITESCENT, del-i-tes'ent, adj., lying 
hid or concealed (e.g. the germs of an 

; infectious disease). [L. deliteseens, pr.p. 
of delitesco — de, from, and latesco—lateo, 
to lie hid.] 

DELIVER, de-liVer, v.t. to liberate or set 
free from restraint or danger : to rescue 
from evil or fear : to give up, or part 

with : to communicate : to pronounee : 

to give forth, as a blow, etc. : to relieve a 
woman in childbirth. — n. Dkliv'ebhr. 

g'r. delivrer — ^L. de, from, and liberare, 
set free — liber, free.] 

DELIVERANCE, de-Uv'er-ans, n. act of 
delivering or freeing : state of being de- 
livered : freedom. Also, decision : judg- 
ment authoritatively pronounced ; as, to 
give a deliverance in a controversy. 

DELIVERY, de-Uv'er-i, n. the act of de- 
livering : a giving up : the act or man- 
ner of speaking in pubUc : the act of 
giving birth. 

I)£LI^ See Dale. 

IJALIZE, de-l6'-kal-iz, v.t. to freo 
from the limits of local relations. [Pfx. 
de and localise.] 

DELSARTE-SYSTEM, del-sart', n. a system 
of bodily exercise to attain health and 
grace, foimded by Francois Delsarte 
(1811-1871), a French teacher of dra- 
matic and musical art. 

DELTA, del'ta, w. the fourth letter of the 
Greek alphabet, the capital form of 
which is A ; a tract of land of like shape 
formed at the mouth of a river. [Gr., 
•from Heb. daleth, a door (of a tent).] 

DELTOID, del'toid, adj. of the form of the 
Greek A ; triangular. [Gr. deltoeides — 
delta, and eidos, form.] 

DELUDE, de-lud', v.t. to play or impose 
upon : to deceive : to cheat. [L. deludo, 
to play, make sport of — de, down, ludo, 
lusus, to play.] 

DELUGE, deruj, n. a great overflow of 
water : a flood, esp. that in the days of 
Noah. — v.t. to inundate : to overwhelm 
as with water. [Fr. — Tu. diluvium — diluo 
— dis, away, luo=lavo, to wash.] 

DELUSION, de-lu'zhun, n. the act of tter 
luding : the state of being deluded : a 
false belief : error. 

DELUSIVE, de-lu'siv, DELUSORY, de-lii'r 
sor-i, adj., apt or tending to delude: 
deceptive. — adv. Delu'sively. — n. Delu'- 


DELVE, delv, v.t. to dig with a spade. — ». 
Delv'er. [A.S. detfan, to d^; conn. 
with Dale, Dell.] 

DEMAGNETIZE, de-mag'net-iz, v.t. to de- 
prive of magnetic power. [L. de, priv., 
and Magnetize.] 

DEMAGOGUE, dem'a-gog, n. a leader of 
the people : a popular and factious ora- 
tor. [Gr. demagogos — demos, the people, 
agogos, leading — ago, to lead.] 

DEMAIN, de-man', DEMESNE, de-men', n. 
forms of Domain. 

DEMAND, de-man d', v.t. to claim : to ask 
earnestly or authoritatively : to call for ; 
to question. — n. the asking for what is 
due : an asking for with authority : a 
claim: earnest inquiry. [Fr. — L. de- 
mando, to give in charge — Low L. de- 
mando, to demand — de, from, and mando, 
to put into one's charge.] 

DEMANDABLE. de-mandVbl, adj. that 
may be demanded. 



DEMANDANT, de-mand'ant, n. one who de- 
mands : a plaintiff. 

mark-a'shun, n. the act of marking off 
or setting bounds to : division : a fixed 
limit. [Ft. dimarguer, to mark off — M, 
off, and marquer, to mark. See Makk.] 

DEMEAN, de-men', v.t. (with self) to con- 
duct : to behave. [Fr. demener — de, in- 
tensive, and mener, to lead — Low L. 
minare, to drive cattle, L. minor, to 

DEMEAN, de-men', v.t. to m^Jce m^an : to 
lower. [L. (2e, and Mean.] 

DEMEANOR, de-men'ur, n. behavior: 

DEMEMBRATION, dg-mem-bra'-shun, n. 
the act of unwisely or wantonly removing 
some member of the body, or of mutilat- 
ing the body. [L. demeinbraUo.l 

DEMENTED, de-ment'ed, ac^'., out of one's 
mind : deprived of reason. [L. dement, 
dementis, out of one's mind— de, from, 
and Tnens, the mindJ 

DEMENTIA, de-men'-she-a, n. general men- 
tal feebleness. [L. de and m.ens — men' 
Us, mind.] 

DEMERIT, de-mer'it, n. ill-desert : fault : 
crime. _[L. de, want of, and Merit.] 

BEMESNE. See Domain. 
EMI-BATEAU, dem'-i-ba-to', ro. (mil.) one- 
half of a pontoon bridge. [See Demi 
and Bateau.] 

DEMICIRCLE, dem-i-ser'kl, n. an instru- 
ment for measuring or indicating angles, 
sometimes used as a substitute for the 
theodolite. It consists essentially of a 
graduated scale of half a circle and a 
movable rule pivoted on the centre so 
as to sweep the graduated arc. E. H. 

DEMIGOD, dem'i-god, n., half a god: one 
whose nature is partly divine. [Fr. demt, 
half, and God.] 

DEMILITARIZE, de-mil'-i-ta-riz, v.*. (mil.) 
to disband, remove or send away a body 
of soldiers; as, to demilitarize a colonial 
possession or a frontier.